Παρασκευή, 15 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Comparison of TIVA with different combinations of ketamine–propofol mixtures in pediatric patients

Abstract

Purpose

Adding ketamine to propofol has been suggested to be useful for sedation and general anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the effect of TIVA with different ratios of ketofol on recovery in children.

Methods

Seventy-five children aged 3–12 years and undergoing adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy surgery were randomized into three groups. Ratios of 1:5, 1:6.7 and 1:10 ketamine–propofol mixture (ketofol) were prepared in the same syringe for groups I, II and III, respectively. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were performed with 1:5, 1:6.7 and 1:10 ratios of ketofol in groups I, II and III, respectively. A McFarlan infusion dose regimen was used (15 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 13 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 11 mg/kg/h for 30 min) and infusion rates were decreased for the different ratios. Infusion rates were reduced to 67, 80 and 90% of the McFarlan dose regimen for groups I, II and III, respectively. Extubating time, length of stay in PACU, postoperative PAED and FLACC scores were recorded.

Results

Extubating time was significantly lower [mean 254.3 ± 92.7 s (95% CI 216.6–292.6, p = 0.001)] in group III than in groups I and II [371.3 ± 153 s (308.1–434.48) and 343.2 ± 123.7 s (292.2–394.3), respectively]. Length of stay in the PACU was lower in group III [median 15 min (interquartile range 15–20, p = 0.001)] than in groups I and II: 20 (15–27.5) and 20 min (20–27.5), respectively.

Conclusion

TIVA with a 1:10 ratio of ketofol admixture with a 90% reduction of McFarlan regimen can provide improved recovery conditions.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02848963.



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Current and future pharmacological therapies for NAFLD/NASH

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, and there is no approved pharmacotherapy. The efficacy of vitamin E and pioglitazone has been established in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of NAFLD. GLP-1RA and SGLT2 inhibitors, which are currently approved for use in diabetes, have shown early efficacy in NASH, and also have beneficial cardiovascular or renal effects. Innovative NASH therapies include four main pathways. The first approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation. Medications in this approach include modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors (e.g., pemafibrate, elafibranor), medications targeting farnesoid X receptor axis [obeticholic acid; OCA)], inhibitors of de novo lipogenesis (aramchol, ACC inhibitor), and fibroblast growth factor-21 analogues. A second target is oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This class of drug includes apoptosis signaling kinase 1 (ASK1) inhibitor and emricasan (an irreversible caspase inhibitor). A third target is intestinal microbiomes and metabolic endotoxemia. Several agents are in ongoing trials, including IMMe124, TLR4 antagonist, and solithromycin (macrolide antibiotics). The final target is hepatic fibrosis, which is strongly associated with all-cause or liver-related mortality in NASH. Antifibrotic agents are a cysteine–cysteine motif chemokine receptor-2/5 antagonist (cenicriviroc; CVC) and galectin 3 antagonist. Among a variety of medications in development, four agents such as OCA, elafibranor, ASK1 inhibitor, and CVC are currently being evaluated in an international phase 3 trial for the treatment of NASH. Within the next few years, the availability of therapeutic options for NASH will hopefully curb the rising trend of NASH-related diseases.



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Assessing health risks from multiple environmental stressors: Moving from G×E to I×E

Publication date: January–March 2018
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Volume 775
Author(s): Cliona M. McHale, Gwendolyn Osborne, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Andrew G. Salmon, Martha S. Sandy, Gina Solomon, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T. Smith, Lauren Zeise
Research on disease causation often attempts to isolate the effects of individual factors, including individual genes or environmental factors. This reductionist approach has generated many discoveries, but misses important interactive and cumulative effects that may help explain the broad range of variability in disease occurrence observed across studies and individuals. A disease rarely results from a single factor, and instead results from a broader combination of factors, characterized here as intrinsic (I) and extrinsic (E) factors. Intrinsic vulnerability or resilience emanates from a variety of both fixed and shifting biological factors including genetic traits, while extrinsic factors comprise all biologically-relevant external stressors encountered across the lifespan. The I×E concept incorporates the multi-factorial and dynamic nature of health and disease and provides a unified, conceptual basis for integrating results from multiple areas of research, including genomics, G×E, developmental origins of health and disease, and the exposome. We describe the utility of the I×E concept to better understand and characterize the cumulative impact of multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors on individual and population health. New research methods increasingly facilitate the measurement of multifactorial and interactive effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies. Tiered or indicator-based approaches can guide the selection of potentially relevant I and E factors for study and quantification, and exposomics methods may eventually produce results that can be used to generate a response function over the life course. Quantitative data on I×E interactive effects should generate a better understanding of the variability in human response to environmental factors. The proposed I×E concept highlights the role for broader study design in order to identify extrinsic and intrinsic factors amenable to interventions at the individual and population levels in order to enhance resilience, reduce vulnerability and improve health.



