Τρίτη, 16 Αυγούστου 2016

Intermittent hypoxia promotes recovery of respiratory motor function in spinal cord-injured mice depleted of serotonin in the central nervous system

We examined the effect of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the recovery of respiratory and limb motor function in mice genetically depleted of central nervous system serotonin. Electroencephalography, diaphragm activity, ventilation, core body temperature, and limb mobility were measured in spontaneously breathing wild-type (Tph2+/+) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout (Tph2–/–) mice. Following a C2 hemisection, the mice were exposed daily to IH (i.e., twelve 4-min episodes of 10% oxygen interspersed with 4-min normoxic periods followed by a 90-min end-recovery period) or normoxia (i.e., sham protocol, 21% oxygen) for 10 consecutive days. Diaphragm activity recovered to prehemisection levels in the Tph2+/+ and Tph2–/– mice following exposure to IH but not normoxia [Tph2+/+ 1.3 ± 0.2 (SE) vs. 0.3 ± 0.2; Tph2–/– 1.06 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1, standardized to prehemisection values, P < 0.01]. Likewise, recovery of tidal volume and breathing frequency was evident, although breathing frequency values did not return to prehemisection levels within the time frame of the protocol. Partial recovery of limb motor function was also evident 2 wk after spinal cord hemisection. However, recovery was not dependent on IH or the presence of serotonin in the central nervous system. We conclude that IH promotes recovery of respiratory function but not basic motor tasks. Moreover, we conclude that spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery of respiratory and motor limb function is not dependent on serotonin in the central nervous system in a mouse model of spinal cord injury.



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Elevation of iron storage in humans attenuates the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia

Sustained hypoxia over several hours induces a progressive rise in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Administration of intravenous iron immediately prior to the hypoxia exposure abrogates this effect, suggesting that manipulation of iron stores may modify hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Iron (ferric carboxymaltose) administered intravenously has a plasma half-life of 7-12 h. Thus any therapeutic use of intravenous iron would require its effect on PASP to persist long after the iron-sugar complex has been cleared from the blood. To examine this, we studied PASP during sustained (6 h) hypoxia on 4 separate days (days 0, 1, 8, and 43) in 22 participants. On day 0, the rise in PASP with hypoxia was well matched between the iron and saline groups. On day 1, each participant received either 1 g of ferric carboxymaltose or saline in a double-blind manner. After administration of intravenous iron, the rise in PASP with hypoxia was attenuated by ~50%, and this response remained suppressed on both days 8 and 43 (P < 0.001). Following administration of intravenous iron, values for ferritin concentration, transferrin saturation, and hepcidin concentration rose significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.005, and P < 0.001, respectively), and values for transferrin concentration fell significantly (P < 0.001). These changes remained significant at day 43. We conclude that the attenuation of the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia by elevation of iron stores persists long after the artificial iron-sugar complex has been eliminated from the blood. The persistence of this effect suggests that intravenous iron may be of benefit in some forms of pulmonary hypertension.



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Arousal dynamics drive vocal production in marmoset monkeys

Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate. On average, we observed a steady increase in heart rate 23 s before the production of a call. Following call production, there is a sharp and steep cardiac deceleration lasting ~8 s. The dynamics of cardiac fluctuations around a vocalization cannot be completely predicted by the animal's respiration or movement. Moreover, the timing of vocal production was tightly correlated to the phase of a 0.1-Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm known as the Mayer wave. Finally, a compilation of the state space of arousal dynamics during vocalization illustrated that perturbations to the resting state space increase the likelihood of a call occurring. Together, these data suggest that arousal dynamics are critical for spontaneous primate vocal production, not only as a robust predictor of the likelihood of vocal onset but also as scaffolding on which behavior can unfold.



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Respiratory and autonomic dysfunction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

The developmental lineage of the PHOX2B-expressing neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) has been extensively studied. These cells are thought to function as central respiratory chemoreceptors, i.e., the mechanism by which brain Pco2 regulates breathing. The molecular and cellular basis of central respiratory chemoreception is based on the detection of CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4) as well as synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and other brain regions. Murine models of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome designed with PHOX2B mutations have suggested RTN neuron agenesis. In this review, we examine, through human and experimental animal models, how a restricted number of neurons that express the transcription factor PHOX2B play a crucial role in the control of breathing and autonomic regulation.



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Neural and neurochemical basis of reinforcement-guided decision making

Decision making is an adaptive behavior that takes into account several internal and external input variables and leads to the choice of a course of action over other available and often competing alternatives. While it has been studied in diverse fields ranging from mathematics, economics, ecology, and ethology to psychology and neuroscience, recent cross talk among perspectives from different fields has yielded novel descriptions of decision processes. Reinforcement-guided decision making models are based on economic and reinforcement learning theories, and their focus is on the maximization of acquired benefit over a defined period of time. Studies based on reinforcement-guided decision making have implicated a large network of neural circuits across the brain. This network includes a wide range of cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and subcortical (e.g., nucleus accumbens and subthalamic nucleus) brain areas and uses several neurotransmitter systems (e.g., dopaminergic and serotonergic systems) to communicate and process decision-related information. This review discusses distinct as well as overlapping contributions of these networks and neurotransmitter systems to the processing of decision making. We end the review by touching on neural circuitry and neuromodulatory regulation of exploratory decision making.



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Current advances in invertebrate vision: insights from patch-clamp studies of photoreceptors in apposition eyes

Traditional electrophysiological research on invertebrate photoreceptors has been conducted in vivo, using intracellular recordings from intact compound eyes. The only exception used to be Drosophila melanogaster, which was exhaustively studied by both intracellular recording and patch-clamp methods. Recently, several patch-clamp studies have provided new information on the biophysical properties of photoreceptors of diverse insect species, having both apposition and neural superposition eyes, in the contexts of visual ecology, behavior, and ontogenesis. Here, I discuss these and other relevant results, emphasizing differences between fruit flies and other species, between photoreceptors of diurnal and nocturnal insects, properties of distinct functional types of photoreceptors, postembryonic developmental changes, and relationships between voltage-gated potassium channels and visual ecology.



