Τετάρτη, 5 Δεκεμβρίου 2018

Correlation Analysis of MRI-based Graft Maturity and Outcomes after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using IKDC Score

Objective The correlation between the signal/noise quotient (SNQ) values of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form 2000 scores after ACL reconstruction was evaluated. Design Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical evaluation using IKDC scores were utilized to calculate the signal intensity of the graft maturity at the six-month and twelve-month follow-up points postoperatively. The associations between the SNQ values at the six-month follow-up point and IKDC scores at the twelve-month follow-up point were evaluated. Results A total of 42 male patients completed our trial and returned to normal activity level before the surgery. The mean age of these patients was 29.07 ± 8.11 years (range, 17-47 years). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.00 ± 2.59 kg/m2. Notably, the Pearson correlation analysis showed that the IKDC scores obtained at 12 months were significantly associated with the SNQ values measured in the 6th month and 12th month, respectively (r = -0.454, p = 0.003; r = -0.478, p = 0.001). Conclusion According to this study, early measurement of graft maturity might predict the clinical outcome afterwards. The sensitive predictive value of SNQ could be utilized to maximize the patient outcomes. Corresponding author: Nanxin Zhang, Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, No. 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350004, Fujian, China. E-mail: zhangnanxin2018@163.com. Tel: 0086-0591-87982113; Fax: 0086-0591-87982113. This study was supported by the Health special funds of Fujian provincial finance department (BPB-LQ2016), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian provincial science and Technology Department (2017J01283). Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Ultrasonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome severity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE To investigate the overall estimates of cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the median nerve measured by ultrasonography in accordance with the electrodiagnostic classification of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) severity. DESIGN MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Ovid), and Web of Science were searched for studies reporting the median nerve CSA measured by ultrasonography for mild, moderate and severe CTS based on electrodiagnostic study. CSA values measured at the carpal tunnel inlet were included in the analyses. RESULTS Overall, 866 citations were retrieved and checked for eligibility. Finally, 16 articles were included for meta-analysis. These studies included a total sample of 2,292 wrists including 776 mild, 823 moderate and 693 severe CTS. The pooled analysis revealed a mean CSA of 11.64 mm2 (95% CI: 11.23-12.05 mm2; P

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The Application of Blockchain Technology in Stroke Rehabilitation

No abstract available

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Response

No abstract available

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Strength reduction in unilateral shoulder pain: Is the healthy side really healthy in rotator cuff disease?

Objective The primary aim was to ascertain if unilateral shoulder pain is implicated in strength reduction both on the ipsilateral and contralateral side. Secondarily, we aimed to determine whether strength was affected by sonographic tendon abnormalities. Design A total of 122 subjects were evaluated. Sixty-six female subjects with unilateral shoulder pain in the dominant arm were recruited. Abduction strength was measured in both the dominant and non-dominant arm. High-resolution ultra-sonography was also conducted on both shoulders. A match-paired control group (n=66) composed of healthy volunteers underwent the same strength and sonography tests. Subjects with any radiographic anomaly were excluded from the control group. A mixed analysis of variance was performed to test the effect of unilateral shoulder pain on abduction strength. The effect of tendinopathy on shoulder strength was investigated using a mixed 2X2 ANOVA. Results ANOVA showed that patients with dominant shoulder pain had lower shoulder strength (11.65±4.05 kg) when compared to controls (14.37±4.00 kg; F=10.454, p=0,002). No statistically significant effects were found when comparing subjects with and without tendinopathy among the study group. Conclusion In patients with unilateral shoulder pain, abduction strength was found to be lower both on the ipsilateral and contralateral side. The presence of tendinopathy did not affect the reduction in strength. Future research is needed to substantiate these findings. Corresponding author: Valerio Sansone: valerio.sansone@unimi.it, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via Riccardo Galeazzi, 4, 20161 Milan, Italy. telephone: +39 6621 4921 Funding: No funding was received regarding the preparation of this manuscript. Declaration of Interest: The authors whose names are listed above certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Pain therapy for the elderly patient: is opioid-free an option?