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Histone variants in environmental-stress-induced DNA damage repair

Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Author(s): Danqi Chen, Chunyuan Jin
Environmental stress such as genotoxic agents can cause DNA damage either indirectly through the generation of reactive oxygen species or directly by interactions with the DNA molecule. Damage to the genetic material may cause mutations and ultimately cancer. Genotoxic mutation can be prevented either by apoptosis or DNA repair. In response to DNA damage, cells have evolved DNA damage responses (DDR) to detect, signal, and repair DNA lesions. Epigenetic mechanisms play critically important roles in DDR, which requires changes in chromatin structure and dynamics to modulate DNA accessibility. Incorporation of histone variants into chromatin is considered as an epigenetic mechanism. Canonical histones can be replaced with variant histones that change chromatin structure, stability, and dynamics. Recent studies have demonstrated involvement of nearly all histone variants in environmental-stress-induced DNA damage repair through various mechanisms, including affecting nucleosome dynamics, carrying variant-specific modification, promoting transcriptional competence or silencing, mediating rearrangement of chromosomes, attracting specific repair proteins, among others. In this review, we will focus on the role of histone variants in DNA damage repair after exposure to environmental genotoxic agents. Understanding the mechanisms regulating environmental exposure-induced epigenetic changes, including replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, will promote the development of strategies to prevent or reverse these changes.



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The role of H3K79 methylation in transcription and the DNA damage response

Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Author(s): Mats Ljungman, Luke Parks, Radhika Hulbatte, Karan Bedi
Chromatin plays a critical role in organizing and protecting DNA. However, chromatin acts as an impediment for transcription and DNA repair. Histone modifications, such as H3K79 methylation, promote transcription and genomic stability by enhancing transcription elongation and by serving as landing sites for proteins involved in the DNA damage response. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of H3K79 methylation in transcription, how it affects genome stability and opportunities to develop impactful therapeutic interventions for cancer.



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Nucleosomes regulate base excision repair in chromatin

Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Author(s): Rithy Meas, John J. Wyrick, Michael J. Smerdon
Chromatin is a significant barrier to many DNA damage response (DDR) factors, such as DNA repair enzymes, that process DNA lesions to reduce mutations and prevent cell death; yet, paradoxically, chromatin also has a critical role in many signaling pathways that regulate the DDR. The primary level of DNA packaging in chromatin is the nucleosome core particle (NCP), consisting of DNA wrapped around an octamer of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Here, we review recent studies characterizing how the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes modulates the activity of the base excision repair (BER) pathway and dictates BER subpathway choice. We also review new evidence indicating that the histone amino-terminal tails coordinately regulate multiple DDR pathways during the repair of alkylation damage in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.



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Genetic markers a landscape in prostate cancer

Publication date: January–March 2018
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Volume 775
Author(s): J.M. Cozar, I. Robles-Fernandez, L.J. Martinez-Gonzalez, M. Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodriguez-Martinez, M.J. Serrano, J.A. Lorente, M.J. Alvarez-Cubero
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The observed variability in progression and responses to the same treatment between patients underlie the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Nowadays, screening and follow-up biomarkers in PC are still having a deep lack of information, which makes difficult the cancer diagnosis, prognosis and the selection of the most suitable therapies. This is making that currently unnecessary biopsies, over-treatments and hormonoresistances have high rates of prevalence among patients. New biomarkers are urgently needed and in this sense genomic biomarkers could be the most suitable tools. These genetic markers will be helpful for improving the precision of prognostic and the predictive current tools which are employed in the clinical practice. A recent literature search up was conducted, including clinical trials and pre-clinical basic research studies. Keywords included germline variants, prostate cancer, biomarkers, androgen deprivation therapy, screening and liquid biopsy; among others. We have reviewed how germline variants, CNVs and repetitive regions are relevant to prostate carcinogenesis, treatment and progression. Moreover, we have also considered novel biomarkers for PC prognosis based on differentially expressed genes. Finally, we have included new strategies in recent markers of liquid biopsy or updated technologies for minimal samples analysis. The improvement of genetic markers use and their application to the clinical practice, will enhance the variability of simple, non-invasive, tools such as liquid biopsy and germline variants, these will reduce the number of PC needle biopsies and current over-treatments that are usual in the management of this cancer.



