Σάββατο, 16 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Development of an esophageal stimulation method to elicit swallowing reflex in humans

Abstract

Swallowing reflex is known to be evoked by gastroesophageal regurgitation or esophageal stimulation in animal studies. However, details regarding the stimulating material, bolus size, and stimulation area remain unclear for the stimulation-induced type of swallowing reflex in human. Here, we evaluated the effects of different kinds of stimulation via water and air injection of the esophagus on the initiation of the swallowing reflex. Nine healthy individuals participated in this study. A fiberoptic endoscope was passed transnasally and a thin catheter for injection was passed through the other side. The tip of the catheter was placed at the upper, upper middle, lower middle, or lower region of the esophagus and the rate of injection was controlled at 0.2 mL/s. Swallowing-reflex latency was calculated as the time from injection via air or thin/thick fluid until the onset of white-out in endoscopic images. Reflex latency was significantly shorter when injection occurred at the upper region of the esophagus than at the lower region, for both thin and thickened fluids (p<0.01). At the upper region of the esophagus, the latency was significantly shorter after injection with thin fluid than with thickened fluid (p<0.05). Injection with air did not induce the swallowing reflex at all sites. These findings suggest that while the swallowing reflex is evoked by varying types of stimulation via fluid injection of the esophagus in human, sensitivity is greatest in the upper region of the esophagus compared with the lower region, and can vary depending on the injecting material.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Maf1 phenotypes and cell physiology.

Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Ian M. Willis
As a master regulator of transcription by RNA polymerase (Pol) III, Maf1 represses the synthesis of highly abundant non-coding RNAs as anabolic signals dissipate, as the quality or quantity of nutrients decreases and under a wide range of cellular and environmental stress conditions. Thus, Maf1 responds to changes in cell physiology to conserve metabolic energy and to help maintain appropriate levels of tRNAs and other essential non-coding RNAs. Studies in different model organisms and cell-based systems show that perturbations of Maf1 can also impact cell physiology and metabolism. These effects are mediated by changes in Pol III transcription and/or by effects of Maf1 on the expression of select Pol II-transcribed genes. Maf1 phenotypes can vary between different systems and are sometimes conflicting as in comparisons between Maf1 KO mice and cultured mammalian cells. These studies are reviewed in an effort to better appreciate the relationship between Maf1 function and cell physiology.



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Cardiovascular indexes of threat impair responsiveness in situations of conflicting interests

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Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Brett J. Peters, Harry T. Reis, Jeremy P. Jamieson
This research examined how situations in which self- and relationship-interests are misaligned can "get under the skin" to negatively impact cardiovascular and relationship processes. Interdependence theory was integrated with the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat to better understand the biological processes that underlie relationship behavior in stressful circumstances. Couples engaged in a discussion in which one person (the discloser) revealed s/he had just gotten into her/his dream job or school and the other person (the responder) reacted to the news. Couples were randomly assigned to discuss living apart (self and relationship interests do not align) or together (self and relationships do align). Both responders and disclosers who discussed long-distance relationships and exhibited greater cardiovascular indexes of threat were behaviorally less responsive to their partners. Analyses also revealed that responders (regardless of conversation topic) who exhibited greater cardiovascular indexes of threat were less responsive. In addition to direct consequences for relationship processes and affective dynamics, these data implicate indirect pathways between relationship wellbeing and cardiovascular functioning.



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Transgenerational analysis of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by ChIP-seq links epigenetic inheritance to metabolism

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Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Ke An, Fengxia Du, Hao Meng, Guochao Li, Minjie Zhang, Zongzhi Liu, Zitong Zhao, Zilong Zhang, Di Yu, Dong Wang, Caiyun Yang, Wencui Ma, Lin Yuan, Meiting Zhou, Lili Duan, Li Jin, Hui Li, Yan Zhang, Jianzhong Su, Jie Qiao, Yingli Sun




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Generation of ApoE deficient dogs via combination of embryo injection of CRISPR/Cas9 with somatic cell nuclear transfer

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Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Chong Feng, Xiaomin Wang, Hui Shi, Quanmei Yan, Min Zheng, Jing Li, Quanjun Zhang, Yumin Qin, Yougang Zhong, Jidong Mi, Liangxue Lai




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Ribosome biogenesis protein Urb1 acts downstream of mTOR complex 1 to modulate digestive organ development in zebrafish

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Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Jia He, Yun Yang, Junren Zhang, Jinzi Chen, Xiangyong Wei, Jianbo He, Lingfei Luo
Ribosome biogenesis is essential for the cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis result in developmental defects and a group of diseases, known as ribosomopathies. Here, we report a mutation in zebrafish urb1, which encodes an essential ribosome biogenesis protein. The urb1cq31 mutant exhibits hypoplastic digestive organs, which is caused by impaired cell proliferation with the differentiation of digestive organ progenitors unaffected. Knockdown of mtor or raptor leads to similar hypoplastic phenotypes and reduced expression of urb1 in the digestive organs. Overexpression of Urb1 results in overgrowth of digestive organs, and can efficiently rescue the hypoplastic liver and pancreas in the mtor and raptor morphants. Reduced syntheses of free ribosomal subunits and impaired assembly of polysomes are observed in the urb1 mutant as well as in the mtor and raptor morphants, which can be rescued by the Urb1 overexpression. These data demonstrate that Urb1 plays an important role in governing ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis downstream of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), thus regulating the development of digestive organs. Our study indicates the requirement of hyperactive protein synthesis for the digestive organ development.