Purpose of review Chronic noncancer pain is an increasing problem in elderly because of rising life expectancy together with an increase of potentially painful medical conditions. Concomitantly, adequate treatment of elderly is often limited by coexisting diseases and polypharmacy.This review summarizes the most important specifics presented by elderly patients and discusses the pharmacological and nonpharmacological options of pain management. Recent findings A comprehensive pain assessment is a prerequisite for effective pain management. However, this can be a major challenge in patients who are unable to communicate adequately, that is, in patients with dementia. A recently developed electronic tool assessing automated facial expression and clinical behavioral indicators may help to solve this problem. The discussion about benefits and harms of opioids in elderly goes on. Although some authors underline the lack of efficacy together with the potential problems, such as, abuse, others report a beneficial effect in terms of pain relief, functional activities and disability. In addition, opioids have become an important treatment option in patients with restless legs syndrome. Various topical treatment options (i.e. capsaicin patch) and nonpharmacological interventions have been proven to be beneficial in elderly. Summary Adequate pain management of elderly patients constitutes numerous pharmacological options including nonopioids, opioids, coanalgesics and topical agents. Due to age-related characteristics, all systemic analgesics have to be given very cautiously ('start low, go slow'). Whenever possible, treatment should be performed as a multimodal approach based on the biopsychosocial model of chronic pain. Correspondence to Shahnaz Christina Azad, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany. Tel: +49 89440074464; fax: +49 89440074469; e-mail: shahnaz.azad@med.uni-muenchen.de Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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A Very Oil Yellow1 Modifier of the Oil Yellow1-N1989 Allele Uncovers a Cryptic Phenotypic Impact of Cis-regulatory Variation in Maize

Forward genetics determines the function of genes underlying trait variation by identifying the change in DNA responsible for changes in phenotype. Detecting phenotypically-relevant variation outside protein coding sequences and distinguishing this from neutral variants is not trivial; partly because the mechanisms by which DNA polymorphisms in the intergenic regions affect gene regulation are poorly understood. Here we utilized a dominant genetic reporter to investigate the effect of cis and trans-acting regulatory variation. We performed a forward genetic screen for natural variation that suppressed or enhanced the semi-dominant mutant allele Oy1-N1989, encoding the magnesium chelatase subunit I of maize. This mutant permits rapid phenotyping of leaf color as a reporter for chlorophyll accumulation, and mapping of natural variation in maize affecting chlorophyll metabolism. We identified a single modifier locus segregating between B73 and Mo17 that was linked to the reporter gene itself, which we call very oil yellow1 (vey1). Based on the variation in OY1 transcript abundance and genome-wide association data, vey1 is predicted to consist of multiple cis-acting regulatory sequence polymorphisms encoded at the wild-type oy1 alleles. The vey1 locus appears to be a common polymorphism in the maize germplasm that alters the expression level of a key gene in chlorophyll biosynthesis. These vey1 alleles have no discernable impact on leaf chlorophyll in the absence of the Oy1-N1989 reporter. Thus, the use of a mutant as a reporter for magnesium chelatase activity resulted in the detection of expression-level polymorphisms not readily visible in the laboratory.



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Reading the palm with MUNIX: A ‘reversed split hand’ in spinal muscular atrophy

The split hand phenomenon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), first reported by Wilbourn and Sweeney (1994) and Wilbourn (2000), has proved a resilient clinical sign, although it is not always present in ALS (Wilbourn 2000; Menon et al, 2004), and it is occasionally found in other neuromuscular disorders (Wilbourn 2000; Kuwobara et al, 2008). It consists of marked atrophy of the thenar eminence (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles with relative sparing of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM).

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Lessons to apply: Welfare check incident became a LODD

NIOSH line of duty death investigation recommendations for conducting welfare checks are applicable to every EMS agency

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Gut microbiota dysbiosis worsens the severity of acute pancreatitis in patients and mice

Abstract

Background

The gut is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the infectious complications of AP are commonly associated with enteric bacteria, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participants in AP severity remains largely unknown.

