Σάββατο, 3 Νοεμβρίου 2018

Controlled immobilization-traction based on intervertebral stability is conducive to the regeneration or repair of the degenerative disc

Previous studies have shown the potential for intervertebral disc tissue regeneration is very limited. While in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that traction can restore disc height and internal pressure, in many clinical studies it was shown that axial mechanical traction for the treatment of low back pain is ineffective.

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Concomitant therapy with direct-acting antivirals and chemoimmunotherapy in HCV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) is well established. Antiviral therapy (AVT) is the first line treatment for HCV-related indolent NHL whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) requires immediate start of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT), usually deferring AVT. However, an early HCV elimination may reduce the risk of CIT-induced liver toxicity and consequent CIT interruption or withdrawal. To date few data are available on safety and efficacy of concomitant administration of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) and CIT in HCV-associated DLBCL.

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Long-term follow-up of children and young adults with autoimmune hepatitis treated with cyclosporine

Cyclosporine (CSA) is an alternative treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), however, its unknown long-term safety and efficacy have limited its use.

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Concomitant therapy with direct-acting antivirals and chemoimmunotherapy in HCV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) is well established. Antiviral therapy (AVT) is the first line treatment for HCV-related indolent NHL whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) requires immediate start of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT), usually deferring AVT. However, an early HCV elimination may reduce the risk of CIT-induced liver toxicity and consequent CIT interruption or withdrawal. To date few data are available on safety and efficacy of concomitant administration of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) and CIT in HCV-associated DLBCL.

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Long-term follow-up of children and young adults with autoimmune hepatitis treated with cyclosporine

Cyclosporine (CSA) is an alternative treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), however, its unknown long-term safety and efficacy have limited its use.

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The forty years of medical genetics in China

Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018

Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics

Author(s): Lei Cai, Lan Alice Zheng, Lin He

Abstract

Medical genetics is the newest cutting-edge discipline that focuses on solving medical problems using genetics knowledge and methods. In China, medical genetics research activities initiated from a poor inner basis but a prosperous genetics development outer environment. During the 40 years of reform and opening-up policy, Chinese scientists contributed significantly in the field of medical genetics, garnering considerable attention worldwide. In this review, we highlight the significant findings and/or results discovered by Chinese scientists in monogenic diseases, complex diseases, cancer, genetic diagnosis, as well as gene manipulation and gene therapy. Due to these achievements, China is widely recognized to be at the forefront of medical genetics research and development. However, the significant progress and development that has been achieved could not have been accomplished without sufficient funding and a well-constructed logistics network. The successful implementation of translational medicine or precise medicine sourced from medical genetics will depend on a strong foundation based on an open ethic policy and strong support at the Chinese national industry level.



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Fruit fly research in China

Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018

Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics

Author(s): Ying Cheng, Dahua Chen

Abstract

Served as a model organism over a century, fruit fly has significantly pushed forward the development of global scientific research, including in China. The high similarity in genomic features between fruit fly and human enables this tiny insect to benefit the biomedical studies of human diseases. In the past decades, Chinese biologists have used fruit fly to make numerous achievements on understanding the fundamental questions in many diverse areas of biology. Here, we review some of the recent fruit fly studies in China, and mainly focus on those studies in the fields of stem cell biology, cancer therapy and regeneration medicine, neurological disorders and epigenetics.



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Antimicrobial proteins: intestinal guards to protect against liver disease

Abstract

Alterations of gut microbes play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of many disorders including liver and gastrointestinal diseases. Both qualitative and quantitative changes in gut microbiota have been associated with liver disease. Intestinal dysbiosis can disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier leading to pathological bacterial translocation and the initiation of an inflammatory response in the liver. In order to sustain symbiosis and protect from pathological bacterial translocation, antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) such as a-defensins and C-type lectins are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of AMPs in different chronic liver disease such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. In addition, potential approaches to modulate the function of AMPs and prevent bacterial translocation are discussed.