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CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of CP190 may regulate locomotor activity in adult female Drosophila

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Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Chin-Tong Ong, Wei-Qi Lin




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Mediator complex components are frequent targets for genetic alterations in various types of human cancer

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Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Libin Deng, Cheng Zhang, Duling Miao, Xiaoli Tang, Shiwen Luo, Hong-bo Xin, Huidong Shi




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The role of cystatin A in breast cancer and its functional link with ERα

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Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Dixcy Jaba Sheeba John Mary, Mohan C. Manjegowda, Ajay Kumar, Sarbajeet Dutta, Anil M. Limaye




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Essential roles of stat5.1/stat5b in controlling fish somatic growth

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Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Shuting Xiong, Jie Mei, Peipei Huang, Jing Jing, Zhi Li, Jingliang Kang, Jian-Fang Gui
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) has been identified as a key downstream mediator of growth hormone (GH) signaling in somatic growth of mammalian. However, the corresponding homologue gene of Stat5b is unknown in fish species. In this study, we generated loss-of-function mutants in stat5.1 and stat5.2, two stat5 homologues existing in zebrafish. In stat5.1-deficient zebrafish, a significant reduction of body length and body weight was detected in the embryos/larvae and adults compared with the wild-type control fish, and sexual size dimorphism in adult zebrafish was also eliminated. However, the stat5.2-deficient zebrafish displayed a normal developmental phenotype during all lifespan. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) method was adopted to further investigate the potential transcriptional targets of Stat5 protein and cast much light upon the biological function of Stat5. We identified more than 800 genes as transcriptional targets of Stat5 during zebrafish embryogenesis. KEGG analysis indicated that the Stat5 target gene network is predominantly linked to the metabolic pathways, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Further validation studies suggested that Stat5.1 protein could directly regulate the expression of gh1, and stat5.1-mutated zebrafish showed a reduction of gh1 mRNA level. In the present study, stat5.1 was revealed as the corresponding homologue gene of Stat5b in fish species. Additionally, we found a novel molecular interaction between Stat5.1/Stat5b and GH, and unraveled a positive feedback loop Stat5.1-GH-Stat5.1 which is necessary for somatic growth and body development in zebrafish.



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Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting disc herniation and nerve root compression in subjects with lumbar radicular symptoms

Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Harald Ekedahl, Bo Jönsson, Mårten Annertz, Richard B. Frobell
ObjectivesTo investigate the accuracy of three commonly used neurodynamic tests (Slump test, Straight leg raise test [SLR] and femoral neurodynamic test) and two clinical assessments to determine radiculopathy (I, one neurological sign; II, two neurological signs corresponding to one specific nerve root) in detecting MRI findings (extrusion, subarticular nerve root compression and foraminal nerve root compression).DesignValidity study.SettingSecondary care.ParticipantsWe included 99 subjects (mean age 58, 54% females), referred to epidural steroid injection due to lumbar radicular symptoms, with the following positive clinical findings: Slump test (n=67); SLR (n=50); femoral neurodynamic test (n=7); radiculopathy I (n=70) and radiculopathy II (n=33), and MRI findings: extrusion (n=27), subarticular nerve compression (SNC, n=14) and foraminal nerve compression (FNC, n=25).InterventionN/A.Main Outcome MeasureAccuracy of clinical tests in detecting MRI findings was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC).ResultsThe Slump test had the highest sensitivity in detecting extrusion (0.78) and SNC (1.00) but the respective specificity was low (0.36 and 0.38). Radiculopathy I was most sensitive in detecting FNC (0.80) but with low specificity (0.34). Only one assessment had a concurrent high sensitivity and specificity i.e. Radiculopathy II in detecting SNC (0.71 and 0.73, respectively). AUC for all tests in detecting extrusion, SNC and FNC ranged 0.48-0.60, 0.63-0.82 and 0.33-0.57, respectively.ConclusionGenerally, the investigated neurodynamic tests or assessments for radiculopathy lacked diagnostic accuracy. Slump test was the most sensitive test while Radiculopathy II was the most specific test. Most interestingly, no relationship was found between any neurodynamic test and FNC (foraminal stenosis) as visualized on MRI.



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Impact of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on resting and post-exercise cardiac troponin T concentration

Abstract

We evaluated the influence of 12 weeks high-intensity interval training (HIIT, repeated 4-min cycling at 90% V̇O2max interspersed with 3-min rest, 200–300 KJ/session, 3–4 days wk−1) and work-equivalent moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, continuous cycling at 60% V̇O2max) on resting cardiac troponin T (cTnT) as well as exercise-induced cTnT appearance. Forty-eight sedentary obese young women were randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a control group. V̇O2max and body composition were measured before and after training. At baseline, cTnT was assessed using a high-sensitivity assay at rest and immediately, 2 h and 4 h after 45-min cycling at 60% V̇O2max. After a 12-wk training period, cTnT was assessed before and after 45-min cycling at the same relative and absolute intensities as before training. Training led to higher V̇O2max and lower fat mass in both HIIT and MICT (all P < 0.05). Before training, cTnT was significantly elevated in all three groups (35 to 118%, all P < 0.05) with acute exercise. After training both resting and post-exercise cTnT levels (same relative intensity) were similar to pre-training values. In contrast, post-exercise cTnT (same absolute intensity, which represented a smaller exercise stimulus) was not elevated from rest in both HIIT and MICT groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of either HIIT or MICT largely abolished the elevation of post-exercise cTnT concentration when exercise was performed at the same absolute intensity. There was, however, no impact of training on resting cTnT or post-exercise cTnT appearance for exercise performed at the same relative intensity.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Methodological Innovations in Gerontology: Advances in Psychosocial Research

