Παρασκευή, 13 Ιουλίου 2018

Effects of Two Hours of Heavy-Intensity Exercise on the Power–Duration Relationship

imageIntroduction Changes in the parameters of the power–time relationship (critical power (CP) and W′) during endurance exercise would have important implications for performance. We tested the hypotheses that CP and W′, estimated using the end-test power (EP) and the work done above EP (WEP), respectively, during a the 3-min all-out test (3MT), can be reliably determined, and would be lower, after completing 2 h of heavy-intensity exercise. Methods In study 1, six cyclists completed a 3MT immediately after 2 h of heavy-intensity exercise on two occasions to establish the reliability of EP and WEP. In study 2, nine cyclists completed a control 3MT, and a fatigued 3MT and constant power output tests to 30 min or the limit of tolerance (Tlim) below and above F-EP after 2 h of heavy-intensity exercise. Results In study 1, EP (273 ± 52 vs 276 ± 58 W) and WEP (12.4 ± 4.3 vs 12.8 ± 4.3 kJ) after 2 h of heavy-intensity exercise were not different (P > 0.05) and were highly correlated (r = 0.99; P F-EP and Tlim was shorter than 30 min during exercise

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Response

No abstract available

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High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Increases Anabolic Signaling

imagePurpose Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. Methods Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men, 5 women) received an acute bout of LF-NMES (20 Hz) and HF-NMES (60 Hz). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before the first NMES treatment and 30 min after each NMES treatment. Phosphorylation of the following key anabolic signaling proteins was measured by Western blot, and proteins are expressed as a ratio of phosphorylated to total: mammalian target of rapamycin, p70-S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1. Results Compared with pre-NMES, phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin was upregulated 40.2% for LF-NMES (P = 0.018) and 68.4% for HF-NMES (P 0.05). There were no differences between treatment conditions for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation (P > 0.05). Conclusions An acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES upregulated anabolic signaling with HF-NMES producing a greater anabolic response compared with LF-NMES, suggesting that HF stimulation may provide a stronger stimulus for processes that initiate muscle hypertrophy. In addition, the stimulation frequency parameter should be considered by clinicians in the design of optimal NMES treatment protocols.

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Dehydration Impairs Cycling Performance, Independently of Thirst: A Blinded Study

imagePurpose The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. Methods Seven male cyclists (weight, 72 ± 9 kg; body fat, 14% ± 6%; peak oxygen uptake, 59.4 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1) exercised for 2 h on a cycle ergometer at 55% peak oxygen uptake, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity), with a nasogastric tube under euhydrated–non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated–non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL of water every 5 min (300 mL·h−1). In the EUH-NT trial, sweat losses were fully replaced by water via the nasogastric tube (calculated from the familiarization trial). After the 2 h of steady state, the subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial at 4% grade. Results Body mass loss for the EUH-NT and DEH-NT after the 2 h was −0.2% ± 0.6% and −2.2% ± 0.4%, whereas after the 5-km time trial, it was −0.7% ± 0.5% and 2.9% ± 0.4%, respectively. Thirst (35 ± 30 vs 42 ± 31 mm) and stomach fullness (46 ± 21 vs 35 ± 20 mm) did not differ at the end of the 2 h of steady state between EUH-NT and DEH-NT trials (P > 0.05). Subjects cycled faster during the 5-km time trial in the EUH-NT trial compared with the DEH-NT trial (23.2 ± 1.5 vs 22.3 ± 1.8 km·h−1, P 0.05). Conclusions These data indicated that hypohydration decreased cycling performance and impaired thermoregulation independently of thirst, while the subjects were unaware of their hydration status.