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Editorial board members

Publication date: October 2017
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Volume 774





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Genetic Identification of Separase Regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans

Separase is a highly conserved protease required for chromosome segregation. Although observations that separase also regulates membrane trafficking events have been made, it is still not clear how separase achieves this function. Here we present an extensive ENU mutagenesis suppressor screen aimed at identifying suppressors of sep-1(e2406), a temperature-sensitive maternal effect embryonic lethal separase mutant that primarily attenuates membrane trafficking rather than chromosome segregation. We screened nearly a million haploid genomes, and isolated sixty-eight suppressed lines. We identified fourteen independent intragenic sep-1(e2406) suppressed lines. These intragenic alleles map to seven SEP-1 residues within the N-terminus, compensating for the original mutation within the poorly conserved N-terminal domain. Interestingly, 47 of the suppressed lines have novel mutations throughout the entire coding region of the pph-5 phosphatase, indicating that this is an important regulator of separase. We also found that a mutation near the MEEVD motif of HSP-90, which binds and activates PPH-5, also rescues sep-1(e2406) mutants. Finally, we identified six potentially novel suppressor lines that fall into five complementation groups. These new alleles provide the opportunity to more exhaustively investigate the regulation and function of separase.



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The PM&R Journal Implements a Social Media Strategy to Disseminate Research and Track Alternative Metrics in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Implementation science is an evolving part of translating evidence into clinical practice and public health policy. This report describes how a social media strategy for the journal PM&R using metrics, including alternative metrics, contributes to the dissemination of research and other information in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. The primary goal of the strategy was to disseminate information about rehabilitation medicine, including but not limited to new research published in the journal, to healthcare professionals.

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A Promising Forcep Strip Method for Gastrointestinal Subepithelial Tumors Originating from the Muscularis Propria

Subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria layer are unlikely to be resected completely and safely. We developed the Forcep Strip Method (FSM) for the resection of SETs in the stomach.

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Safety and accuracy of freehand versus navigated c2 pars/pedicle screw placement

C2 pedicle and pars screws require accurate placement to avoid injury to nearby neurovascular structures. Freehand, fluoroscopically guided, and computed tomography (CT)–based navigation techniques have been described in the medical literature.

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Radiological morphology variances of osteotomized vertebra-disc complex following pedicle subtraction osteotomy for ankylosing spondylitis with thoracolumbar kyphosis: the incidence, mechanisms and prognosis

Inaccurate osteotomy cut along with incomplete or even subluxated bone-on-bone closure of osteotomy gap following pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) may be disastrous, hampering the lordosing effect and increasing the likelihood of complications. The inelastic yet osteoporotic spine in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is specially predisposed to such suboptimal osteotomy, while the relevant data concerning this issue is scarce.

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Modic type 1 change is an autoimmune response that requires a pro-inflammatory milieu provided by the ‘modic disc’

Modic changes (MC) are MRI evidence of inflammatory and fibrotic vertebral bone marrow lesions that associate with adjacent disc degeneration and endplate damage. While MC etiology is uncertain, historical data suggest a linkage to an autoimmune response of bone marrow triggered by the nucleus pulposus (NP).

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Odontoid-sparing transnasal approach for drainage of cranio-cervical epidural abscess; a novel technique and review of the literature

Surgical approaches to the cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) are challenging. Available approaches include posterior, trans-oral, endonasal, and anterior extended retropharyngeal approach. Resection of the odontoid process is necessary to gain access to the pathology posterior to it. The resultant cranio-atlanto-axial instability usually necessitates subsequent posterior stabilization.

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Investigation of the passive mechanical properties of spine muscles following disruption of the thoracolumbar fascia and erector spinae aponeurosis, as well as facet injury in a rat

Context: Muscle tissue is known to remodel in response to changes to its mechanical environment. Alterations in passive mechanical properties of muscles can influence spine stiffness and stability.