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On the nature of unintentional action: a study of force/moment drifts during multifinger tasks

We explored the origins of unintentional changes in performance during accurate force production in isometric conditions seen after turning visual feedback off. The idea of control with referent spatial coordinates suggests that these phenomena could result from drifts of the referent coordinate for the effector. Subjects performed accurate force/moment production tasks by pressing with the fingers of a hand on force sensors. Turning the visual feedback off resulted in slow drifts of both total force and total moment to lower magnitudes of these variables; these drifts were more pronounced in the right hand of the right-handed subjects. Drifts in individual finger forces could be in different direction; in particular, fingers that produced moments of force against the required total moment showed an increase in their forces. The force/moment drift was associated with a drop in the index of synergy stabilizing performance under visual feedback. The drifts in directions that changed performance (non-motor equivalent) and in directions that did not (motor equivalent) were of about the same magnitude. The results suggest that control with referent coordinates is associated with drifts of those referent coordinates toward the corresponding actual coordinates of the hand, a reflection of the natural tendency of physical systems to move toward a minimum of potential energy. The interaction between drifts of the hand referent coordinate and referent orientation leads to counterdirectional drifts in individual finger forces. The results also demonstrate that the sensory information used to create multifinger synergies is necessary for their presence over the task duration.



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Reproductive Biology of Striped Snakehead (Channa striata) from Natural Wetlands of Sylhet, Bangladesh

2016-08-16T19-50-11Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Ferdausi HJ, Roy NC, Ferdous MJ, Hossain MA, Hasan MM, Trina BD, Mian S, Iqbal MM, Munir MB, Hossain MM.
The current research was investigated with the aspire to ascertain the breeding season of striped snakehead Channa striata hinged on fecundity (F), gonado-somatic index (GSI), hepato somatic index (HSI) i.e. morphometric and biometric parameters and length-weight relationship. The study was steered for six months period starting from April to September 2014. Samples were scooped up from four natural wetlands viz. Bartali beel, Bhararu beel, Bajibari beel and Surma river in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The highest absolute fecundity of C. striata were documented as (22783.56±3913.10) in the months of June followed by (14262.11±571.48) in May and (11838.4±1498.18) in July whereas the lowest fecundity was as (6158.33±1262.151) in September. The length and weight of C. striata reveal a linear and positive correlation with a significantly higher value of the Pearson squares correlation coefficient (r2=0.87). The linear relationship between fecundity and body weight, fecundity and gonad weight were also found to be positively correlated with the r2 values of (0.76) and (0.875) respectively. The minimal HSI (0.67±0.17) against highest GSI (5.10±0.81) in the month of mid-April to August more exactly mid-April to July with the peak in June suggested that the spawning period of C. striata might be extended from mid-April to August, more precisely mid-April to July with the peak reproductive maturity in June at natural wetland of Sylhet, Bangladesh


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Fin fish assemblage and biodiversity status of carps on halda river, Bangladesh

2016-08-16T19-50-11Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Ferdous MJ, Karim MR, Hossain MA, Rahman MA, Iqbal MM.
The Halda River is the only natural spawning ground of Indian major carp species. A twelve months long study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 in Halda River at Garduara point in Chittagong districts of Bangladesh. Sampling was done during full and new moon for two successive days in each month. A total of 53 fish species belonging to 18 families were identified. However, the concerning fact was carp species r at Garduara point and 15 species were identified. Among them 5 were Not Threatened (NT), 2 Vulnerable (VU), 5 Endangered (EN) and 3 Exotic (EX). The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H') ranged from 1.72 (in July) to 2.13 (in January), tiniest Margalef richness index was witnessed in November/December (1.05), while utmost value observed in July (1.22), peak mean evenness value (0.79) was encountered in January and bottommost (0.63) in July and the uppermost mean dominance value (0.85) was observed in January and lowest (0.7) in July. The Shannon-Weaver and Pielou's index was found to be significant among the seasons at 0.05% significance level, while the Margalef and Simpson index was not significant among the seasons. The carp species at Garduara point found to be not evenly distributed. Among the Indian major carps encountered in the study area, Catla catla found to be comprised 4.78% of the total biomass followed by Cirrhinus cirrhosus 5.74%, Labeo rohita 4.95% and Labeo calbasu 0.66%


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Nitric oxide and lysozyme activities as early monitors of the immune response of Brucella abortus RB51 vaccinated cows

2016-08-16T19-50-11Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Hosein HI, El-Sherif A, Ghobashy H, Azaam RAA, Menshawy AMS, Rouby SR, Ismail R.
Nitric oxide and lysozyme activities were estimated in sixty one Brucella abortus RB51 vaccinated cows during the first week post vaccination as well as in four non vaccinated cows. It was quite clear that there was a significant difference (P

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Ata (Annona reticulata) leaf extract: an herbal drug against tick infestation in Black Bengal goat

2016-08-16T19-50-11Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rahman MR, Akanda MR, Rahman MM, Islam MS, Hossain MA.
The study was carried out to evaluate the comparative efficacy of herbal drug Annona reticulata (English name: Custard apple and locally called 'Ata') solutions by spraying (7.5%, 15% and 30%) and Ivermectin against tick infestation in Black Bengal goat for a period of 6 months from January to June, 2014 at Sylhet Government Goat Development Farm, Bangladesh. Goats (n=100) heavily infested with tick were selected and randomly divided into 5 treatment groups (T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4) each group consisting of 20 goats. Goats of group T0 was kept as infected control. Remaining 4 groups i.e. T1, T2, T3 and T4 were treated with Ata spray of 7.5%, 15%, 30% and Ivermectin respectively. The efficacy of Ata leaf extract at 7.5 %, 15 % and 30 % were 62 %, 67 % and 75 % respectively against tick in goat. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of TEC, PCV, Hb concentration and ESR were significantly (p


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Dynamics of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen - A Review

2016-08-16T19-50-11Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Uddin MJ, Khandaker ZH, Khan MJ, Khan MMH.
Ruminants establish a symbiotic relationship with rumen microorganisms by which the animal provides nutrients and optimum environmental conditions for the fermentation of feeds, and microorganisms degrade fiber and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for animal. Ruminal proteins degradation is affected by pH and predominant species of microbial population. A strong positive correlation was observed between dry matter intake (DMI) and microbial growth. The more carbohydrate digestion the more microbial protein synthesis occur. Fermentation energy is inversely related to microbial growth. Essential oil has domestic anti- microbial activity. Nitrogen compound or crude protein contain (CP) of many practical diets may be greater than the 11% required to support optimal microbial growth. Forage concentrate mixing preparation increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis than only forage preparation. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis greater in forages containing saponin and tannins which reduce ruminal N degradability. As ruminant out flow rate increase microbial protein synthesis, it is supposed that the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis can be increased by about 20% if rumen outflow rate is increased from 0.02 to 0.08 /h. Microbial protein production will be a function of the availability of vitamins, microminerals and protein level in the diet of digestible organic matter. Microbial protein synthesis is dependent upon suitable N and carbohydrate sources. Even though trace minerals and vitamins are adequate for maximal microbial protein synthesis in many feeding conditions, inadequate trace minerals and vitamins, in some cases, could limit microbial protein synthesis