Forty years ago, Baltes, Reese, and Nesselroade (1977) published their path-breaking textbook Life-span Developmental Psychology: Introduction to Research Methods, which delineated methods for studying individual differences and changes over the life course. The textbook's focus was explicitly interdisciplinary, emphasizing linkages among individual development, social contexts, and historical change. It is fitting that the articles featured in this special issue Methodological Innovations in Gerontology: Advances in Psychosocial Research bridge psychological and sociological principles. These papers exemplify the directive by Baltes and colleagues that "the complexity of the historical study of behavioral development within a changing biocultural context calls for unique methodologies and a heightened sensitivity to the pitfalls, blind alleys, and frustrations produced by malignant data" (1977: 13).

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More than Counting: An Intraindividual Variability Approach to Categorical Repeated Measures

Abstract
Objectives
Age-related differences in daily experiences are often described using summaries of categorical repeated measures, including typologies of stressors, activities, social partners, and coping strategies. This paper illustrates how an intraindividual variability (IIV) framework can be used to extract additional meaning from categorical IIV data.
Method
Using 8-occasion categorical data on daily stressors from the National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,499, MAge = 46.74, SDAge= 12.91), we derive and compute six IIV metrics that invoke numeric and nominal measurement of the central tendency, dispersion, and asymmetry of individuals' stressor experiences and examine how these metrics, relative dominance, diversity, log-skew and mode, spread, order, are related to age and interindividual differences in negative affect.
Results
Results demonstrate the utility of the numeric and nominal categorical IIV metrics, with theoretically meaningful age gradients in the three numeric IIV stressor metrics and five of six IIV metrics mapping differences in negative affect.
Discussion
Findings highlight how the unique constructs measured by these six metrics of categorical IIV may be used to examine dynamic process, study interindividual and age-related differences, and expand the variety of developmental research questions that may be answered using categorical repeated measures data.

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Recurrence Quantification for the Analysis of Coupled Processes in Aging

Abstract
Objectives
Aging is a complex phenomenon, with numerous simultaneous processes that interact with each other on a moment-to-moment basis. One way to quantify the interactions of these processes is by measuring how much a process is similar to its own past states or the past states of another system through the analysis of recurrence. This paper presents an introduction to recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA), two dynamical systems analysis techniques that provide ways to characterize the self-similar nature of each process and the properties of their mutual temporal co-occurrence.
Method
We present RQA and CRQA and demonstrate their effectiveness with an example of conversational movements across age groups.
Results
RQA and CRQA provide methods of analyzing the repetitive processes that occur in day-to-day life, describing how different processes co-occur, synchronize, or predict each other and comparing the characteristics of those processes between groups.
Discussion
With intensive longitudinal data becoming increasingly available, it is possible to examine how the processes of aging unfold. RQA and CRQA provide information about how one process may show patterns of internal repetition or echo the patterning of another process and how those characteristics may change across the process of aging.

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Intergenerational Transfer and Reporting Bias: An Application of the MIMIC Model

Abstract
Objectives
Parents' and adult children's reports of transfer do not always agree, because each has respective bias. This study demonstrates a method to separate reporting bias from transfer and identify their respective correlates.
Method
The analysis was based on 4,947 parent-child dyads from the Family Roster and Transfer Module added to the 2013 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Drawing on classical test theory, a multiple-indicators-and-multiple-causes (MIMIC) model was used to decompose parents' and adult children's reports of time and money transfers into a latent factor (true transfer) and unique factors (bias). This model further identified respective covariates associated with true transfer and bias.
Results
A substantial amount of bias existed in parents' and adult children's reports. The self-enhancement hypothesis did not fully explain how resources to help and need for support relate to the direction of reporting bias. Some correlates of transfer identified in prior studies were associated with transfer only, some with bias only, and others with both transfer and bias.
Discussion
Bias is common in both parents' and adult children's reports of transfer. Separating bias from transfer and identifying their respective correlates makes it possible to explain why intergenerational transfer and reporting bias occur.

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Applying Within-Family Differences Approaches to Enhance Understanding of the Complexity of Intergenerational Relations

Abstract
Objectives
The role of family relationships in the lives of older adults has received substantial attention in recent decades. Scholars have increasingly looked beyond simple models of family relations to approaches that recognize the complex and sometimes contradictory nature of these ties. One of the most exciting conceptual and methodological developments is the application of within-family differences approaches. In this paper, we focus on the ways in which such within-family approaches can extend the understanding of patterns and consequences of intergenerational ties in adulthood.
Method
Following a review of the conceptual underpinnings of within-family differences approaches, we provide empirical illustrations of these approaches from three projects conducted in the United States: the Family Exchanges Study (FES), the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSOG), and the Within-Family Differences Study (WFDS).
Results
Analyses from the FES, LSOG, and WFDS reveal differences in the consequences of patterns of intergenerational relations found when using within-family compared to between-family approaches. In particular, these analyses demonstrate considerable variation within families that shapes patterns and consequences of parent-adult child ties that is masked when such variations are not taken into account.
Discussion
Within-family differences approaches have been shown to shed new light on intergenerational relations. Despite the value of within-family designs, their use may be limited by the higher investment of finances and time required to implement such studies.