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Prepare: pre-surgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial

– Surgery due to disc herniation, or spinal stenosis results mostly in large improvement in the short-term, but mild to moderate improvements for pain and disability at long-term follow-up. Prehabilitation has been defined as augmenting functional capacity prior to surgery, which may have beneficial effect on outcome after surgery.

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Qualitative Secondary Analysis: A Case Exemplar

Qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) is the use of qualitative data that was collected by someone else or was collected to answer a different research question. Secondary analysis of qualitative data provides an opportunity to maximize data utility, particularly with difficult-to-reach patient populations. However, qualitative secondary analysis methods require careful consideration and explicit description to best understand, contextualize, and evaluate the research results. In this article, we describe methodologic considerations using a case exemplar to illustrate challenges specific to qualitative secondary analysis and strategies to overcome them.

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Just between Us: An Integrative Review of Confidential Care for Adolescents

Confidential care is recommended for all adolescents to facilitate risk behavior screening and discussion of sensitive topics. Only 40% of adolescents receive confidential care. The purpose of this integrative review is to describe research related to the practice of confidential care for adolescents. Evidence was analyzed to identify strategies to increase confidential care and improve risk behavior screening.

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Associations between Introduction of Age-Inappropriate Foods and Early Eating Environments in Low-Socioeconomic Hispanic Infants

To examine the associations between feeding practices and eating environments of low-socioeconomic Hispanic infants.

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The Impact of Adolescent Dating Violence Training for Primary Care Providers

This study presents results from an educational training to increase adolescent dating violence (ADV) screening among primary care clinicians and provides adolescents' perceptions regarding discussing ADV with their clinicians.

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Trans-gastric pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction after pylorus-preserving robotic Whipple: a proposal for a standardized technique

Abstract

Background

A number of technical improvements regarding the pancreatic anastomosis have decreased the morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy. However, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains is the most feared complication, and the ideal technique for pancreatic reconstruction is undetermined.

Materials and methods

This study is a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database. Data were collected from all consecutive robot-assisted pancreaticoduodenectomies (RAPD), performed by a single surgeon, at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System, between September 2007 and January 2016.

Results

A total of 28 consecutive patients (16 male and 12 female) who underwent a RAPD were included in this study. Patients had a mean age and mean BMI of 61.5 years (SD = 12.3) and 27 kg/m2 (SD = 4.9), respectively. The mean operative time was 468.2 min (SD = 73.7) and the average estimated blood loss was 216.1 ml (SD = 113.1). The mean length of hospitalization was 13.1 days (SD = 5.4). There was no clinically significant POPF registered.

Conclusion

Trans-gastric pancreaticogastrostomy (TPG) represents a valid and feasible option as a pancreatic digestive reconstruction during RAPD. Initial results showed decreased incidence of POPF with an increased risk of postoperative bleeding. Our experience suggests that TPG might be safer than pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ); further studies are needed in order to confirm.



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Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with an ACE gene polymorphism and myxomatous mitral valve disease.

Objectives: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is particularly common in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) breed and affected dogs are frequently managed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I). We have previously identified a canine ACE gene polymorphism associated with a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the prevalence of the ACE polymorphism in CKCS with mitral valve disease and to determine whether the presence of the polymorphism is associated with alterations in ACE activity at different stages of cardiac disease. Methods: Seventy-three dogs with a diagnosis of mitral valve disease were evaluated and a blood sample was drawn for ACE polymorphism genotyping and ACE activity measurement. Results: Forty-three dogs were homozygous for the ACE polymorphism; five were heterozygous and 25 were homozygous wild type. The mean age and the median severity of disease were not different for dogs with the polymorphism and dogs with the wild-type sequence. The median baseline ACE activity was significantly lower for the ACE polymorphism (27.0 U/l) than the wild-type sequence dogs (31.0 U/l) (P=0.02). Dogs with more severe disease and the ACE polymorphism had significantly lower levels of ACE activity than dogs with the wild-type sequence (P=0.03). Conclusion: The CKCS appears to have a high prevalence of the ACE variant. Dogs with the ACE variant had lower levels of ACE activity even in more advanced mitral valve disease than dogs without the variant. The clinical significance of this finding and its impact on the need for ACE-I in dogs with the polymorphism and heart disease deserves further study. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Specific association of the rs6500265 and rs9933632 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Japanese patients with antipyretic analgesic-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe ocular involvements.