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Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training in Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

imagePurpose This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a 12-wk combined functional anaerobic and strength training program on neuromuscular properties and functional capacity in young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy. Methods A total of 17 young adults (21 ± 4 yr, 9 males, Gross Motor Function Classification System I = 11 and II = 6) were randomized to 12 wk, 3 sessions per week, of high-intensity functional anaerobic and progressive resistance training of the lower limbs (n = 8), or a waitlist control group (n = 9). Pre- and posttraining plantarflexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes and composition, passive and active plantarflexor muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes were assessed. Results The training group had higher values compared with the control group (adjusted mean difference) at 12 wk for the following: more- and less-impaired total plantarflexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes, maximum isometric plantarflexion strength, muscle power sprint test peak power, agility shuttle time, composite functional strength score, and 6-min walk test distance. The change in total plantarflexor muscle volume was associated with the change in plantarflexor muscle strength. There were relationships between the change in plantarflexor muscle strength and the change in functional capacity outcomes (functional strength; 6-min walk test). Conclusions Combined functional anaerobic and strength training increased muscle size, strength, and functional capacity in young adults with cerebral palsy. The addition of anaerobic training to progressive resistance training programs assists in the transfer to improved functional capacity.

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Neuromuscular Dysfunction and Cortical Impairment in Sleep Apnea Syndrome

imagePurpose Lower muscle strength and endurance have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased intracortical inhibition previously reported at rest in OSA suggests central neuromuscular impairments in these patients. We hypothesized that (i) OSA patients demonstrate reduced knee extensor strength and endurance due to central impairments and (ii) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improves neuromuscular function in these patients. Methods Twelve OSA patients and 11 healthy controls performed intermittent knee extensions until task failure before and after 8 wk of CPAP treatment or control period. Maximal voluntary contraction, voluntary activation and corticospinal excitability and inhibition assessed by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were measured before and during the fatiguing task. Results Time to exhaustion was lower in OSA (before CPAP treatment: 1008 ± 549 s; after CPAP treatment: 975 ± 378 s) compared with controls (before control period: 1476 ± 633 s; after control period: 1274 ± 506 s; P = 0.017). Obstructive sleep apnea patients had reduced maximal voluntary contraction and VATMS compared with controls throughout the fatiguing task as well as increased intracortical inhibition (all P 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusions This study demonstrates that severe OSA patients have cortical impairments which are likely contributing to their reduced knee extensors strength and endurance. Both cortical impairments and neuromuscular function are not improved after 8 wk of CPAP treatment.

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Impaired Trunk Flexor Strength, Fatigability, and Steadiness in Postpartum Women

imagePurpose To determine whether postpartum women (vaginal and cesarean delivery) have deficits in trunk flexor strength, fatigability and steadiness, compared with nulligravid women, up to 26 wk postpartum. We hypothesized that postpartum women would be weaker, more fatigable, and have greater torque fluctuations than controls, with cesarean delivery showing greater deficits than vaginal delivery. Methods Twenty-two control women (nulligravid) and 29 postpartum women (20–40 yr, 19 who delivered via vaginal birth, 13 via Caesarian section) participated. Postpartum women were tested 8 to 10 wk and 24 to 26 wk postpartum. Control women were tested 16 to 18 wk apart. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) were performed at multiple trunk positions with the trunk flexor muscles. To determine trunk flexor fatigability, subjects performed intermittent isometric contractions at 50% MVC (6-s contraction, 4-s rest) in upright sitting until task failure. An MVC was performed during the fatiguing task (one per minute) and at 10 and 20 min of recovery. Results At 8 and 26 wk, postpartum women (groups pooled) were weaker at all trunk angles (38% and 44% respectively, P

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Continuous Glucose Monitoring at High Altitude—Effects on Glucose Homeostasis

imagePurpose Exposure to high altitude has been shown to enhance both glucose and lipid utilization depending on experimental protocol. In addition, high and low blood glucose levels have been reported at high altitude. We hypothesized that gradual ascent to high altitude results in changes in glucose levels in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-five adult volunteers, split into two teams, took part in the British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition completing 14 d of trekking around the Dhaulagiri circuit in Nepal reaching a peak altitude of 5300 m on day 11 of the trek. Participants wore blinded continuous glucose monitors (CGM) throughout. Blood samples for C-peptide, proinsulin, and triacylglycerides were taken at sea level (United Kingdom) and in acclimatization camps at 3600, 4650, and 5120 m. Energy intake was determined from food diaries. Results There was no difference in time spent in hypoglycemia stratified by altitude. Nocturnal CGM readings (2200–0600 h) were chosen to reduce the short-term effect of physical activity and food intake and showed a significant (P