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Canine parvovirus enteritis in a pup

2016-08-16T19-50-11Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Vipan K, Heigo P, Parveen K, Harprit S, Hanish S, Vinay MW.
Canine parvovirus enteritis is a highly contagious serious disease of young dogs. Labrador pup of 5 months was presented with the complaint of bloody diarrhea, and decreased feed intake. On physical examination, Pup was lethargic, depressed and dehydrated. There was no history of deworming and vaccination. Young pups were mostly infected by parvovirus and leads to diarrhea, dehydration and anorexia so the current infection was diagnosed as parvovirus infection. The pup was treated symptomatically using Ringer Lactate infusion for restoration of electrolytes and antibiotics (Ceftriaxone) to prevent secondary bacterial infection. Prognosis of disease is usually poor but fortunately pup was improving and was quite better on day third onward. So the same treatment was continued for next three days except Ringer Lactate infusion and animal recovered 7 days post infection


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An Automated Test of Rat Forelimb Supination Quantifies Motor Function Loss and Recovery After Corticospinal Injury

Background. Rodents are the primary animal model of corticospinal injury and repair, yet current behavioral tests do not show the large deficits after injury observed in humans. Forearm supination is critical for hand function and is highly impaired by corticospinal injury in both humans and rats. Current tests of rodent forelimb function do not measure this movement. Objective. To determine if quantification of forelimb supination in rats reveals large-scale functional loss and partial recovery after corticospinal injury. Methods. We developed a knob supination device that quantifies supination using automated and objective methods. Rats in a reaching box have to grasp and turn a knob in supination in order to receive a food reward. Performance on this task and the single pellet reaching task were measured before and after 2 manipulations of the pyramidal tract: a cut lesion of 1 pyramid and inactivation of motor cortex using 2 different drug doses. Results. A cut lesion of the corticospinal tract produced a large deficit in supination. In contrast, there was no change in pellet retrieval success. Supination function recovered partially over 6 weeks after injury, and a large deficit remained. Motor cortex inactivation produced a dose-dependent loss of knob supination; the effect on pellet reaching was more subtle. Conclusions. The knob supination task reveals in rodents 3 signature hand function changes observed in humans with corticospinal injury: (1) large-scale loss with injury, (2) partial recovery in the weeks after injury, and (3) loss proportional to degree of dysfunction.



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Prevalence and risk factors of pre and postpartum complications in crossbred dairy cows of Sylhet, Bangladesh

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Uddin AHMM, Hossain MK, Lucky NS, Roy AC, Islam MR, Uddin ASMA, Hossain MM.
Reproductive complications of crossbred dairy cows are a great concern of dairy producers worldwide that significantly reduce the productivity and profitability. A year round field investigation were conducted with the aim to determine the prevalence of pre and postpartum complications and its associated risk factors in crossbred dairy cows at kanaighat sub-district of Sylhet, Bangladesh, starting from January 2013 to December 2013. A total 535 crossbred dairy cows were subjected to clinical observations that revealed the overall prevalence of reproductive complications was 12.52%.Abortion (2.57%) followed by stillbirth (0.93%) were recorded as major reproductive obstacles in pre-partum situation, whereas retained fetal membrane (2.54%) followed by dystocia (2.50%), uterine prolapsed (1.34%), metritis (1.33%) and pyometra (1.28%) were the major recorded complications in post-partum phase. The risk factors including parity, body condition score, gestation period and management system were significantly (P


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Dietary supplementation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with betaine, chromium picolinate and a combination: Effects on growth performance, hematological and biochemical parameters

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Aziza A, Zahran E, Elseady Y.
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic) or betaine or blend of chromium and betaine on growth performance, blood hematological parameters, biochemical parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for 7 weeks. The results revealed significant increases (P


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Congenital Orthopaedic Deficiency Phenotypes in Sheep and Goats in Sahel

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Bokko PB, Adamu SS, Garleya B, Suleiman S.
A survey of the frequency of congenital orthopaedic deficiency phenotypes in sheep and goats in Maiduguri area of Sahel was performed from January 2010 to December 2014. Of 41769 sheep and 147649 goats appraised, 1971 sheep and 4483 goats had at least one congenital orthopaedic deficiency phenotype. This translates to a prevalence of 5.67% in sheep and 3.04% in goats. The recorded congenital orthopaedic defective phenotypes include wavy or curvilinear spine, angular limb deformities, sloppy or straight pastern as well as varus or valgus deformities and hoof overgrowth. The more frequent defects such as hoof overgrowth, varus and valgus deformities, cowhock or bowleg in both sheep and goat tended to cause milder functional disruption. The rarer congenital defect like torticollis, limb paresis, spider lamb syndrome, contracted flexor tendons and congenital joint rigidity occur sporadically but tend to exhibit severe defects. These conditions impede the overall development of sheep production system and profitability. The frequencies of the orthopaedic disorders were higher in sheep than in goats and more in the forelimbs than the hindlimbs. Orthopedic disorders were more frequent in males than in females. Orthopaedic defect phenotypes that predispose sheep and goats to lameness are of great concern due to the frequency of occurrence. Using selective breeding programmes, the abundantly available detection and corrective tools it is possible to mitigate the deleterious effects of congenital orthopedic deficiency phenotypes thereby enhancing productivity of sheep and goats in Sahel


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In vitro evaluation of commonly used disinfectants and antiseptics in veterinary practice against Brucella abortus

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Adel EG, Mohamed EB, Mahmoud AEH, Fatma EG, Mona MED.
The proper disinfection of contaminated animal environment plays an important role in the prevention and control of brucellosis. In this study, we evaluated in- vitro the germicidal efficacy of commonly used disinfectants including, Virkon® S (Potassium peroxy-monosulfate and sodium chloride, 1%), Suma sol (chlorinated powder, 0.6%) and QACs (Quaternary ammonium compounds) and two antiseptics; including bovadine iodine (iodine, 1%) and Dettol on Brucella abortus strain isolated from dairy cows and their surrounding environment under different interfering conditions. The results revealed that virkon S and dettol exhibited high efficacy against Brucella abortus at different concentrations and contact periods either in presence or in absence of organic matter. Therefore, periodical assessment of the disinfectants formulations in- vitro and also in- vivo conditions, with the target of enhancing and improving of brucellosis prevention and control in animals and humans is highly required