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In Pursuit of Anchoring Vignettes That Work: Evaluating Generality Versus Specificity in Vignette Texts

Abstract
Objective
Anchoring vignettes appear with growing frequency in surveys of health and aging, but little research investigates how to optimize their wording. This study experimentally tests whether mentioning specific health conditions and/or medical procedures enhances or undermines vignette validity.
Methods
Three series of general health anchoring vignettes were fielded to 2,550 respondents in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: one mentioning no specific health conditions or procedures, one mentioning heart disease-related ones, and one mentioning diabetes-related ones. Variations on hierarchical ordered probit models were used to test whether vignette wording affected adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC).
Results
While all vignette series showed substantial violations of VE, violations were larger (especially by sex and education) when using disease-specific texts. RC violations appeared relatively minor, but somewhat larger in disease-specific texts.
Discussion
These findings suggest that more general, universal vignette texts may be preferable to ones describing highly specific conditions/procedures. The common advice to prioritize specificity and concreteness in survey texts may be misguided if sociodemographic groups differ in their familiarity or associations with the presented details. Anchoring vignettes are a potentially useful survey tool, but further efforts are needed to optimize their wording.

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The Influence of Social Conditions Across the Life Course on the Human Gut Microbiota: A Pilot Project With the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

Abstract
Objective
To test the feasibility of collecting and integrating data on the gut microbiome into one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies of aging and health, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS). The long-term goal of this integration is to clarify the contribution of social conditions in shaping the composition of the gut microbiota late in life. Research on the microbiome, which is considered to be of parallel importance to human health as the human genome, has been hindered by human studies with nonrandomly selected samples and with limited data on social conditions over the life course.
Methods
No existing population-based longitudinal study had collected fecal specimens. Consequently, we created an in-person protocol to collect stool specimens from a subgroup of WLS participants.
Results
We collected 429 stool specimens, yielding a 74% response rate and one of the largest human samples to date.
Discussion
The addition of data on the gut microbiome to the WLS—and to other population based longitudinal studies of aging—is feasible, under the right conditions, and can generate innovative research on the relationship between social conditions and the gut microbiome.

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Fusing Biodiversity Metrics into Investigations of Daily Life: Illustrations and Recommendations With Emodiversity

Abstract
Objectives
Functionalist emotion and ecological systems theories suggest emodiversity—the variety and relative abundance of individuals' emotion experiences—is beneficial for psychological and physical health and may change with age. This paper examines and provides recommendations for operationalization of diversity-type intraindividual variability (IIV) constructs using intensive longitudinal data, and demonstrates the utility of emodiversity by examining its links to physical health moderated by mean levels of emotion and age.
Method
Using data from a daily diary study of 138 adults (age 40 to 65 years), we consider how item selection, response scale, choice of diversity index, and number of occasions enable/constrain mapping to theory, measurement reliability, and empirical inquiry.
Results
Item selection and response scale had limited influence on rank-order differences in diversity. Reliable measurement (r ≥ .8) required a minimum of 6 to 12 occasions depending on choice of index, theoretical conception, study design, and distribution of diversity scores. The empirical findings suggest mean level of negative affect, rather than age, moderates the relation between negative emodiversity and health.
Discussion
This study provides recommendations for the calculation of diversity-type IIV constructs and illustrates the potential for study of emodiversity to contribute to understanding of successful aging.

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Early Origins of Later Life Psychological Well-Being? A Novel Application of Causal Mediation Analysis to Life Course Research

Abstract
Objectives
This study employs a novel approach to mediation analysis to clarify the influence of interrelated indicators of life course socioeconomic status (SES) on later life psychological well-being in India. Contrary to traditional approaches (i.e., use of product and difference-in-coefficients), we recognize the role of confounders in the estimation of total, direct, and indirect effects of parental education on respondents' psychological well-being.
Method
Drawing from the first wave (2007–2010) of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and adopting a counterfactual approach, we estimate both natural direct and indirect effects of parental education through individual educational attainment (secondarily, through household assets as an additional mediator) on respondents' life-satisfaction and quality of life (QOL).
Results
Findings document a statistically not significant positive total effect of parental education on life satisfaction and QOL. While lower for women, significant indirect effects suggest that the positive influence of parental education operates primarily through the individual's education. Notably, we found negative direct effect of parental education on psychological well-being outcomes.
Discussion
Contrary to prior literature, we found no positive direct influence of parental education on later life psychological well-being, but established its influence through socioeconomic positioning over the life course.

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The Use of Growth Mixture Modeling for Studying Resilience to Major Life Stressors in Adulthood and Old Age: Lessons for Class Size and Identification and Model Selection

Abstract
Objectives
Growth mixture modeling (GMM) combines latent growth curve and mixture modeling approaches and is typically used to identify discrete trajectories following major life stressors (MLS). However, GMM is often applied to data that does not meet the statistical assumptions of the model (e.g., within-class normality) and researchers often do not test additional model constraints (e.g., homogeneity of variance across classes), which can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the number and nature of the trajectories. We evaluate how these methodological assumptions influence trajectory size and identification in the study of resilience to MLS.
Method
We use data on changes in subjective well-being and depressive symptoms following spousal loss from the HILDA and HRS.
Results
Findings drastically differ when constraining the variances to be homogenous versus heterogeneous across trajectories, with overextraction being more common when constraining the variances to be homogeneous across trajectories. In instances, when the data are non-normally distributed, assuming normally distributed data increases the extraction of latent classes.
Discussion
Our findings showcase that the assumptions typically underlying GMM are not tenable, influencing trajectory size and identification and most importantly, misinforming conceptual models of resilience. The discussion focuses on how GMM can be leveraged to effectively examine trajectories of adaptation following MLS and avenues for future research.