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Caffeine, CYP1A2 Genotype, and Endurance Performance in Athletes

imagePurpose Many studies have examined the effect of caffeine on exercise performance, but findings have not always been consistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether variation in the CYP1A2 gene, which affects caffeine metabolism, modifies the ergogenic effects of caffeine in a 10-km cycling time trial. Methods Competitive male athletes (n = 101; age = 25 ± 4 yr) completed the time trial under three conditions: 0, 2, or 4 mg of caffeine per kilogram body mass, using a split-plot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design. DNA was isolated from saliva and genotyped for the −163A > C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene (rs762551). Results Overall, 4 mg·kg−1 caffeine decreased cycling time by 3% (mean ± SEM) versus placebo (17.6 ± 0.1 vs 18.1 ± 0.1 min, P = 0.01). However, a significant (P

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The Effectiveness of Standing on a Balance Board for Increasing Energy Expenditure

imagePurpose This study aimed to investigate differences in energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), productivity, fatigue, and pain while performing desk work while sitting (SIT), standing (STAND), and standing on a balance board (BOARD). Methods Thirty healthy adults (60% female, age = 39.7 ± 11.8 yr, body mass index = 26.7 ± 5.0 kg·m−2) employed in sedentary-based jobs volunteered for this randomized crossover trial. Participants performed typing work in three different positions: SIT, STAND, and BOARD, each condition lasting 30 min. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2) was measured via indirect calorimetry, and EE was calculated using respiratory quotient and corresponding caloric equivalent values. Productivity was quantified by measuring words typed per minute, accuracy, and typing mistakes. Overall feelings of fatigue and pain were self-reported three times during each position using validated 10-cm visual analog scales. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences in outcome variables across conditions. Results V˙O2 was significantly different among all conditions regardless of current standing desk use (SIT = 3.35 ± 0.53, STAND = 3.77 ± 0.48, BOARD = 3.92 ± 0.54 mL·kg−1·min−1, P 0.05). Fatigue progressively increased over each 30-min condition, whereas pain in SIT and BOARD increased from minute 10 to minute 20 and then leveled off between minutes 20 and 30. For STAND, pain continued to increase over time. Conclusion Compared with sitting, a balance board may be effective for increasing EE without interfering with productivity in an occupational setting.

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Acute Effect of Noradrenergic Modulation on Motor Output Adjustment in Men

imagePurpose To determine the role of noradrenergic modulation in the control of motor output, we compared the acute effect of reboxetine (REB), a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, to a placebo (PLA) on knee extensors motor performance and cortical and spinal excitability. Methods Eleven young men took part in two randomized experiments during which they received either 8 mg of REB or a PLA. The torque produced during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and its variability (i.e., coefficient of variation) during submaximal contractions ranging from 5% to 50% MVC were measured. Paired electrical (PES) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were used to assess changes in voluntary activation during MVC, and corticospinal (motor-evoked potential (MEP)) and spinal excitability (Hoffmann (H) reflex) during contraction at 20% MVC. Results MVC torque and torque steadiness increased respectively by 9.5% and 24% on average in REB compared with PLA condition (P

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The Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Evaluation and Management Strategies

No abstract available

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Prolonged Effects of Elevated 17β-Estradiol on Physical Activity after Orchidectomy