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Ovarian Biology of Spotted Snake head (Channa punctatus) from Natural Wetlands of Sylhet, Bangladesh

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Hossain MA, Mian S, Akter M, Rabby AF, Marine SS, Rahman MA, Iqbal MM, Islam MJ, Hassan MM, Hossain MM.
A year round series of intensive investigations were carried out with the quest to comprehend the reproductive biology and ovarian development of spotted snakehead Channa punctatus, scooped up from wild habitat from December, 2012 to November, 2013. Biometrics and morphometrics like length-weight relationship, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepato-somatic index (HSI) and absolute fecundity were estimated over the study period. Beyond these, gonadal histology was executed for better assessment of ovarian maturity. Length-weight relationship showed positive allometric relation and found to be strongly correlated (r2=0.912). On the other hand, positive linear relationship were also observed between fecundity and body weight (r2=0.771); and the oocytes number and weight of ovary (r2=0.834). An inverse relation was observed between GSI and HSI. Highest GSI was observed in July (5.64±1.24) and lowest in May (0.194±0.054). Whereas highest HSI were noted in January (1.65±0.46) and lowest in July (0.195±0.054). The estimated highest absolute fecundity (26294±416.74) were recorded in July, with an average value of (10353.7±797.62) over the year and large C. punctatus tend to have greater number of oocytes compare to smaller fishes. Histological observations of ovary stained with haematoxyline & eosin (H-E) revealed that early and developing stages of oocytes were mostly observed during the months of March to May, maturing in June to July, while mature oocytes during July to August. Presence of mature oocytes in ovary in July to August indicated mature phase of ovary ready to spawn. Higher GSI values during June to August with lower HSI and highest absolute fecundity (July) along with the observation of ovarian histology throughout the year summarizes that C. punctatus breeds during the months of July to August


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Bovine diseases at Dinajpur district of Bangladesh: Epidemiological status with relation to age and season

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Juli MSB, Hoque MF, Badruzzaman ATM, Hossain MK.
In Bangladesh cattle species are affected by several types of diseases and most of them are bacterial, viral and parasitic causing severe economic losses in every year. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological status of cattle diseases with relation to age and seasonal variation at Dinajpur district of Bangladesh. A total of 681 clinical cases were registered for the clinical diagnosis and therapeutic purposes at Veterinary Teaching Hospital- Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (VTH-HSTU) at Dinajpur district of Bangladesh during the year of 2014. Disease diagnosis was made on the basis of owner's statement, general examination, clinical signs, gross pathology, and laboratory procedures. Diagnosed diseases were categorized as general clinical disorders, parasitic diseases, viral diseases, bacterial diseases, reproductive disorders, surgical affections and other clinical disorders. According to our result the prevalence of general clinical disorder was the highest (32.16%) followed by parasitic diseases (32.01%), bacterial diseases (15.27%), surgical affections (10.28%), reproductive disorders (4.85%), viral diseases (3.52%) and other clinical disorders (1.91%). Disease prevalence was recorded as highest in case of calf (43.17%) followed by adult (41.70%) and heifer (15.12%). On the basis of season it was found that prevalence of diseases was highest in summer season (47.87%) followed by rainy season (30.10%) and comparatively lower in winter season (22.03%). Our yearlong set of data on prevalence of cattle diseases at VTH-HSTU in Dinajpur district of Bangladesh will give a valuable insight to establish research based study of specific disease and implementation of appropriate course of action to improve the health status of cattle population


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Cryopreservation of Black Bengal buck semen by Tris-based extenders containing different levels of egg-yolk

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Ray K, Singh LG, Sarkar B.
The study was designed to assess the cryopreservation of extended Black Bengal buck semen in Tris-egg yolkcitric acid-glucose-glycerol (TEYCGG) extender containing 4 different levels (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10%) of egg-yolk and to compare the fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw quality of semen. Artificial Vagina (AV) method was used to collect semen from six reproductively mature, 2 1/2 to 4 years old, healthy breeding bucks. A total of forty eight ejaculates were collected once a week for eight weeks. Semen was diluted in TEYCGG extender equilibrated at 5°C for 3 h and then the French mini (0.25 ml) straws were filled with semen and frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Frozen semen straws were thawed in a water bath at 37˚C for 30 seconds after 24 h of freezing for postthaw sperm evaluation. The results revealed that only progressive motility (%) of the pre-freeze (81.58±0.54 to 67.08±0.5) and frozen semen (51.46±0.75 to 39.75±0.62), which was differed significantly (P


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Successful Management of concurrent infection of Theileriosis and Amphistomosis in a cross bred cattle

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Gopal K, Asmita N.
Theileriosis is a tick borne protozoan disease which is characterized by high fever, lymph node swelling, wasting and progressive anemia. This case report describes the successful management of concurrent amphistomosis and theileriosis in cross bred cattle using buparvaquone, oxyclozanide and oxytetracycline


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Nutritional Evaluation and Chemical Compositions of Feedstuffs for Ruminant Using in vitro Gas Production Technique

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Uddin MJ, Khandaker ZH, Khan JM, Islam MN.
Common feed resources were evaluated by chemically and in vitro gas production method. The rumen mixed microbe inoculums source was taken from fistulated native steers. The cumulative gas volume 24h after incubation was highly significant (p


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Preponderance of Body and Limb Conformational Deformities in Sheep in the Sahel

2016-08-16T19-20-02Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Bokko PB, Adamu SS.
Ideal conformation is a blend of balance, structural correctness, tracking, musculature/muscling and character. These determinants impact the sheep's health, gait, longevity, and productivity. Existing patchy data show that frequency of body and limb conformational defects in the sheep in the Sahel is high. A survey on the conformational deformities of the body and limbs in sheep in the Sahel show prevalence of 17.92%. Amongst these are curvilinear spine, angular limb deformities, sloppy or straight pastern and hoof overgrowth. Common defects like hoof overgrowth, varus and valgus deformities, cowhock or bowleg tend to cause milder functional disruption. The rarer defects like torticollis, limb paresis, spider lamb syndrome, contracted flexor tendons and congenital joint rigidity occur sporadically but manifest severe consequence. The frequencies of disorders were more in the male than female, higher in limbs than body and more preponderant in the forelimbs than hindlimbs. Faults of conformation continue to be a significant issue that impede the overall development of sheep production system and profitability. In the Sahel schemes for conformation referencing do not exist. Hence the need for comprehensive databank and a reporting system for the preponderant conformational disorders that predispose ruminant livestock to injuries, lameness and eventually loss of productivity. Moreover, livestock population is growing and so is the frequency of conformational anomalies. It is therefore pertinent, using selective breeding programmes, the abundantly available early detection and corrective tools, thorough and effective management practices to mitigate the deleterious effects of conformational defects and allow increased productivity of the sheep