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Modeling Intraindividual Dynamics Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Age Differences in Affect Regulation

Abstract
Objectives
Life-span theories of aging suggest improvements and decrements in individuals' ability to regulate affect. Dynamic process models, with intensive longitudinal data, provide new opportunities to articulate specific theories about individual differences in intraindividual dynamics. This paper illustrates a method for operationalizing affect dynamics using a multilevel stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, and examines how those dynamics differ with age and trait-level tendencies to deploy emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal and suppression).
Method
Univariate multilevel SDE models, estimated in a Bayesian framework, were fit to 21 days of ecological momentary assessments of affect valence and arousal (average 6.93/day, SD = 1.89) obtained from 150 adults (age 18–89 years)—specifically capturing temporal dynamics of individuals' core affect in terms of attractor point, reactivity to biopsychosocial (BPS) inputs, and attractor strength.
Results
Older age was associated with higher arousal attractor point and less BPS-related reactivity. Greater use of reappraisal was associated with lower valence attractor point. Intraindividual variability in regulation strategy use was associated with greater BPS-related reactivity and attractor strength, but in different ways for valence and arousal.
Discussion
The results highlight the utility of SDE models for studying affect dynamics and informing theoretical predictions about how intraindividual dynamics change over the life course.

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Couples’ Sleep and Psychological Distress: A Dyadic Perspective

Abstract
Objectives
Research on aging has increasingly recognized sleep as a key determinant of physical and psychological well-being. The existing literature, however, considers sleep solely at the individual-level. This study constructed dyadic sleep measures and demonstrated their capacity to predict individual-level sleep and psychological distress.
Methods
This study analyzed 2 waves (2009 and 2013) of older couples' same-day time diary data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Supplement on Disability and Use of Time. Dyadic sleep measures included: (a) bedtime differences, (b) wake-up time differences, (c) a categorical indicator of couple's sleeping routines, and (d) a categorical indicator of couple's waking routines.
Results
The measures indicated substantial discordance in the sleep habits of older couples. Results from multilevel regressions showed that waking patterns predicted individual-level sleep durations. Dyadic sleep measures, particularly sleeping patterns, independently predicted the respondents' psychological distress; controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, marital quality, and individual-level sleep measures. Patterns were more pronounced in the weekend measures.
Discussion
Sleep is a dyadic interpersonal process. This study demonstrated that dyadic sleep is a key aspect for older adults' sleep that cannot be reduced to individual-level sleep. Future studies and surveys should incorporate instruments to measure sleep at the couple-level.

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Feature Selection Methods for Optimal Design of Studies for Developmental Inquiry

Abstract
Objectives
As diary, panel, and experience sampling methods become easier to implement, studies of development and aging are adopting more and more intensive study designs. However, if too many measures are included in such designs, interruptions for measurement may constitute a significant burden for participants. We propose the use of feature selection—a data-driven machine learning process—in study design and selection of measures that show the most predictive power in pilot data.
Method
We introduce an analytical paradigm based on the feature importance estimation and recursive feature elimination with decision tree ensembles and illustrate its utility using empirical data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
Results
We identified a subset of 20 measures from the SOEP data set that maintain much of the ability of the original data set to predict life satisfaction and health across younger, middle, and older age groups.
Discussion
Feature selection techniques permit researchers to choose measures that are maximally predictive of relevant outcomes, even when there are interactions or nonlinearities. These techniques facilitate decisions about which measures may be dropped from a study while maintaining efficiency of prediction across groups and reducing costs to the researcher and burden on the participants.

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Analyzing Dyadic Data Using Grid-Sequence Analysis: Interdyad Differences in Intradyad Dynamics

Abstract
Objectives
Spouses are proximal contexts for and influence each other's behaviors, particularly in old age. In this article, we forward an integrated approach that merges state space grid methods adapted from the dynamic systems literature with sequence analysis methods adapted from molecular biology into a "grid-sequence" method for studying interdyad differences in intradyad dynamics.
Method
Using dyadic data from 108 older couples (MAge = 75.18 years) with six within-day emotion and activity reports over 7 days, we illustrate how grid-sequence analysis can be used to identify a taxonomy of dyads with different emotion dynamics.
Results
Results provide a basis for measuring a set of dyad-level variables that capture dynamic equilibrium, daily routines, and interdyad differences. Specifically, we identified four groups of dyads who differed in how their moment-to-moment happiness was organized, with some evidence that these patterns were related to dyad-level differences in agreement on amount of time spent with partner and in subjective health.
Discussion
Methodologically, grid-sequence analysis extends the toolbox of techniques for analysis of dyadic experience sampling data. Substantively, we identify patterns of dyad-level microdynamics that may serve as new markers of risk/protective factors and potential points for intervention in older adults' proximal context.