Methods

We collected clinical information and fecal samples from 165 adult participants, including 41 with mild AP (MAP), 59 with moderately severe AP (MSAP), 30 with severe AP (SAP) and 35 healthy controls (HC). The serum inflammatory cytokines and gut barrier indexes were detected. Male C57BL/6 mice with AP were established and injuries of pancreas were evaluated in antibiotic-treated mice, germ-free mice as well as those transplanted with fecal microbiota. The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

Results

The structure of gut microbiota was significantly different between AP and HC, and the disturbed microbiota was closely correlated with systematic inflammation and gut barrier dysfunction. Notably, the microbial composition changed further with the worsening of AP and the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Blautia was decreased in SAP compared with MAP and MSAP. The increased capacity for the inferred pathway, bacterial invasion of epithelial cells in AP, highly correlated with the abundance of EscherichiaShigella. Furthermore, the antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice exhibited alleviated pancreatic injury after AP induction and subsequent fecal microbiota transplantation in turn exacerbated the disease.

Conclusions

This study identifies the gut microbiota as an important mediator during AP and its dysbiosis is associated with AP severity, which suggests its role as potential therapeutic target.



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Calif. ambulance company owner wins EMT of the Year honors

Medic Ambulance's Jimmy Pierson was among 33 Californians to be honored for their heroic acts and extraordinary contributions to EMS

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Corrigendum



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Histone demethylase UTX is a therapeutic target for diabetic kidney disease

Key points

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major complication of diabetes. We found that UTX, a histone demethylase, was upregulated in the renal mesangial and tubular cells of diabetic mice and DKD patients. In cultured renal mesangial and tubular cells, UTX overexpression promoted palmitic acid‐induced elevation of inflammation and DNA damage; while UTX knockdown or GSK‐J4 treatment showed the opposite effects. We found that UTX demethylase activity‐dependently regulated the transcription of inflammatory genes and apoptosis; moreover, UTX bound with p53 and p53‐dependently exacerbated DNA damage. Administration of GSK‐J4, an H3K27 demethylase inhibitor, ameliorated the diabetes‐induced renal abnormalities in db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. These results revealed the possible mechanisms underlying the regulation of histone methylation in DKD and suggested UTX as a potential therapeutic target for DKD.

Abstract

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end‐stage kidney disease (ESRD) worldwide without effective therapy available. Ubiquitously Transcribed Tetratricopeptide Repeat on chromosome X (UTX, also known as KDM6A), a histone demethylase which removes the di‐ and tri‐methyl groups from histone H3K27, plays important biological roles in gene activation, cell fate control, C. elegans life span regulation. Here, we report upregulated UTX in the kidneys of diabetic mice and DKD patients. Administration of GSK‐J4, an H3K27 demethylase inhibitor, ameliorated the diabetes‐induced renal dysfunction, abnormal morphology, inflammation, apoptosis and DNA damage in db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. In cultured renal mesanglial and tubular cells, UTX overexpression promoted palmitic acid induced elevation of inflammation and DNA damage; while UTX knockdown or GSK‐J4 treatment showed the opposite effects. Mechanistically, we found that UTX demethylase activity‐dependently regulated the transcription of inflammatory genes; moreover, UTX bound with p53 and p53‐dependently exacerbated DNA damage. Collectively, our results suggest UTX as a potential therapeutic target for DKD.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Na+/H+ exchanger type‐1: a shepherd for cellular transhumance



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Cold weather response tips for EMS

While great for sports, cold and snow present risks to EMS folks. Take these extra precautions if responding in such conditions.

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Paramedic - FT - Bagley, MN - Sanford Health EMS

Responds immediately to emergency calls; provides medical support and care for patients in the pre-hospital environment. Assesses emergency medical calls to identify patient needs and requirements and to determine best course of action. Provides advanced medical care and basic life support service to patients, using appropriate medical equipment, devices and treatment modalities. Communicates with receiving ...

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Emergency Medical Technician - PT - Thief River Falls, MN - Sanford Health EMS

If helping others is your passion, work with an employer that takes pride in its employees, the patient care that they help provide, and the excellence each individual brings. - Provide high quality out-of-hospital care - Respond to emergency and non-emergency ambulance calls - Transport patients promptly, efficiently, and professionally. - Staff 911 shifts, special events, and long distance transfers ...