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Mechanistic insights into m6A RNA enzymes

Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Tina Lence, Chiara Paolantoni, Lina Worpenberg, Jean-Yves Roignant

Summary

The field of RNA modifications, so-called epitranscriptomics, has flourished over the past years owing to improvements of detection methods and the identification of important regulatory players. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in messenger (mRNA) and long non-coding (lncRNA), and controls most steps of RNA metabolism. Its physiological roles range from gametogenesis, stem cell differentiation to immunity, neuronal development and functions, while its alterations are associated with cancer development and progression. In this review we focus on the proteins that catalyze formation of m6A (also called writers) on RNA. Interestingly, distinct proteins deposit m6A on different classes of RNA, indicating that specific RNA features dictate recognition mechanisms. Associated factors and post-translational modifications can also alter m6A enzyme activity. A better understanding of the underlying regulation involved in m6A deposition is the first step towards developing tools for cancer therapy and for treatment of other m6A-associated diseases.



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m6A mRNA modification regulates mammalian spermatogenesis

Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Ming-Han Tong, Zhen Lin

Abstract

Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly specialized differentiation process involving precise regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels. Emerging evidence has shown that N6-methyladenosine (m6A), an epitranscriptomic regulator of gene expression, can influence pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, turnover, and translation, which are controlled in the male germline to ensure coordinated gene expression. In this review, we summarize the typical features of m6A RNA modification on mRNA during male germline development, and highlight the function of writers, erasers, and readers of m6A during mouse spermatogenesis.



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Determining the efficacy of the chin-down maneuver following esophagectomy with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing

Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Yoshihiko Kumai, Takumi Miyamoto, Keigo Matsubara, Yasuhiro Samejima, Naoya Yoshida

Objectives

To clarify the reliability of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) compared to videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs). Second, we explored the effect of the chin-down maneuver in the presence or absence of vocal fold paralysis (VFP) using FEES in patients with three-field lymphadenectomy (3FL) post-esophagectomy.

Design

Retrospective data collection from FEES and VFSS

Setting

Dysphagic clinics at ENT department.

Participants

Fifteen patients underwent esophagectomy with 3FL at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, during a period of 12 months.

Interventions

The patients underwent FEES and VFSS with neutral and chin-down maneuvers 2 weeks postoperatively. Two raters of speech pathology blindly scored aspiration, penetration, delayed initiation, and pharyngeal clearance in the pyriform sinus (PCPS) and vallecula, respectively, from recorded movie clips of both examinations, using the penetration aspiration scale (PAS) and modified Hyodo's FEES rating scale.

Main Outcome Measures

The intra- and inter-rater correlation coefficients of each parameter examined with FEES. Statistical comparison of each parameter between FEES and VFSS and of each parameter evaluated using FEES between two maneuvers with or without VFP.

Results

The intra- and inter-rater correlation coefficients of the PAS and PCPS examined with FEES were both statistically consistent between the two raters. The PAS and PCPS evaluated using FEES were significantly correlated with those evaluated in a VFSS (p<0.05). The two parameters evaluated using FEES were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the chin-down maneuver compared to the neutral maneuver, especially in VFP patients.

Conclusion

FEES performed post-esophagectomy with 3FL for evaluation of aspiration is as reliable statistically as VFSSs. The chin-down maneuver is especially useful for reducing the PAS score, and PCPS in VFP patients.



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Residual Disability, Mortality, and Nursing Home Placement after Hip Fracture over Two Decades

Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Danielle S. Abraham, Erik Barr, Glenn V. Ostir, J. Richard Hebel, Justine Golden, Ann L. Gruber-Baldini, Jack M. Guralnik, Marc C. Hochberg, Denise L. Orwig, Barbara Resnick, Jay S. Magaziner

ABSTRACT
Objective

To examine trends in 12-month post-fracture residual disability, nursing home placement, and mortality among patients with a hip fracture between 1990 and 2011.

Design

Secondary analysis of 12-month outcomes from three cohort studies and control arms of two randomized controlled trials.

Setting

Original studies were conducted as part of the Baltimore Hip Studies (BHS).

Participants

Community-dwelling patients ≥65 years of age hospitalized for surgical repair of a non-pathological hip fracture (n=988).