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Intrinsic Emotional Fluctuation in Daily Negative Affect across Adulthood

Abstract
Objectives
The study explored daily negative affect (NA) fluctuation, its associations with age, and its developmental characteristics.
Method
The sample (n = 790) was drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States; participants completed two 8-day daily diaries 10 years apart. Multilevel models were estimated within each diary component, where two single daily NA (depression and nervousness) and daily NA diversity were predicted separately by daily stressor exposures, physical health symptoms, age, gender, education, and neuroticism. The variances of within-person residual were output for single NA and NA diversity as intrinsic emotion fluctuation (IEF) within each diary component (i.e., controlled for within- and between-person contextual factors). Then multilevel growth models were fit to explore the developmental characteristics of day-to-day IEF across 10 years.
Results
At the daily level, older age was associated with less IEF in depression and nervousness. Over time, IEF in depression decreased. Additionally, IEF in NA diversity increased for older participants longitudinally.
Discussion
IEF represents a new conceptualization of midlife individuals' daily emotional ups and downs, specifically, the intrinsic within-person volatility of emotions. The magnitude of IEF and its longitudinal dynamics may have implications for health and well-being of middle-aged adults.

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Extracting Response Style Bias From Measures of Positive and Negative Affect in Aging Research

Abstract
Objectives
This study investigated the role of response style biases in the assessment of positive and negative affect in aging research; it addressed whether response styles (a) are associated with age-related changes in cognitive abilities, (b) lead to distorted conclusions about age differences in affect, and (c) reduce the convergent and predictive validity of affect measures in relation to health outcomes.
Method
A multidimensional item response theory model was used to extract response styles from affect ratings provided by respondents to the psychosocial questionnaire (n = 6,295; aged 50–100 years) in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).
Results
The likelihood of extreme response styles (disproportionate use of "not at all" and "very much" response categories) increased significantly with age, and this effect was mediated by age-related decreases in HRS cognitive test scores. Removing response styles from affect measures did not alter age patterns in positive and negative affect; however, it consistently enhanced the convergent validity (relationships with concurrent depression and mental health problems) and predictive validity (prospective relationships with hospital visits, physical illness onset) of the affect measures.
Discussion
The results support the importance of detecting and controlling response styles when studying self-reported affect in aging research.

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Copyright

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1





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Contributors

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1





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Multiparametric MR imaging of the Prostate

Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Alessandro Furlan, Amir A. Borhani, Antonio C. Westphalen

Teaser

mp-MRI of the prostate is a complex study that combines anatomic and functional imaging. The complexity of this technique, along with an increasing demand, has brought new challenges to imaging interpretation. The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System provides radiologists with guidelines to standardize interpretation. This article discusses the interpretation of the pulse sequences recommended in the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 guidelines, reviews advanced quantitative imaging tools, and discusses future directions.


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Contents

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1





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CME Accreditation Page

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1





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Forthcoming Issues

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1





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Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1
Author(s): Dania Tamimi




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Prostate Cancer and the Evolving Role of Biomarkers in Screening and Diagnosis

Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Joseph F. Rodriguez, Scott E. Eggener

Teaser

The diagnosis and management of prostate cancer have substantially changed over the last 3 decades. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was adopted for screening in the 1990s after it was found to be a sensitive indicator of disease. Because of a lack of specificity for significant disease, indiscriminate PSA testing led to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Several biomarkers have been developed that are superior to PSA in stratifying a man's risk for harboring potentially lethal prostate cancer.


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Imaging of Benign Odontogenic Lesions

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1
Author(s): William C. Scarfe, Shiva Toghyani, Bruno Azevedo

Teaser

Numerous benign cysts or solid tumors may present in the jaws. These arise from tooth-forming tissues in the dental alveolus or from nonodontogenic tissues in the basal bone of the mandible and maxilla. Radiologists provide 2 deliverables to assist in diagnosis and management: (1) appropriately formatted images demonstrating the location and extent of the lesion and (2) interpretive reports highlighting specific radiologic findings and an impression providing a radiologic differential diagnosis. This article provides guidance on essential image protocols for planning treatments, a radiologic differential diagnostic algorithm based on location and pattern recognition, and a summary of the main features of benign odontogenic lesions.


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MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer Screening and Active Surveillance

Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Sasha C. Druskin, Katarzyna J. Macura

Teaser

The current prostate cancer management paradigm has been criticized in recent years for contributing to the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of the disease. Active surveillance is an avenue by which to reduce overtreatment, but patient selection and monitoring remain a challenge. The use of prostate MR imaging has been growing in recent years and has been incorporated into prostate cancer screening and patient selection and monitoring for active surveillance. This review article discusses the current evidence for the use of MR imaging in each of those settings.


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Prostate MR Imaging for Post-Treatment Evaluation and Recurrence

Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Sonia Gaur, Baris Turkbey

Teaser

Prostate multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) plays an important role in local evaluation after treatment of prostate cancer. After radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and focal therapy, mpMRI can be used to visualize normal post-treatment changes and to diagnose locally recurrent disease. An understanding of the various treatments and expected changes is essential for complete and accurate post-treatment mpMRI interpretation.


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MR Imaging-Targeted Prostate Biopsies

Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Saradwata Sarkar, Sadhna Verma

Teaser

Conventional ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies have multiple limitations leading to underdetection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) and overdetection of clinically insignificant PCa. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate offers better localization of prostatic tumors in comparison with ultrasound imaging and can help address these limitations. MR imaging-identified lesions can be targeted for biopsy directly in-gantry or indirectly using a fusion of MR imaging and ultrasound imaging. The fusion may be performed by the operator visually or using a software fusion device. In this article, we review the various techniques for MR imaging-targeted prostate biopsies and their clinical impact for PCa diagnosis.