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Emergency Medical Technician - FT - Thief River Falls, MN - Sanford Health EMS

If helping others is your passion, work with an employer that takes pride in its employees, the patient care that they help provide, and the excellence each individual brings. - Provide high quality out-of-hospital care - Respond to emergency and non-emergency ambulance calls - Transport patients promptly, efficiently, and professionally. - Staff 911 shifts, special events, and long distance transfers ...

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Emergency Medical Technician - PRN - Luverne, MN - Sanford Health EMS

Must possess the basic knowledge and skills necessary to stabilize and safely transport patients in non-emergency and in life-threatening emergencies. Perform interventions with equipment typically found on an ambulance. Responsible for the delivery of emergency patient care. Competent in trauma and medical situations, both pre-hospital and in the clinical setting. Possess a basic knowledge and the ...

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Paramedic - FT - Luverne, MN - Sanford Health EMS

Paramedics provide advanced medical care to patients. Individuals must have the complex knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Paramedics may need to assist and give direction to additional EMS Responders at the scene and/or during transport. Paramedics must be competent in trauma and medical situations and should possess the knowledge and the necessary skills to ...

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Emergency Medical Responder - PRN - Wheaton, MN - Sanford Health EMS

**JOB SUMMARY** Responsible for the delivery of emergency patient care. Must be competent in trauma and medical situations, both pre-hospital and in the clinical setting.

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Emergency Medical Technician - PRN - Wheaton, MN - Sanford Health EMS

**JOB SUMMARY** Responds to an emergency call, assesses the situation, diagnoses and treats patients for emergency needs; reports patient information to medical staff in a timely and accurate manner. Obtains a basic medical history and physical examination of the patient, and assesses the situation's urgency and seriousness. Provides emergency care at the scene and during transit to the hospital. Utilizes ...

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Emergency Medical Technician - PRN - Canby, MN - Sanford Health EMS

Must possess the basic knowledge and skills necessary to stabilize and safely transport patients in non-emergency and in life-threatening emergencies. Perform interventions with equipment typically found on an ambulance. Responsible for the delivery of emergency patient care. Competent in trauma and medical situations, both pre-hospital and in the clinical setting. Possess a basic knowledge and the ...

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Paramedic - PT - Thief River Falls, MN - Sanford Health EMS

Paramedics provide advanced medical care to patients. Individuals must have the complex knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Paramedics may need to assist and give direction to additional EMS Responders at the scene and/or during transport. Paramedics must be competent in trauma and medical situations and should possess the knowledge and the necessary skills to ...

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Paramedic - FT - Thief River Falls, MN - Sanford Health EMS

Paramedics provide advanced medical care to patients. Individuals must have the complex knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Paramedics may need to assist and give direction to additional EMS Responders at the scene and/or during transport. Paramedics must be competent in trauma and medical situations and should possess the knowledge and the necessary skills to ...

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Mom meets paramedics who saved baby after premature birth

When baby Leo was discharged from the NICU after a four-month stay, mother Yazmeen Tuskan stopped by the fire station to say "thank you"

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Expanding clinical phenotype in CACNA1C related disorders: From neonatal onset severe epileptic encephalopathy to late‐onset epilepsy

CACNA1C (NM_000719.6) encodes an L‐type calcium voltage‐gated calcium channel (Cav1.2), and pathogenic variants have been associated with two distinct clinical entities: Timothy syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Thus far, CACNA1C has not been reported as a gene associated with epileptic encephalopathy and is less commonly associated with epilepsy. We report three individuals from two families with variants in CACNA1C. Patient 1 presented with neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy (NOEE) and was found to have a de novo missense variant in CACNA1C (c.4087G>A (p.V1363M)) on exome sequencing. In Family 2, Patient 2 presented with congenital cardiac anomalies and cardiomyopathy and was found to have a paternally inherited splice site variant, c.3717+1_3717+2insA, on a cardiomyopathy panel. Her father, Patient 3, presented with learning difficulties, late‐onset epilepsy, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Family 2 highlights variable expressivity seen within a family. This case series expands the clinical and molecular phenotype of CACNA1C‐related disorders and highlights the need to include CACNA1C on epilepsy gene panels.