Main Outcomes

12-month residual disability, mortality, and nursing home residency were examined in case-mix adjusted models by sex and study. Residual disability was calculated by subtracting pre-fracture scores of Lower Extremity Physical Activities of Daily Living from scores at 12-months post fracture. We also examined the proportion of individuals with a 12-month score higher than their pre-fracture score (residual disability >0).

Results

Only small improvements were seen in residual disability between 1990 and 2011. No significant differences were seen for men between BHS2 (enrollment 1990-1991; mean residual disability=3.1 activities, 95% CI: 2.16, 4.10) and BHS7 (enrollment 2006-2011; mean=3.1 activities, 95% CI: 2.41, 3.82). In women, residual disability significantly improved from BHS2 (mean=3.5 activities, 95% CI: 2.95, 3.99) to BHS3 (enrollment 1992-1995; mean=2.7 activities, 95% CI: 2.01, 3.30) with no significant improvements in later studies. After adjustment, a substantial proportion (91% of men and 79% of women) had a negative outcome (residual disability, died, or nursing home residence at 12 months) in the most recently completed study (BHS7).

Conclusions

Over two decades, patients undergoing usual care post-hip fracture still had substantial residual disability. Additional clinical and research efforts are needed to determine how to improve hip fracture treatment, rehabilitation, and subsequent outcomes.



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Propulsive Forces Applied to the Body’s Center of Mass Affect Metabolic Energetics Post-Stroke

Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Kelly Penke, Korre Scott, Yunna Sinskey, Michael Lewek

Abstract
Objective

To investigate the effect of timing and magnitude of horizontally directed propulsive forces to the center of mass (COM) on the metabolic cost of walking for individuals following stroke.

Design

Repeated measures, within-subjects design

Setting

Research laboratory

Participants

Nine individuals with chronic hemiparesis post-stroke and seven unimpaired similarly aged controls

Intervention

Individuals walked on a treadmill in two separate studies. First, we compared the metabolic cost of walking with an anterior force applied to the COM that 1) coincided with paretic propulsion or 2) was applied throughout the gait cycle. Next, we compared the metabolic cost of walking with anterior (assistive) or posterior (resistive) forces applied during paretic propulsion.

Main Outcome Measure

metabolic cost of walking

Results

The cost of walking was significantly greater in the Stroke group. Anterior (propulsive) assistance reduced the cost of walking differently based on group. The Stroke group exhibited a 12% reduction in cost of walking when assistance was provided only during paretic propulsion, but not when assistance was provided throughout the gait cycle. In contrast, the Control group demonstrated reduced cost of walking during both anterior assistance conditions. In addition, we observed that resistance during paretic propulsion (simulated hemiparesis for Control group) significantly increased the cost of walking.

Conclusions

Systematically manipulating propulsive forces at the body's COM had a profound influence on metabolic cost. The timing of propulsive forces to the COM are important and need to coincide with paretic terminal stance. Additional internally or externally generated propulsive forces applied to the body's COM after stroke may produce a lower metabolic cost of walking.



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Ease of intubation and hemodynamic responses to nasotracheal intubation using C-MAC videolaryngoscope with D blade: A comparison with use of traditional Macintosh laryngoscope.

Related Articles

Ease of intubation and hemodynamic responses to nasotracheal intubation using C-MAC videolaryngoscope with D blade: A comparison with use of traditional Macintosh laryngoscope.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Jul-Sep;34(3):381-385