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Radiographic Evaluation of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 1
Author(s): Douglas D. Steffy, Clarence S. Tang

Teaser

Sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea are becoming more prevalent in today's population. Management of these conditions can be difficult and this diagnosis is often overlooked by clinicians. An increased awareness and understanding of craniofacial structures and anatomic relationships can aid the clinician in identifying at-risk patients, and improve treatment outcomes. An airway review of 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging can identify (1) anatomic variations that contribute to obstructive airway complications, and (2) measurable dimensions to identify at risk patients. This article provides instruction on the key anatomic landmarks and imaging protocols for radiographic airway evaluation.


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Role of Prostate MR Imaging in Radiation Oncology

Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Cynthia Ménard, Eric Paulson, Tufve Nyholm, Patrick McLaughlin, Gary Liney, Piet Dirix, Uulke A. van der Heide

Teaser

The use of prostate MR imaging in radiotherapy continues to evolve. This article describes its current application in the selection of treatment regimens, integration in treatment planning or simulation, and assessment of response. An expert consensus statement from the annual MR in RT symposium is presented, as a list of 21 key quality indicators for the practice of MR imaging simulation in prostate cancer. Although imaging requirements generally follow PIRADSv2 guidelines, additional requirements specific to radiotherapy planning are described. MR imaging–only workflows and MR imaging–guided treatment systems are expected to replace conventional computed tomography–based practice, further adding specific requirements for MR imaging in radiotherapy.


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MR Imaging–Guided Focal Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Sherif G. Nour

Teaser

Focal treatment of prostate cancer has evolved from a concept to a practice in the recent few years and is projected to fill an existing need, bridging the gap between conservative and radical traditional treatment options. With its low morbidity and rapid recovery time compared with whole-gland treatment alternatives, focal therapy is poised to gain more acceptance among patients and health care providers. As our experience with focal treatment matures and evidence continues to accrue, the landscape of this practice might look quite different in the future.


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Multiparametric Prostate MR Imaging: Impact on Clinical Staging and Decision Making

Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Petar Duvnjak, Ariel A. Schulman, Jamie N. Holtz, Jiaoti Huang, Thomas J. Polascik, Rajan T. Gupta

Teaser

Meaningful changes to the approach of prostate cancer staging and management have been made over the past decade with increasing demand for high-quality multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. This article focuses on the evolving paradigm of prostate cancer staging, with emphasis on the role of mpMRI on staging and its integration into clinical decision making. Current prostate cancer staging systems are defined and mpMRI's role in the detection of non–organ-confined disease and how it has an impact on the selection of appropriate next steps are discussed. Several imaging pitfalls, limitations, and future directions of mpMRI also are discussed.


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Future Perspectives and Challenges of Prostate MR Imaging

Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Baris Turkbey, Peter L. Choyke

Teaser

MR imaging is an important part of prostate cancer diagnosis. Variations in quality and skill in general practice mean results are not as impressive as they were in academic centers. This observation provides an impetus to improve the method. Improved quality assurance will likely result in better outcomes. Improved characterization of clinically significant prostate cancer may assist in making MR imaging more useful. Improved methods of registering MR imaging with transrectal ultrasound imaging and robotic arms controlling the biopsy can reduce the impact of inexperienced operators and make the entire system of MR imaging-guided biopsies more robust.


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Technique of Multiparametric MR Imaging of the Prostate

Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Andrei S. Purysko, Andrew B. Rosenkrantz

Teaser

Multiparametric MR imaging provides detailed anatomic assessment of the prostate as well as information that allows the detection and characterization of prostate cancer. To obtain high-quality MR imaging of the prostate, radiologists must understand sequence optimization to overcome commonly encountered technical challenges. This review discusses the techniques that are used in state-of-the-art MR imaging of the prostate, including imaging protocols, hardware considerations, and important aspects of patient preparation, with an emphasis on the recommendations provided in the prostate imaging-reporting and data system version 2 guidelines.


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MR Imaging of Prostate Zonal Anatomy

Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Joseph H. Yacoub, Aytekin Oto

Teaser

McNeal first described the zonal anatomy of the prostate about 40 years ago, outlining 4 zones of the prostate and defining their relation to the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The zonal anatomy remains the accepted model for describing the prostate and the zones are well-depicted on MR imaging, including the central zone, which until recently was grouped with the transition zone in the radiology literature. An accurate understanding of the zonal anatomy and periprostatic anatomy is key for accurate interpretation of the prostate MR imaging.


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A 14-Year Study of 398 Esophageal Adenocarcinomas Diagnosed Among 156,256 EGDs Performed at Two Large Hospitals: An Inlet Patch Is Proposed as a Significant Risk Factor for Proximal Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Abstract

Background

An association between inlet patches and proximal esophageal adenocarcinomas is currently suspected because of numerous case reports of simultaneous occurrence of both diseases.

Aims

To analyze whether inlet patches are significantly associated with proximal esophageal adenocarcinomas in a large population.

Methods

Computerized search of pathology and EGD reports revealed 398 cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas among 156,236 EGDs (performed on 106,510 patients) diagnosed by histopathology performed at Royal Oak/Troy, William Beaumont Hospitals, 2003–2016. Adenocarcinomas localized as distal, middle, or proximal; and characterized as associated versus unassociated with inlet patches. Medical records were reviewed. Endoscopic photographs, radiologic images, and pathologic slides were re-reviewed. Two researchers independently performed systematic computerized literature searches; cases of simultaneous diseases identified by consensus.