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Effect of Patient-Therapist Gender Match on Psychotherapy Retention Among United States Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Abstract

Extant literature suggests that patient-therapist gender matching may be associated with psychotherapy retention. We examined this relationship in a national cohort of Veterans (n = 506,471) initiating psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, women were retained in psychotherapy at higher rates than men. When patient and therapist factors as well as practice patterns are considered, gender match between female patients with PTSD and female therapists was not a positive predictor of psychotherapy retention. Contrary to our expectations, gender match between male patients with PTSD and male therapist was a negative predictor of psychotherapy retention.



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Theileriosis in Crossbred Cattle: Therapeutic Management and Control

2016-08-16T18-49-58Z
Source: Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science
Vipan K, Parvinder K, Heigo P, Hanish S, Vinay MW, Charanjeet S, Gagandeep B.
Bovine Tropical theileriosishaving worldwide economic importance in cattle caused by Theileriaannulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted by ticks. The disease is one of the major constraints to the dairy industry and causes devastating losses to the livestockin India. The present cases demonstrate the clinical manifestation, hematological alternation and therapeutic management of theileriosis in Holstein Friesian cattlein Jalandhar district. Clinical examination of affected animals revealed high fever (104-1060 F), enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucus membrane. The blood smears examination after staining revealed the presence of Theileria organisms. Buparvaquone along with supportive therapy could cure all the animals.


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How to reduce harm from ambulance and helicopter crashes

Ask an EMS leader what keeps them up at night, and the common answer might be an ambulance or air medical crash. There are different factors for why ambulance or air medical crashes occur, however, there is universal agreement that crashes often lead to tragic consequences.

We are all at risk for crashes in EMS, whether in a ground ambulance or a helicopter; and when a crash occurs, there are multiple victims, including the crew, the patient and the organization. Currently, there are determined efforts underway to reduce the occurrence of crashes and to make these events more survivable. The Center for Patient Safety receives a variety of reports related to ambulance and air medical crashes and near misses.

Air medical crashes are just as concerning. One study of EMS helicopter crashes, called "EMS helicopter crashes: What influences fatal outcomes http://ift.tt/2bgD0ax" referenced various factors. A review of crashes resulting in at least one fatality were most often linked to post-crash fires, darkness, bad weather and other hazardous conditions.

Lee Varner, BSEMS, EMT-P, Project Manager for CPS EMS services said, "Ground and air services log countless hours transporting patients in our communities. It's easy to take safety for granted or become complacent until we hear about a crash. It's easy to develop a bias and think it won't happen until it happens to you or someone you know. Every crash is different and each has its own causal factors but we should all look at our system design and safety behaviors as a place to start."

Factors vary widely for every crash; however, lessons learned from other high-consequence industries might present learning opportunities for greater patient and provider safety in EMS.

Crash reduction recommendations
Great strides in crash reduction have been made in helicopter operations with the implementation of new technology, safety culture and education. These successful efforts have been driven by leaders, associations and other stakeholders. Today we are starting to see some these efforts pay off; however, there is still more work to be done.
To reduce harm to providers and patients involved in a ground ambulance crash, the CDC recommends EMS employers encourage the following:

  • Providers should use patient compartment vehicle occupant restraints whenever possible.
  • Drivers and front-seat passengers of EMS vehicles should use the occupant restraints provided.
  • Insure all belts are appropriately used on the stretcher including the shoulder restraints.
  • Implement an annual vehicle operations and safety review class or program.


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Can endoscopic papillectomy be curative for early ampullary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater?

Abstract

Background

The therapeutic role of endoscopic papillectomy (EP) for early ampullary cancer (AC) is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative potential of EP for early AC and to identify predictors of lymph node metastases (LNMs).

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 173 patients who were prospectively included in a database and who underwent EP between 1999 and 2013. Adenocarcinoma was present in 28 resected specimens. An additional surgery was proposed in cases of duodenal submucosal infiltration, duct ingrowth, R1 resection or lymphovascular invasion. Clinicopathological information and outcomes were collected, and predictors of LNMs were evaluated.

Results

Duodenal submucosal invasion was present in 16/28 cases and LNMs, in 9/28 cases. ACs of the biliopancreatic subtype were smaller (NS); 100 % had submucosal invasion, and 71 % had LNMs. Smaller tumour size, biliopancreatic subtype and submucosal invasion were significantly correlated with LNMs (p < 0.028, p < 0.028 and p < 0.014). Predictive factors of LNMs in the multivariate analysis were submucosal invasion and tumour size (OR 0.032, p < 0.023 and OR 0.711, p < 0.035). EP was curative in 100 % of cancers with R0 resection and no evidence of submucosal or lymphovascular invasion.

Conclusion

EP may be curative for patients with AC limited to the duodenal mucosa or the sphincter of Oddi without lymphovascular invasion. Due to the presence of more invasive stages at diagnosis, EP may not be curative for ACs of the biliopancreatic subtype. The significance of tumour size is limited by other confounders, such as the histological subtype.



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Should antithrombotic therapy be stopped in patients undergoing gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection?

Abstract

Background

The management of antithrombotic therapy in the patients undergoing gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is of concern. This study aimed to assess delayed bleeding rate after gastric ESD in the patients receiving antithrombotic therapy.

Methods

This study was a retrospective observational study held in a single institute. The patients undergoing gastric ESD from January 2009 to October 2014 were reviewed. Delayed bleeding rate in the patients receiving antithrombotic therapy was compared with that in matched controls. We also compared delayed bleeding rate in the patients continuing antithrombotic therapy with that in the patients with heparin bridging or cessation of antithrombotic therapy. Among 2388 lesions resected by gastric ESD, 367 lesions were resected in the patients with antithrombotic therapy, and 722 lesions were selected as controls. The lesions in the patients receiving antithrombotic therapy were divided into three subgroups: 54 lesions without preoperative cessation (continuation group), 37 lesions with heparin bridging (heparin group), and 276 lesions with cessation of antithrombotic therapy (cessation group).