Authors: Rajan S, Kadapamannil D, Barua K, Tosh P, Paul J, Kumar L

Abstract
Background and Aims: Nasal intubation with traditional Macintosh laryngoscope usually needs the use of Magill's forceps or external laryngeal manipulation. The primary objective of this study was to assess the ease of intubation during C-MAC videolaryngoscope-assisted nasal intubation using D blade and to compare it with traditional Macintosh laryngoscope-aided nasal intubation. The secondary objectives were comparison of intubation time, attempts, trauma, and hemodynamic stress responses.
Material and Methods: Sixty patients requiring nasal intubation were randomized into two groups, M and V. Patients in both the groups received general anesthesia as per a standardized protocol. Laryngoscopy was performed using the traditional Macintosh laryngoscope in group M and with Storz® C-Mac videolaryngoscope with D-blade in group V. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and independent samples t-test were used as applicable for data analysis.
Results: Intubation was significantly easy in 70% of the patients in group V compared to only 3.3% in group M. Time to intubate was significantly shorter in group V (24 vs 68 s). Though majority of patients were intubated in the first attempt in both groups, the number was more in group V (96.7 vs 70%). There was no case of esophageal intubation in group V, but 2 patients (6.7%) had esophageal intubation in group M. Mucosal trauma was significantly more frequent in group M. There was no statistically significant difference in hemodynamics in both groups.
Conclusion: C MAC videolaryngoscope-aided nasotracheal intubation using D blade is superior in view of easier, quicker, and less traumatic intubation compared to the use of traditional Macintosh laryngoscope.

PMID: 30386024 [PubMed]



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Genetic association and differential expression of PITX2 with acute appendicitis

Abstract

Appendicitis affects 9% of Americans and is the most common diagnosis requiring hospitalization of both children and adults. We performed a genome-wide association study of self-reported appendectomy with 18,773 affected adults and 114,907 unaffected adults of European American ancestry. A significant association with appendectomy was observed at 4q25 near the gene PITX2 (rs2129979, p value = 8.82 × 10−14) and was replicated in an independent sample of Caucasians (59 affected, 607 unaffected; p value = 0.005). Meta-analysis of the associated variant across our two cohorts and cohorts from Iceland and the Netherlands (in which this association had previously been reported) showed strong cumulative evidence of association (OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09–1.14; p value = 1.81 × 10−23) and some evidence for effect heterogeneity (p value = 0.03). Eight other loci were identified at suggestive significance in the discovery GWAS. Associations were followed up by measuring gene expression across resected appendices with varying levels of inflammation (N = 75). We measured expression of 27 genes based on physical proximity to the GWAS signals, evidence of being targeted by eQTLs near the signals according to RegulomeDB (score = 1), or both. Four of the 27 genes (including PITX2) showed significant evidence (p values < 0.0033) of differential expression across categories of appendix inflammation. An additional ten genes showed nominal evidence (p value < 0.05) of differential expression, which, together with the significant genes, is more than expected by chance (p value = 6.6 × 10−12). PITX2 impacts morphological development of intestinal tissue, promotes an anti-oxidant response, and its expression correlates with levels of intestinal bacteria and colonic inflammation. Further studies of the role of PITX2 in appendicitis are warranted.



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Muscle Tenderness Score in Temporomandibular Disorders Patients:A Case‐Control Study

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Endogenous Pain Modulation in Chronic TMD: Derivation of Pain Modulation Profiles and Assessment of Its Relationship with Clinical Characteristics

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Evaluation of marginal and internal fit of acrylic bridges using optical coherence tomography

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Changes in masticatory performance of edentulous patients treated with single‐implant mandibular overdentures and conventional complete dentures

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Protein to Maximize Whole-Body Anabolism in Resistance-trained Females after Exercise

Introduction Current athlete-specific protein recommendations are based almost exclusively on research in males. Purpose Using the minimally-invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, we determined the daily protein intake that maximizes whole body protein synthesis and net protein balance after exercise in strength trained females. Methods Eight RT females (23 ± 3.5 y, 67.0 ± 7.7 kg, 163.3 ± 3.7 cm, 24.4 ± 6.9% body fat; mean ± SD) completed a 2-d controlled diet during the luteal phase prior to performing an acute bout of whole body resistance exercise. During recovery, participants consumed eight hourly meals providing a randomized test protein intake (0.2-2.9 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1) as crystalline amino acids modelled after egg protein, with constant phenylalanine (30.5 mg⋅kg-1⋅d-1) and excess tyrosine (40.0 mg⋅kg-1⋅d-1) intakes. Steady state whole body phenylalanine rate of appearance (Ra), oxidation (Ox; the reciprocal of protein synthesis, PS) and net protein balance (NB; PS - Ra) were determined from oral [13C] phenylalanine ingestion. Total protein oxidation was estimated from the urinary urea to creatinine ratio (U/Cr). Results A mixed model bi-phase linear regression revealed a breakpoint (i.e., estimated average requirement; EAR) in Ox (r2 = 0.64) of 1.49 ± 0.44 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1 (mean ± 95% CI) and NB (r2 = 0.65) of 1.53 ± 0.32 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1, indicating a saturation in whole body anabolism. U/Cr increased linearly with protein intake (r2 = 0.56, P