A recent study using the microarray for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping specifically designed for the Japanese population in combination with genome-wide imputation showed the association of several SNPs with cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with severe ocular complications. However, it remains to be determined whether these polymorphisms are associated with the onset of antipyretic analgesic (AA)-related SJS/TEN, the progression of severe ocular involvements (SOIs), or both AA-related SJS/TEN and SOI phenotypes. To gain a better understanding of the features of these genetic markers, we compared the allele and carrier frequencies of these SNPs among our original SJS/TEN patient groups: (a) AA-related SJS/TEN with SOIs, (b) AA-related SJS/TEN without SOIs, and (c) AA-unrelated SJS/TEN with SOIs. AA-related SJS/TEN with SOIs were found to be associated significantly with both rs6500265 [allele frequency: odds ratio (OR): 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-3.65; P=0.0052; carrier frequency: OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.33-4.78; P=0.058] and rs9933632 (allele frequency: OR: 2.28: 95% CI: 1.37-3.79; P=0.0032; carrier frequency: OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.46-5.22; P=0.0031). In contrast, allele and carrier frequencies of these SNPs in patients with AA-related SJS/TEN without SOIs or with SOIs not treated with any AAs were comparable with those in healthy Japanese controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that the rs6500265 and rs9933632 SNPs could be specific markers for AA-related SJS/TEN with SOIs, suggesting that certain genetic backgrounds contribute toward the etiology of this complex syndrome. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Differential effect of ABCB1 haplotypes on promoter activity.

Objective: Promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCB1 gene, encoding the placental efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, can affect its expression and alter xenobiotic transfer from the maternal to the fetal circulation. Because SNPs are arranged in specific combinations as defined haplotypes, the aims of this study were to: (i) determine the placental haplotype structure of the ABCB1 promoter and (ii) determine the differential effect of these haplotypes on placental ABCB1 promoter activity. Materials and methods: DNA samples from 100 healthy placentas were PCR-amplified and sequenced to identify existing SNPs in the proximal ABCB1 promoter. The haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs was inferred by PHASE analysis. Luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were generated and transfected into human placental 3A cells and their effect on ABCB1 promoter activity was determined using a dual-luciferase assay. Results: We identified 12 ABCB1 promoter SNPs. These SNPs were predicted by PHASE to segregate into 28 haplotypes with frequencies ranging between 0.019 and 0.88. We found 12 of these haplotypes in our population in addition to two haplotypes not predicted by PHASE. We also generated two haplotypes to determine individual SNP effects for a total of 16 studied. Compared with the ancestral haplotype, three haplotypes significantly up-regulated (107-266% increase; P

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Live high–train low guided by daily heart rate variability in elite Nordic-skiers

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze if live high–train low (LHTL) effectiveness is improved when daily training is guided by heart rate variability (HRV).

Methods

Twenty-four elite Nordic skiers took part in a 15-day LHTL study and were randomized into a HRV-guided training hypoxic group (H-HRV, n = 9, sleeping in normobaric hypoxia, FiO2 = 15.0%) and two predefined training groups sleeping either in hypoxia (H, n = 9, FiO2 = 15.0%) or normoxia (N, n = 6). HRV and training loads (TL) were recorded daily. Prior (Pre), one (Post-1), and 21 days (Post-21) following LHTL, athletes performed a 10-km roller-ski test, and a treadmill test for determination of \(\dot {V}_}}\) was performed at Pre and Post-1.

Results

Some HRV parameters measured in supine position were different between H-HRV and H: low and high (HF) frequency power in absolute (ms2) (16.0 ± 35.1 vs. 137.0 ± 54.9%, p = 0.05) and normalized units (− 3.8 ± 10.1 vs. 53.0 ± 19.5%, p = 0.02), HF(nu) (6.3 ± 6.8 vs. − 13.7 ± 8.0%, p = 0.03) as well as heart rate (3.7 ± 6.3 vs. 12.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.008). At Post-1, \(\dot {V}_}}\) was improved in H-HRV and H (3.8 ± 3.1%; p = 0.02 vs. 3.0 ± 4.4%; p = 0.08) but not in N (0.9 ± 5.1%; p = 0.7). Only H-HRV improved the roller-ski performance at Post-21 (− 2.7 ± 3.6%, p = 0.05).

Conclusion

The daily individualization of TL reduced the decrease in autonomic nervous system parasympathetic activity commonly associated with LHTL. The improved performance and oxygen consumption in the two LHTL groups confirm the effectiveness of LHTL even in elite endurance athletes.