Results

The incidence of delayed bleeding was significantly higher in the patients receiving antithrombotic therapy (9.5 % [35/367] vs. 4.2 % [30/722]; p < 0.01). Delayed bleeding rate in continuation group, heparin group, and cessation group was 9.2 % (5/54), 10.8 % (4/37), and 9.4 % (26/276), respectively, and no significant difference was observed. Thrombosis occurred only in cessation group (1.6 %).

Conclusions

Delayed bleeding rate associated with gastric ESD is significantly higher in the patients receiving antithrombotic therapy. No significant difference in delayed bleeding rate was observed among patients with and without cessation of antithrombotic therapy. To prevent thrombosis, gastric ESD without cessation may be feasible.



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Dual laparoscopic cholecystectomies for dual primordium duplicate accessory gallbladder having independent cystic duct and artery



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Tobacco Smoke Exposure–Related Illnesses Among Pediatric Emergency Department Patients

This study aimed to determine the relationship between patients presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) and potential tobacco smoke exposure (TSE)–related illnesses.

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Reliability of smartphone-based teleradiology for evaluating thoracolumbar spine fractures

Timely interpretation of CT scans is of paramount importance in diagnosing and managing spinal column fractures, which can be devastating. Out-of-hospital, on-call spine surgeons are often asked to evaluate CT scans of patients who have sustained trauma to the thoracolumbar spine to make diagnosis and to determine the appropriate course of urgent treatment. Capturing radiographic scans and video clips from computer screens and sending them as instant messages has become a common means of communication between physicians, aiding in triaging and transfer decision-making in orthopedic and neurosurgical emergencies.

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The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Benjamin H. Rogers, Justin C. Brown, David R. Gater, Kathryn H. Schmitz
ObjectiveTo characterize the relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among BrCa survivors.DesignCross-sectional study.SettingLaboratory.ParticipantsCommunity-dwelling BrCa survivors.InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome Measure1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing.ResultsAmong 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; P<0.0001). Mean-difference analysis suggested that the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: -8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; P<0.0001) and age (β=-0.20; P<0.0001) were positively correlated with 1-RM bench press strength (R2=0.23).ConclusionsIsometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength.



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Cognitive motor interference in multiple sclerosis: Insights from a systematic, quantitative review

Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Yvonne C. Learmonth, Ipek Ensari, Robert W. Motl
ObjectivesTo synthesise the evidence for differences in cognitive motor interference (CMI) between persons with MS and healthy controls by using systematic review and meta-analysis.Data SourcesEMBASE, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Our focused literature search was informed by past systematic reviews of CMI during walking in MS.Study SelectionThe key terms searched involved Multiple Sclerosis, and synonyms of motor function (e.g., Gait disorders, Gait, Walking, Balance or Fall) and motor and cognitive functions (e.g., Cognitive motor interference, or Thinking).Data ExtractionFrom the 116 abstracts identified articles, 13 experimental studies were selected for final analysis and were rated based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy tool. A meta-analysis was performed for all considered outcomes.Data SynthesisThe results yielded a small overall effect size (ES) of 0.08 (SE = .17; 95% CI= -0.25, 0.40; z=0.49; p>.05), and this indicated a non-significant, minimal difference in CMI between persons with MS and healthy controls. The moderator analysis for motor task (Mobility task, ES=0.22; Postural task, ES= -0.11) was not significantly different between MS and controls. The moderator analysis for cognitive task (Verbal fluency task, ES=0.66; Mental Tracking tasks, ES=0.04; Discrimination and Decision-making tasks, ES=?) resulted in a significantly difference in CMI between MS and controls (p<.05).ConclusionsWe provide evidence that overall there is minimal difference in CMI between persons with MS and healthy control participants.



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The Crestline advantage - World class in safety

A tradition of excellence and innovation for over 40 years

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National Initiatives to Improve Systems for Postpartum Care

Abstract

Purpose To showcase several current national initiatives that focus on reducing maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity and promote postpartum health and wellness for all women. Description Maternal injuries and deaths are a serious public health concern with tremendous impact on families, communities, and healthcare providers. Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that the timing of serious maternal complications has shifted, with more than half of deaths occurring in the immediate postpartum period up to 1 year following birth. Many of these reported deaths could have been prevented, and the number of "near misses" of maternal morbidity cases continues to grow exponentially. In addition, postpartum women experience substantial unmet health needs, compromising their wellbeing. Assessment The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses have thoroughly assessed the significance of the rising trends in maternal morbidity/mortality and are leading efforts to reduce these rates and improve overall health and wellbeing for all women during the postpartum period. Conclusion Developing national initiatives to improve postpartum health are vital to increasing the effectiveness of postpartum discharge education, and improving the participation in and the quality of postpartum care. Hopefully, evidence-based practice and widespread dissemination of these efforts will lead to a reduction in preventable post-birth maternal morbidity and mortality.



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Reassessing the Association between WIC and Birth Outcomes Using a Fetuses-at-Risk Approach

Abstract

Objectives Women with longer, healthier pregnancies have more time to enroll in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), biasing associations between WIC and birth outcomes. We examined the association between WIC and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and perinatal death (PND) using a fetuses-at-risk approach to address this bias, termed gestational age bias. Methods We linked California Medi-Cal recipients with a singleton live birth or fetal death from the 2010 Birth Cohort to WIC participant data (n = 236,564). We implemented a fetuses-at-risk approach using survival analysis, which compared, in each week of gestation, women whose pregnancies reached the same length and who had the same opportunity to utilize WIC. In each gestational week, we assessed WIC enrollment and the number of food packages redeemed thus far and computed hazard ratios (HR) using survival models with time-varying exposures and effects. Results Adjusting for maternal socio-demographic and health characteristics, WIC enrollment was associated with a lower risk of PTB from week 29–36 (HR29 = 0.71; HR36 = 0.52); LBW from week 26–40 (HR26 = 0.77; HR40 = 0.64); and PND from week 29–43 (HR29 = 0.78; HR43 = 0.69) (p < 0.05). The number of food packages redeemed was associated with a lower risk of PTB from week 27–36 (HR27 = 0.90; HR36 = 0.84); LBW from week 25–42 (HR25 = 0.93; HR42 = 0.88); and PND from week 27–46 (HR27 = 0.94; HR46 = 0.91) (p < 0.05). Conclusions for Practice To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between WIC and birth outcomes using this approach. We found that beginning from about 29 weeks, WIC enrollment was associated with a reduced risk of PTB by 29–48 %, LBW by 23–36 %, and PND by 22–31 %.