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Exercise Mode Specificity for Preserving Spine and Hip BMD in Prostate Cancer Patients

Purpose Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with an array of adverse effects including reduced bone mineral density (BMD) predisposing patients to increased fracture risk. Our purpose was to examine effects of targeted exercise modes on BMD in men with PCa undergoing ADT. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, 154 PCa patients aged 43-90 years on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ImpRes; n=57) supervised for 12 months, cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; AerRes; n=50) supervised for 6 months followed by a 6-month home-based program, or delayed aerobic exercise (DelAer, n=47) received exercise information for 6 months followed by 6 months of supervised aerobic exercise (stationary cycling). Endpoints were lumbar spine, hip and whole-body BMD measured by DXA with secondary endpoints of lean and fat mass, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and neuromuscular strength. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the exercise groups to DelAer at 6 and 12 months. Results There was a between-group difference in BMD for ImpRes and DelAer at the spine (6 months, p=0.039; 12 months, p=0.035) and femoral neck (6 months, p=0.050), with decline attenuated in ImpRes (~ -1.0% vs. ~ -2.0%). Compared to DelAer, ImpRes increased ASM at 6 months (0.3 kg, p=0.045) and improved muscle strength at 6 and 12 months (p≤0.012) by 9-34%. A limitation was inclusion of well-functioning patients. Conclusion Combined impact loading and resistance exercise attenuates bone loss at the spine and enhances overall musculoskeletal function in PCa patients undergoing ADT. Address for correspondence and reprint requests to: Robert U. Newton, PhD, Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 Australia. P: 61 8 6304 3443. Email: r.newton@ecu.edu.au This study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 534409, Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia (PCFA), Cancer Council of Western Australia and Cancer Council of Queensland. The sponsors did not participate in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. Daniel A. Galvão is funded by a Cancer Council Western Australia Research Fellowship. Suzanne Chambers is supported by an Australian Research Council Professorial Future Fellowship. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Robert U Newton, Daniel A. Galvão and Dennis R. Taaffe had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors had no conflict of interest, including relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations to declare relating to this manuscript. The results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. Submitted for publication February 2018. Accepted for publication October 2018. © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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Caffeine Augments the Prothrombotic but Not the Fibrinolytic Response to Exercise

Caffeine, a popular ergogenic supplement, induces neural and vascular changes that may influence coagulation and/or fibrinolysis at rest and during exercise. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a single dose of caffeine on measures of coagulation and fibrinolysis before and after a single bout of high intensity exercise. Methods 48 men (age 23 ± 3 years, BMI 24 ± 3 kg/m2) completed two trials, with 6 mg/kg of caffeine (CAFF) or placebo (PLAC), in random order, followed by a maximal cycle ergometer test. Plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, factor VIII antigen, active tissue plasminogen activator (tPA:c), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA:g), and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1:c) were assessed at baseline and immediately after exercise. Results Exercise led to significant changes in tPA:c (Δ 8.5 ± 4.36 IU/ml for CAFF, 6.6 ± 3.7 for PLAC), tPA:g (Δ 2.4 ± 3.2 ng/ml for CAFF, 1.9 ± 3.1 for PLAC), fibrinogen (Δ 30.6 ± 61.4 mg/dL for CAFF, 28.1 ± 66.4 for PLAC), and PAI-1:c (Δ -3.4 ± 7.9 IU/ml for CAFF, −4.0 ± 12.0 for PLAC) (all P

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Energy Flow Analysis to Investigate Youth Pitching Velocity and Efficiency