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Novel truncating mutation in TENM3 in siblings with motor developmental delay, ocular coloboma, oval cornea, without microphthalmia



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Combined CNV, haplotyping and whole exome sequencing enable identification of two distinct novel EYS mutations causing RP in a single inbred tribe

Abstract

Whole exome sequencing (WES) has become routine in clinical practice, especially in studies of recessive hereditary diseases in inbred consanguineous families, where homozygosity of a founder mutation is assumed. Multiple members of two consanguineous families of a single Bedouin tribe were diagnosed with apparently autosomal recessive/pseudo‐dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Affected individuals exhibited severe visual impairment with nyctalopia, marked constriction of visual fields, markedly reduced and delayed responses on electro‐retinography (ERG) and eventual loss of central vision. Combined copy‐number variant (CNV) analysis, haplotype reconstruction and WES of the kindred identified two distinct novel mutations in EYS (RP25): a p.(W1817*) nonsense mutation (identified through WES) and a large deletion encompassing 9 of the 43 exons, that was missed by WES and was identified through microarray CNV analysis. Segregation analysis of both mutations demonstrated that all affected individuals were either homozygous for one of the mutations, or compound heterozygous for both. The two mutations are predicted to cause loss of function of the encoded protein and were not present in screening of 200 ethnically‐matched controls. Our findings of two distinct mutations in the same gene in a single inbred kindred, identified only through combined WES and microarray CNV analysis, highlight the limitations of either CNV or WES alone, as the heterozygous deletion had normal WES read‐depth values. Moreover, they demonstrate pitfalls in homozygosity mapping for disease‐causing variant identification in inbred communities.



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Prenatal and postnatal presentation of PRMT7 related syndrome: Expanding the phenotypic manifestations

Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S‐adenosyl‐l‐methionine to nitrogen atoms on arginine residues. Arginine methylation is involved in multiple biological processes, such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, DNA repair, and protein translocation. Currently, 10 patients have been described with mutations in PRMT7. The shared findings include: hypotonia, intellectual disability, short stature, brachydactyly, and mild dysmorphic features. We describe the prenatal, postnatal, and pathological findings in two male sibs homozygote for a mutation in PRMT7. Both had intrauterine growth restriction involving mainly the long bones. In addition, eye tumor was found in the first patient, and nonspecific brain calcifications and a systemic venous anomaly in the second. The pregnancy of the first child was terminated and we describe the autopsy findings. The second child had postnatal growth restriction of prenatal onset, hypotonia, strabismus, sensorineural hearing loss, genitourinary and skeletal involvement, and global developmental delay. He had dysmorphic features that included frontal bossing, upslanting palpebral fissures, small nose with depressed nasal bridge, and pectus excavatum. Our patients provide additional clinical and pathological data and expand the phenotypic manifestations associated with PRMT7 homozygote/compound heterozygote mutations to include brain calcifications and delayed myelination, and congenital orbital tumor.



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Correction to: Validation of a virtual intracorporeal suturing simulator

The surname of Sreekanth Arikatla incorrectly appeared as Sreekanth Artikala.



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In reply: Use of low-molecular weight dextran as an LA adjuvant to extend LA action



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Pulsara selected as winner of the 2018 EMS World Innovation Award

EMS World pegs Pulsara's cutting edge communication solution as the winner at EMS World Expo in Nashville. BOZEMAN, Mont. — Pulsara has repeatedly been recognized as a leading innovator in mobile healthcare communications and has recently garnered the distinction of receiving the 2018 EMS World Innovation Award. Identified as a finalist earlier this fall, Pulsara received the winning...

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Emergency Medical Technician - Sanford Health EMS

**JOB SUMMARY** Responds to an emergency call, assesses the situation, diagnoses and treats patients for emergency needs; reports patient information to medical staff in a timely and accurate manner. Obtains a basic medical history and physical examination of the patient, and assesses the situation's urgency and seriousness. Provides emergency care at the scene and during transit to the hospital. Utilizes ...

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Emergency Medical Technician - Sanford Health EMS

Must possess the basic knowledge and skills necessary to stabilize and safely transport patients in non-emergency and in life-threatening emergencies. Perform interventions with equipment typically found on an ambulance. Responsible for the delivery of emergency patient care. Competent in trauma and medical situations, both pre-hospital and in the clinical setting. Possess a basic knowledge and the ...