Results

Adenocarcinoma locations included: distal-381, middle-14, and proximal esophagus-3. Five patients had inlet patches with esophageal adenocarcinomas located at: distal-2, middle-0, and proximal esophagus-3 (relative frequency of inlet patches with cancers of distal/middle esophagus = 2/395 [.5%] vs. proximal esophagus = 3/3 [100%], p < .000001, 95% OR CI > 50.1, Fisher's exact test). Cases of proximal esophageal adenocarcinomas within inlet patches included: (1) Seventy-eight-year-old man presented with dysphagia. Neck CT showed proximal esophageal mass. EGD revealed semi-circumferential, multinodular, 3.0 × 1.5 cm mass within inlet patch. Histopathology of biopsies revealed moderately-to-poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient received chemoradiotherapy and expired 2 years later. (2) Seventy-nine-year-old man presented with anorexia and weight loss. EGD demonstrated proximal esophageal mass within inlet patch. Histopathology of biopsies revealed poorly differentiated, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma. Chest CT revealed 3.4 × 2.1-cm-proximal esophageal mass. Patient expired 4 months later. (3) Sixty-year-old man presented with dysphagia. EGD revealed 4-cm-long, semi-circumferential, proximal esophageal mass within inlet patch. Histopathology of biopsies revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent emergency esophagectomy for esophageal perforation 2 weeks after initiating chemoradiotherapy, and died shortly thereafter. Literature review revealed 39 cases of simultaneous disease.

Study Limitations

Potential underreporting by endoscopists of inlet patches at EGD.

Conclusions

Study supplements 39 previously reported cases of simultaneous disease, by adding three new cases, and by novel report of statistically significant association between these two entities, which has important implications in the pathophysiology of proximal esophageal adenocarcinoma.



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Return to Sport in Athletes with Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Qualitative Systematic Review Regarding Definitions and Criteria

Abstract

Background

Midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT) can cause long-term absence from sports participation, and shows high recurrence rates. It is important that the decision to return to sport (RTS) is made carefully, based on sharply delimited criteria. Lack of a well-defined definition and criteria hampers the decision to RTS among athletes with AT, and impedes comparison of RTS rates between different studies.

Objective

The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for definitions of, and criteria for, RTS in AT research.

Study Design

Qualitative systematic review.

Methods

The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus electronic databases were searched for articles that reported on the effect of a physiotherapeutic intervention for midportion AT. Article selection was independently performed by two researchers. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the included studies and extract definitions of, and criteria for, RTS.

Results

Thirty-five studies were included in the content analysis, showing large variety in both the definitions and criteria. Thirty-two studies reported a definition of RTS, but only 19 studies described the criteria for RTS. The content analysis revealed that 'reaching pre-injury activity/sports level, with the ability to perform training and matches without limitations', 'absence of pain', and 'recovery' were the main content categories used to define RTS. Regarding the criteria for RTS, eight different content categories were defined: (1) 'level of pain'; (2) 'level of functional recovery'; (3) 'recovery of muscle strength'; (4) 'recovery of range of motion'; (5) 'level of endurance of the involved limb'; (6) 'medical advice'; (7) 'psychosocial factors'; and (8) 'anatomical/physiological properties of the musculotendinous complex'. Many criteria were not clearly operationalized and lacked specific information.

Conclusions

This systematic review shows that RTS may be defined according to the pre-injury level of sports (including both training and matches), but also with terms related to the absence of pain and recovery. Multiple criteria for RTS were found, which were all related to level of pain, level of functional recovery, muscular strength, range of motion, endurance, medical advice, psychosocial factors, or anatomical/physiological properties of the Achilles tendon. For most of the criteria we identified, no clear operationalization was given, which limits their validity and practical usability. Further research on how RTS after midportion AT should be defined, and which criteria should be used, is warranted.

PROSPERO Registration Number

CRD42017062518.



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Correction to: A Comparison of the Energetic Cost of Running in Marathon Racing Shoes

An Online First version of this article was made available online at http://ift.tt/2mxItnn on 16 November 2017. An error was subsequently identified in the article, and the following correction should be noted:



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Epidemiology of Injuries in Women Playing Competitive Team Bat-or-Stick Sports: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Background

Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population.

Objective

The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league.

Methods

This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive. Peer-reviewed original research articles reporting the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries sustained by women aged 18 + years in competitive bat-or-stick sports were included. Two meta-analyses based on injury incidence proportions (injury IP) and injury rates per 1000 person-days of athletic exposure (AE) were performed.

Results

A total of 37 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and five had low risk of bias. The weighted injury IP was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.45]. The weighted injury rate was 6.12 (95% CI 6.05–6.18) overall, and greater in games [15.79 (95% CI 15.65–15.93)] than in practice [3.07 (95% CI 2.99–3.15)]. The ankle was the most commonly injured anatomical location, followed by the hand (including wrist and fingers), knee and head. Soft tissue and ligament injuries were most common types of injuries.

Conclusion

Injury prevention in women's sports is a novel and emerging field of research interest. This review highlights that injury incidence is high among female bat-or-stick players, but little information is known about direct causal mechanisms. This review clearly establishes the need for enhancements to injury data collection. Without this information, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based injury prevention interventions.



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