Purpose The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the transfer of energy through the kinetic chain by youth baseball pitchers during the pitching motion, and (2) to provide insight into how the total magnitude of energy flow and its linear and rotational components relate to both velocity and joint torque per unit increment of pitch velocity (joint load efficiency). Methods Twenty-four youth baseball pitchers participated in this study. Data collection occurred in an indoor research lab equipped with a 14-camera infrared motion capture system and an instrumented pitcher's mound with embedded force plates. Energy flow was calculated by integrating power transfer into and out of each segment. The magnitudes of key instances of energy flow were compared to pitch velocity and velocity-normalized joint torques using simple linear regressions. Results All of the energy flow variables calculated had a significant correlation to pitch velocity. Energy flow into the arm from the trunk had the strongest correlation to velocity of any variable investigated (r = 0.900, p = 0.000). The total magnitude of energy flow into the trunk had a significant correlation to increased horizontal shoulder adduction efficiency and shoulder internal rotation efficiency. The magnitude of energy flow into the trunk by only joint forces had a significant correlation to increased horizontal shoulder adduction efficiency, shoulder internal rotation efficiency, and elbow varus efficiency. Conclusion Energy flow analysis is an effective tool providing quantitative assessment of the kinetic chain to gain a deeper understanding of how energy moves through an athlete, and how specific pitching mechanics impact this movement. The results of this study support the importance of generating energy flow throughout the body to produce high velocities and energy flow through the trunk to increase pitch efficiency. Corresponding Author: Jacob Howenstein, 3507 Lindell Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63103, (317) 946-7830, jacob.howenstein@gmail.com There were no external funding sources or conflicts of interest relating to this study. The results of this study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The results of this study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. Accepted for Publication: 4 September 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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Advanced Age Redistributes Positive but Not Negative Leg Joint Work during Walking

Introduction Advanced age brings a distal-to-proximal redistribution of positive joint work during walking that is relevant to walking performance and economy. It is unclear whether negative joint work is similarly redistributed in old age. Negative work can affect positive work through elastic energy return in gait. We determined the effects of age, walking speed, and grade on positive and negative joint work in young and older adults. Methods Bilateral ground reaction force and marker data were collected from healthy young (age 22.5 years, n=18) and older (age 76.0 years, n=22) adults walking on a split-belt instrumented treadmill at 1.1, 1.4, and 1.7 m/s at each of three grades (0, 10, and -10%). Subjects also performed maximal voluntary eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions for the knee extensors (120, 90, 0°/s) and plantarflexors (90, 30, 0°/s). Results Compared to young adults, older adults exhibited a distal-to-proximal redistribution of positive leg joint work during level (p

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Respiratory Muscle Training in Patients with Stroke

No abstract available

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Altered functional connectivity of amygdala with the fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in temporal lobe lesion as a proposed mechanism for post-stroke depression

Objective Post-stroke depression (PSD) is an important complication that affects stroke rehabilitation. Abnormal cortical-subcortical connectivity may be associated with the development of PSD. However, few studies have focused on the emotional network of PSD in the temporal lobe lesions. This study was to investigate amygdala-cortical functional connectivity (FC) in the temporal lobe in individuals with and without PSD. Design Twenty-three patients with PSD and 21 stroke patients without depression were recruited to undergo functional magnetic imaging scanning. Results In stroke patients with depression, the left amygdala had increased FC with the bilateral precuneus and right orbital frontal lobe but decreased FC with the right putamen. The right amygdala had increased FC with the right temporal pole, right rectus gyrus, and left orbital frontal lobe but decreased FC with the right primary sensory area (S1). Correlative analyses revealed that the amygdala's FC with the right orbital frontal lobe, right insular cortex, and right cingulate cortex were correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) score. Conclusion The current study identified mood affected through the fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in PSD. Hyperconnectivity between the amygdala, default mode network, and salience network might be related to depressive symptoms, which may provide novel insight into the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of PSD in temporal lobe lesions. Corresponding author: Wu Wen, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, wuwen66@163.com. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC), China; Contract grant number: 81473769, 81772430. Clinical Research Foundation of Southern Medical University, China; Contract grant number: LC2016PY037. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Author Reply: The efficacy of bedside respiratory muscle training in patients with stroke A randomized controlled trial

No abstract available

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Uncoupling a unique couple by chopping off one of its tails in the KATP channels of the heart and pancreas

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Acute Cholangitis with Atypical Clinical Presentation and Imaging



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