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Paramedic - Sanford Health EMS

Paramedics provide advanced medical care to patients. Individuals must have the complex knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Paramedics may need to assist and give direction to additional EMS Responders at the scene and/or during transport. Paramedics must be competent in trauma and medical situations and should possess the knowledge and the necessary skills to ...

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Paramedic - Sanford Health EMS

Paramedics provide advanced medical care to patients. Individuals must have the complex knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Paramedics may need to assist and give direction to additional EMS Responders at the scene and/or during transport. Paramedics must be competent in trauma and medical situations and should possess the knowledge and the necessary skills to ...

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4 questions to answer before purchasing a specialty EMS vehicle

Agencies should take into consideration local terrain, potential hazards and future needs before purchasing a specialty EMS vehicle

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The emerging impact of tRNA modifications in the brain and nervous system

Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Jillian Ramos, Dragony Fu

Abstract

A remarkable number of neurodevelopmental disorders have been linked to defects in tRNA modifications. These discoveries place tRNA modifications in the spotlight as critical modulators of gene expression pathways that are required for proper organismal growth and development. Here, we discuss the emerging molecular and cellular functions of the diverse tRNA modifications linked to cognitive and neurological disorders. In particular, we describe how the structure and location of a tRNA modification influences tRNA folding, stability, and function. We then highlight how modifications in tRNA can impact multiple aspects of protein translation that are instrumental for maintaining proper cellular proteostasis. Importantly, we describe how perturbations in tRNA modification lead to a spectrum of deleterious biological outcomes that can disturb neurodevelopment and neurological function. Finally, we summarize the biological themes shared by the different tRNA modifications linked to cognitive disorders and offer insight into the future questions that remain to decipher the role of tRNA modifications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: mRNA modifications in gene expression control edited by Dr. Soller Matthias and Dr. Fray Rupert.



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The mammalian mitochondrial epitranscriptome

Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Pedro Rebelo-Guiomar, Christopher A. Powell, Lindsey Van Haute, Michal Minczuk

Abstract

Correct expression of the mitochondrially-encoded genes is critical for the production of the components of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. Post-transcriptional modifications of mitochondrial transcripts have been emerging as an important regulatory feature of mitochondrial gene expression. Here we review the current knowledge on how the mammalian mitochondrial epitranscriptome participates in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis. In particular, we focus on the latest breakthroughs made towards understanding the roles of the modified nucleotides in mitochondrially-encoded ribosomal and transfer RNAs, the enzymes responsible for introducing these modifications and on recent transcriptome-wide studies reporting modifications to mitochondrial messenger RNAs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: mRNA modifications in gene expression control edited by Dr. Soller Matthias and Dr. Fray Rupert.



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Letters To the Editor

Radiation Research, Volume 190, Issue 6, Page 650-653, December 2018.


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Exposure to ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n 56Fe Particles Impairs Rule Acquisition but not Long-Term Memory in the Attentional Set-Shifting Assay

Radiation Research, Volume 190, Issue 6, Page 565-575, December 2018.


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Acute stress modifies oscillatory indices of affective processing: Insight on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders

Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Elizabeth Andersen, Alana Campbell, Susan Girdler, Kelly Duffy, Aysenil Belger

Abstract
Objective

The current study evaluated the differential impact of acute psychosocial stress exposure on oscillatory correlates of affective processing in control participants and patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ) to elucidate the stress-mediated pathway to psychopathology.

Methods

EEG was recorded while 21 control participants and 21 patients with SCZ performed emotional framing tasks (assessing a key aspect of emotion regulation (ER)) before and after a laboratory stress challenge (Trier Social Stress Test). EEG spectral perturbations evoked in response to neutral and aversive stimuli (presented with positive or negative contextual cues) were extracted in theta (4-8Hz) and beta (12-30Hz) frequencies.

Results

Patients demonstrated aberrant theta and beta oscillatory activity, with impaired frontal theta-mediated framing and beta-derived motivated attention processes relative to controls. Following stress exposure, controls exhibited impaired frontal theta-mediated emotional framing, similar to the oscillatory profile observed in patients before stress.