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Laser and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of mainly upper and lower motor neurons (Duleep and Shefner, 2013). The diagnosis of ALS generally requires normal sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS) (Brooks et al., 2000; de Carvalho et al., 2008), and normal sensory nerve action potentials are reported in several studies (Ertekin, 1967; Fincham and Van Allen, 1964; Stålberg and Sanders, 1992). However, many other studies have shown involvement of large diameter (A-beta) sensory fibres in ALS patients using NCS (e.g., Hammad et al., 2007; Isaacs et al., 2007; Isak et al., 2016; Pugdahl et al., 2007 and 2008) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) (Cosi et al., 1984; Bosch et al., 1985; Matheson et al., 1986; Ogata et al., 2001; Hamada et al., 2007).

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Action Training Systems Releases New Title: Active Shooter Response

Action Training Systems (ATS), producer of award-winning firefighter, EMS, and industrial fire brigade training programs, is releasing a new title in its Incident Command & Management (ICM) series:  Fire/EMS: Active Shooter Response. With the increasing number of active shooter or criminal mass casualty incidents, it is more important than ever for emergency personnel to train together and to operate ...

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Action Training Systems Releases New Title in Incident Command & Management Series

Action Training Systems (ATS), producer of award-winning firefighter, EMS, and industrial fire brigade training programs, is releasing a new title in its Incident Command & Management (ICM) series: ICS: EMS Operations. This new title presents best practices for an organized medical response to a multiple casualty incident (MCI), emphasizing the importance of requesting and utilizing resources in ...

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Video: EMTs rescue squirrel stuck in a cup

ENFIELD, Conn. — A squirrel with its head trapped in a cup was found in the driveway of Enfield EMS last Friday.

Members of the agency uploaded a video of the squirrel's rescue to Facebook. The clip has been viewed over 240,000 times.

The squirrel is shown frantically hopping around an empty lot while Enfield EMS members approach it with a blanket.

One of the EMTs manages to trap the squirrel and hold it through the cloth, allowing his partner to remove the cup its head.

According to WIBW 13 News, the squirrel was not an official 911 patient of Enfield EMS.

EMT officials also noted that the incident was a reminder that littering can be dangerous to wildlife.



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Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life Independence

Acronym:
SCI-QOL Independence
Purpose:

The SCI-QOL Independence instrument assesses perceptions of personal independence, ability to communicate needs with others, and a sense of control over one's life in individuals with spinal cord injury.

Description:

The SCI-QOL Independence measure is an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated item bank with 8 items that is available for administration as a computer adaptive test or 8 item short form (SF). All items generated for the SCI-QOL Independence measure are new, and do not share overlap with the PROMIS or Neuro-QOL measurement systems.

Area of Assessment: Quality of Life
Body Part: Not Applicable
ICF Domain: Activity, Participation
Domain: General Health
Assessment Type: Patient Reported Outcomes
Length of Test: 05 Minutes or Less
Time to Administer:
< 5 Minutes
Number of Items: 8
Equipment Required:

The short form requires the form and a pencil. A CAT administration requires a computer with internet connection.

Access to the CATs through Assessment Center, is available through SCI-QOL@udel.edu.  

Training Required: Yes, the Assessment Center User Manual. Manuscript forthcoming.
Type of training required: Reading an Article/Manual
Cost: Free
Actual Cost:
Free
Age Range: Adult: 18-64 years, Elderly adult: 65+
Administration Mode: Computer
Diagnosis: Spinal Cord Injury
Populations Tested:
Spinal Cord Injury
Standard Error of Measurement (SEM):
Not Established
Minimal Detectable Change (MDC):
Not Established
Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID):
Not Established
Cut-Off Scores:
Not Established
Normative Data:

Traumatic spinal cord injury. The normative data are calibrated on adults with traumatic spinal cord injury so the mean score (T = 50) indicates a score that is normal for an adult with a traumatic SCI. Deviations from the mean indicate deviations from what is normal for an individual with a traumatic SCI. For example, a respondent with a score of T=60 reported more attributes of resilience than +1 standard deviation (84%) of individuals with traumatic SCI.

Test-retest Reliability:

Traumatic SCI: (Kisala et al., 2015)

  • Excellent: ICC= 0.84
  • Excellent: Pearson's r= 0.84
Interrater/Intrarater Reliability:

Not Applicable

Internal Consistency:

Traumatic SCI: (Kisala et al., 2015)

  • Excellent: Cronbach's Alpha= 0.89
Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent):
Not Established
Construct Validity (Convergent/Discriminant):
Not Established
Content Validity:

Items were derived from focus groups and interviews with individuals with traumatic SCI (n=65) and clinicians who specialize in SCI (n=42).

Face Validity:
Not statistically assessed, but content was generated from individuals with SCI and expert clinicians; therefore face validity is believed to be strong.  
Floor/Ceiling Effects:
Not Established
Responsiveness:
Not Established
Considerations:
None
Bibliography:
Tulsky et al., (2015). Overview of the Spinal-Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Measurement System. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 38(3), 257-269.
 
Tulsky et al., (2015). Methodology for the Development and Calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 38(3), 270-287.
Year published: 2015
Instrument in PDF Format: Yes


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Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes

Link to instrument: Available on scireproject.com
Acronym:
SCATS
Purpose:

Assesses three types of spastic motor behaviors in SCI patients - clonus, flexor spasms, and extensor spasms.

Description:

Administered by a trained clinician, the SCATS Clonus scale uses passive dorsiflexion to assess clonus:

  • Clonus is rated on a 4 point scale that ranges from:
    • 0 = No reaction
    • 1 =Mild lasting <3sec
    • 2 = Moderate lasting 3-10 seconds
    • 3 = Severe lasting > 10 seconds

SCATS flexor spasm is assessed with a pinprick to the medial arch with the knee and hip fully extended

  • Flexor spasms are rated on a 4 point scale that ranges from:
    • 0 = No reaction
    • 1 = mild, less than 10 degrees of excursion in flexion at knee and hip, or extension of the great toe
    • 2 = moderate = 10-30degrees of flexion at knee and hip
    • 3 = Severe with >30 degrees of hip and knee flexion

SCATS extensor spasms are assessed by extending the hip and knee joints from a start position of 90 to110 degrees of hip and knee flexion