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A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Evaluate a System Change in Mental Healthcare in the Netherlands for Patients with Depression or Anxiety

Abstract

Over the last decade, the Dutch mental healthcare system has been subject to profound policy reforms, in order to achieve affordable, accessible, and high quality care. One of the adjustments was to substitute part of the specialized care for general mental healthcare. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared the cost-effectiveness of patients in the new setting with comparable patients from specialized mental healthcare in the old setting. Results showed that for this group of patients the average cost of treatment was significantly reduced by, on average, €2132 (p < 0.001), with similar health outcomes as in the old system.



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The best of EMS1 Pioneers: Pearls from the class of 2017

To be an EMS pioneer, you need persistence, longevity and a little luck. But to be an EMS Pioneer and have your career's highs and lows cataloged by EMS1, a few good stories and a self-deprecating sense of humor surely help. In 2017, six veteran caregivers who didn't take themselves too seriously, despite over 250 years combined experience, shared astute observations about our industry's ...

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Allometric considerations when assessing aortic aneurysms in Turner syndrome: Implications for activity recommendations and medical decision-making

In Turner syndrome, the potential to form thoracic aortic aneurysms requires routine patient monitoring. However, the short stature that typically occurs complicates the assessment of severity and risk because the relationship of body size to aortic dimensions is different in Turner syndrome compared to the general population. Three allometric formula have been proposed to adjust aortic dimensions, all employing body surface area: aortic size index, Turner syndrome-specific Z-scores, and Z-scores based on a general pediatric and young adult population. In order to understand the differences between these formula we evaluated the relationship between age and aortic size index and compared Turner syndrome-specific Z-scores and pediatric/young adult based Z-scores in a group of girls and women with Turner syndrome. Our results suggest that the aortic size index is highly age-dependent for those under 15 years; and that Turner-specific Z-scores are significantly lower than Z-scores referenced to the general population. Higher Z-scores derived from the general reference population could result in stigmatization, inappropriate restriction from sports, and increasing the risk of unneeded medical or operative treatments. We propose that when estimating aortic dissection risk clinicians use Turner syndrome-specific Z-score for those under fifteen years of age.



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Two patients with PNKP mutations presenting with microcephaly, seizure, and oculomotor apraxia

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

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A de novo loss-of-function DYNC1H1 mutation in a patient with parkinsonian features and a favourable response to levodopa

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Graphical summary of 'A de novo loss-of-function DYNC1H1 mutation in a patient with parkinsonian features and a favourable response to levodopa' by Szczałuba et al..



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Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry and emotion: From neural underpinnings and methodological considerations to psychopathology and social cognition



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Issue Information



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A Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Condomless Sex and Increase HIV Testing for Latino MSM

Abstract

Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV, and there have been calls to improve availability of culturally sensitive HIV prevention programs for this population. This article provides a systematic review of intervention programs to reduce condomless sex and/or increase HIV testing among Latino MSM. We searched four electronic databases using a systematic review protocol, screened 1777 unique records, and identified ten interventions analyzing data from 2871 Latino MSM. Four studies reported reductions in condomless anal intercourse, and one reported reductions in number of sexual partners. All studies incorporated surface structure cultural features such as bilingual study recruitment, but the incorporation of deep structure cultural features, such as machismo and sexual silence, was lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed interventions that incorporate deep structure cultural features in order to reduce HIV among Latino MSM.



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Comparison for younger and older adults: Stimulus temporal asynchrony modulates audiovisual integration

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Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Yanna Ren, Yanling Ren, Weiping Yang, Xiaoyu Tang, Fengxia Wu, Qiong Wu, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80–110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups. Additionally, late integration was delayed in older adults (280–300ms) compared to younger adults (210–240ms). In audition‑leading vision conditions, the earliest integration (80–110ms) was absent in younger adults but did occur in older adults. Additionally, after increasing the temporal disparity from 50ms to 100ms, late integration was delayed in both younger (from 230 to 290ms to 280–300ms) and older (from 210 to 240ms to 280–300ms) adults. In the audition-lagging vision conditions, integration only occurred in the A100V condition for younger adults and in the A50V condition for older adults. The current results suggested that the audiovisual temporal integration pattern differed between the audition‑leading and audition-lagging vision conditions and further revealed the varying effect of temporal asynchrony on audiovisual integration in younger and older adults.



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