Conclusions

The acute stress-induced oscillatory changes observed in controls were persistently present in patients, indicating an inefficiency of fronto-limbic adaptation to stress exposure.

Significance

Results provide novel insight on the electrophysiological correlates of arousal and affect regulation, which are core homogeneous symptom dimensions shared across neuropsychiatric disorders, and shed light on putative mechanisms in the translation of stress into psychopathology.



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4 questions to answer before purchasing a specialty EMS vehicle

Agencies should take into consideration local terrain, potential hazards and future needs before purchasing a specialty EMS vehicle

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Usefulness of transabdominal ultrasonography for assessing ulcerative colitis: a prospective, multicenter study

Abstract

Background

Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) has been reported to be a useful tool for evaluating ulcerative colitis (UC) although with less well-established data than for Crohn's disease. This prospective multicenter study aimed to establish the usefulness of US compared with colonoscopy (CS) for assessing disease extent and activity of UC.

Methods

Altogether, 173 patients with UC were prospectively enrolled, among whom 156 were eligible for this study. All patients underwent US and CS within 2 days at five facilities. We divided the colon into six segments and examined each segment and the rectum using US and CS. US severity was graded 1–4 regarding bowel wall thickness, stratification, and ulceration. CS severity was also graded 1–4 according to Matts' endoscopic classification. Concordance between US and CS grades for all colonic segments was analyzed using kappa statistics. US and CS findings were also compared with the clinical disease activity index (CAI) and histological grade using Spearman's correlation coefficient.

Results

There was moderate concordance between US and CS grades in all colonic segments (weighted κ = 0.55, p < 0.001). Concordance was rated moderate for each colonic segment but only slight for the rectum. The US grade was significantly correlated with the CAI score (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) and histological grade (r = 0.35, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

This prospective multicenter study showed moderate concordance between US and CS for assessing the disease activity of UC. Hence, US may be used more generally for evaluating UC in daily clinical practice.



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Efficacy and safety of induction therapy with calcineurin inhibitors in combination with vedolizumab in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after curative resection: Outcome, prognostic factor, and recurrence

BMC Gastroenterology

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Policy Impacts of the Australian National Perinatal Depression Initiative: Psychiatric Admission in the First Postnatal Year

Abstract

This paper helps to quantify the impact of the Australian National Perinatal Depression Initiative (NPDI) on postnatal inpatient psychiatric hospitalisation. Based on individual hospital admissions data from New South Wales and Western Australia, we found that the NPDI reduced inpatient psychiatric hospital admission by up to 50% [0.9% point reduction (95% CI 0.70–1.22)] in the first postnatal year. The greatest reduction was observed for adjustment disorders. The NPDI appears to be associated with fewer post-birth psychiatric disorders hospital admissions; this suggests earlier detection of psychiatric disorders resulting in early care of women at risk during their perinatal period.



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Endoscopy Is Relatively Safe in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

Abstract

Background

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH) is reported to occur in 1–8% of patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). AIS is considered to be a relative contraindication to GIE.

Aims

Evaluate the outcomes of gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) in patients hospitalized with AIS and GIH.

Methods

Patients hospitalized with AIS and GIH were included from the National Inpatient Sample 2005–2014. Primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality in patients with AIS and GIH who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy. Secondary outcomes were (1) resource utilization as measured by length of stay (LOS) and total hospitalization costs and (2) to identify independent predictors of undergoing GIE in patients with AIS and GIH. Confounders were adjusted for by using multivariable regression analysis.

Results

A total of 75,756 hospitalizations were included in the analysis. Using a multivariate analysis, the in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients who underwent GIE as compared to those who did not [aOR: 0.4, P < 0.001]. Patients who underwent GIE also had significantly shorter adjusted mean LOS [adjusted mean difference in LOS: 0.587 days, P < 0.001]. Patients with AIS and GIH who did not undergo GIE had significantly higher adjusted total hospitalization costs. [Mean adjusted difference in total hospitalization costs was $5801 (P < 0.001).] Independent predictors of undergoing GIE in this population were male gender, age > 65 years, Asian or Pacific race, hypovolemic shock, need for blood transfusion and admission to urban non-teaching hospital.

Conclusions

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can be safely performed in a substantial number of patients with AIS and GIH.



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