  • Extensor spasms are rated on a 4 point scale that is identical to clonus scale above
Area of Assessment: Spasticity
Body Part: Lower Extremity
ICF Domain: Body Structure, Body Function
Domain: Motor
Assessment Type: Observer
Length of Test: 06 to 30 Minutes
Time to Administer:
5 to 10 minutes
Number of Items: 3 sub-scales (clonus, flexor and extensor spasms)
Equipment Required:
None
Training Required:
None, however, the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS) is typically administered by a trained clinician.
Type of training required: No Training
Cost: Free
Actual Cost:
Free
Age Range: Adolescent: 13-17 years, Adult: 18-64 years, Elderly adult: 65+
Administration Mode: Paper/Pencil
Diagnosis: Spinal Cord Injury
Populations Tested:
  • Spinal Cord Injury
Standard Error of Measurement (SEM):
Not Established
Minimal Detectable Change (MDC):
Not Established
Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID):
Not Established
Cut-Off Scores:
Not Established
Normative Data:
Acute SCI: (Kumru et al, 2010; n = 15; mean age = 36.2 (15.8) years; mean time since SCI = 7.3 (3.9); Spasticity affected both legs in all participants)
 
Significant improvement in spasticity of the lower limb was experienced in patients after active high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), results follows:
 
SCAT Norm Data in Experimental Conditions:
Time of Stimulation
Active
Sham
Before Stimulation
5.9 (2.3)
5.2 (1.9)
After First Session
4.2 (1.8)
4.7 (2.3)
After Last Session
4.6 (1.8)
4.5 (2.1)
One Week After Stimulation
4.2 (2.2)
4.5 (2.1)
p
.01
.18
p value refers to the results of Friedman's test
Test-retest Reliability:
Not Established
Interrater/Intrarater Reliability:
Not Established
Internal Consistency:
Not Applicable
Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent):
Acute and Chronic SCI: (Benz st al, 2005; n = 11; ages ranged from 16 to 65; months post injury ranged from 3 to 360 months)
 
Correlation of the SCATS and Kinematic and Electromyographic Measures
Laboratory based measure
Clinical measure

Strength

rho
p
Vastus medialis duration
Extensor SCATS

Excellent

.90
< 0.001
Soleus duration
Extensor SCATS

Excellent

.70
< 0.001
Extensor SCATS
Extensor SCATS

Excellent

.94
< 0.001
Medial gastrocnemius duration
Clonus SCATS

Excellent

.69
0.002
Clonus SCATS
Clonus SCATS

Excellent

.90
< 0.001
Ankle excursion angle
Flexor SCATS

Excellent

.69
< 0.001
Knee excursion angle
Flexor SCATS

Excellent

.81
< 0.001
Hip excursion angle
Flexor SCATS

Excellent

.82
< 0.001
Flexor SCATS Flexor SCATS

Excellent

.87

< 0.001

Construct Validity (Convergent/Discriminant):
Acute and Chronic SCI: (Benz st al, 2005)
 
SCATS, Ashworth Scale, and PSFS Correlations~:
Ashworth Hip
Ashworth Knee
Ashworth Ankle
SCATS Clonus

SCATS Flexion

SCATS Extension

PSFS
.43 (A)
.43 (A)
.51 (A)
.59* (A)

.41 (A)

.40
Ashworth hip
.90** (E)
.67* (E)
.56 (A)
.55* (A)

.98** (E)

Ashworth knee
.77** (E)

.65* (E)

.47 (A)
.88** (E)

 

Ashworth ankle
.60* (E)
.40 (A)

.61* (E)

SCATS clonus
.35 (A)
.59* (A)
SCATS flexion
.56* (A)
Strength:
(E) = Excellent
(A) = Adequate
PSFS = Penn Spasm Frequency Scale
~ Spearman Rank-Order Correlation
*Significant at P < 0.05
**Significant at P < 0.01
Content Validity:
Not Established
Face Validity:
Not Applicable
Floor/Ceiling Effects:
Not Established
Responsiveness:
Not Established
Considerations:
  • Further testing for reliability and responsiveness of SCATS is required (Hsieh at al, 2008)
  • SCATS differs from other measures as it assesses multijoint spasms, versus a single joint.
Do you see an error or have a suggestion for this instrument summary? Please e-mail us!
Bibliography:

Benz, E. N., Hornby, T. G., et al. (2005). "A physiologically based clinical measure for spastic reflexes in spinal cord injury." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86(1): 52-59. Find it on PubMed

Hsieh, J., Wolfe, D., et al. (2007). "Spasticity outcome measures in spinal cord injury: psychometric properties and clinical utility." Spinal Cord 46(2): 86-95. Find it on PubMed

Kumru, H., Murillo, N., et al. (2010). "Reduction of Spasticity With Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury." Neurorehabilitation and neural repair 24(5): 435. Find it on PubMed

Year published: 2007
Instrument in PDF Format: Yes


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A rare case of transverse vaginal septum

2016-08-16T09-45-26Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Vaishali Jain.
Transverse vaginal septum is a rare condition that results from incomplete fusion between the vaginal components of the mullerian ducts and the urogenital sinus. A patient presented with the complaint of aparunia. A pediatric Foley was inserted through a micro-fenestration in the septum. Distended bulb of pediatric Foley catheters used to safeguard inadvertent trauma to nearby structures and proper localization of septal thickness.


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Neglected volar barton fracture treated by two-stage procedure

2016-08-16T09-45-26Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Saurabh Jain, Anil Kumar Jain, Ish Kumar Dhammi.
Malunion following a neglected volar barton fracture can cause severe functional impairment owing to changes in normal anatomic and biomechanical relationships of the distal radius. These malunions, if mature can be treated by intra-articular osteotomies or the salvage procedures. But in nascent malunions, these procedures cannot be performed as the solid bony consolidation is absent and there is severe soft tissue contracture. In the present study, two-stage procedure was presented for the treatment of nascent neglected volar barton fracture presenting after 5 weeks, and treated primarily with gradual distraction and secondarily with open reduction and internal fixation with locked distal radius plate along with bone graft. Complete bony healing occurred in 6 months and Mayo wrist score improved from 31 to 85. At final follow-up after 2 years, visual and analog pain scores reduced from 68 to 11 and range of motion was 80 extension to 70 flexion along with near normal full grip strength along with mild wrist arthrosis. Surgical treatment of neglected fractures of distal radius can substantially improve wrist and hand functions, but rarely restores the limb to normal.


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EMTs rescue squirrel with a cup on its head



from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2bo6K5z
via IFTTT

EMTs rescue squirrel with a cup on its head



from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2bo6K5z
via IFTTT