imageThe biological mechanisms regulating physical activity patterns appear to be linked to the sex hormones. Elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms may enhance individual physical activity patterns producing positive gains in health. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prolonged effects of estrogen on wheel running distance, duration, and speed in orchidectomized mice. Methods The physical activity patterns of 9-wk-old C57BL/6j male mice (n = 28) were observed. Wheel running distance, duration, and speed were assessed under physiological conditions for 7 d. Next, physical activity patterns were evaluated after bilateral orchidectomy (n = 14) or sham orchidectomy (n = 14) for an additional 7 d. Orchidectomized mice were provided estrogen containing capsules for three additional weeks; control mice were provided estrogen-free capsules. Wheel running distance, duration, and speed were analyzed by three two-way (treatment group–phase of study) analysis of variance tests. Results Wheel running speed was unaffected by sex hormone status. Distance (mean ± SD = 6.74 ± 2.13 km at baseline) decreased significantly after orchidectomy (2.27 ± 1.55 km) and remained low after initial estrogen treatment (3.04 ± 1.05 km). Prolonged estrogen exposure sustained a significant elevation of daily distance (4.47 ± 1.87 km). Prolonged estrogen exposure recovered and significantly sustained wheel running duration (baseline, 248 ± 60 min; postorchidectomy, 102 ± 53 min; prolonged exposure, 170 ± 63 min). Conclusions Wheel running behavior was reduced significantly after orchidectomy and remained low after initial treatment with estrogens, but recovered to near control levels after 2 wk of exposure to estrogens. The estrogenic mechanism regulating wheel running behavior in male mice appears to induce an extensive but slow acting biological mechanism. Understanding the biological drive behind this mechanism may aid in developing useful therapeutic strategies to combat health issues related to physical inactivity.

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Comparison between Slow Components of HR and V˙O2 Kinetics: Functional Significance

imagePurpose Aerobic exercise prescription is often based on a linear relationship between pulmonary oxygen consumption (V˙O2) and heart rate (HR). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that during constant work rate (CWR) exercises at different intensities, the slow component of HR kinetics occurs at lower work rate and is more pronounced that the slow component of V˙O2 kinetics. Methods Seventeen male (age, 27 ± 4 yr) subjects performed on a cycle ergometer an incremental exercise to voluntary exhaustion and several CWR exercises: 1) moderate CWR exercises, below gas exchange threshold (GET); 2) heavy CWR exercise, at 45% of the difference between GET and V˙O2 peak (Δ); 3) severe CWR exercise, at 95% of Δ; 4) "HRCLAMPED" exercise in which work rate was continuously adjusted to maintain a constant HR, slightly higher than that determined at GET. Breath-by-breath V˙O2, HR, and other variables were determined. Results In moderate CWR exercises, no slow component of V˙O2 kinetics was observed, whereas a slow component with a relative amplitude (with respect to the total response) of 24.8 ± 11.0% was observed for HR kinetics. During heavy CWR exercise, the relative amplitude of the HR slow component was more pronounced than that for V˙O2 (31.6 ± 11.2% and 23.3 ± 9.0%, respectively). During HRCLAMPED, the decrease in work rate (~14%) needed to maintain a constant HR was associated with a decreased V˙O2 (~10%). Conclusions The HR slow component occurred at a lower work rate and was more pronounced than the V˙O2 slow component. Exercise prescriptions at specific HR values, when carried out for periods longer than a few minutes, could lead to premature fatigue.

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Exercise Reduces Dopamine D1R and Increases D2R in Rats: Implications for Addiction

imageIntroduction Exercise has been shown to be effective for preventing and treating substance abuse in both clinical and preclinical studies. Less is known, however, regarding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms driving these changes in drug-seeking behavior. One possibility is that exercise may alter the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in such a way that makes drugs of abuse less salient and/or rewarding. Methods To examine possible exercise-induced changes in dopamine signaling, male and female Lewis rats were split into exercise and sedentary groups at 8 wk of age. Exercise rats were run on a treadmill at 10 m·min−1, 5 d·wk−1, for 6 wk, whereas sedentary rats remained in their home cage. Rats were killed after the 6 wk of treatment, and their brains were used for in vitro autoradiography using [3H]SCH 23,390, [3H]Spiperone, and [3H]WIN55,428 ligands to quantify dopamine type 1-like receptor (D1R)-like, dopamine type 2-like receptor (D2R)-like, and dopamine transporter binding, respectively. Results Exercised rats had 18% and 21% lower D1R-like binding levels compared to sedentary rats within the olfactory tubercle and nucleus accumbens shell, respectively. In addition, male and female exercise rats showed greater D2R-like binding levels within the dorsomedial caudate putamen (30%), ventrolateral caudate putamen (24%), and ventromedial caudate putamen (27%), as well as the olfactory tubercle (19%). Greater D2R-like binding in the nucleus accumbens core (24%) and shell (25%) of exercised rats compared with sedentary rats approached significance. No effects were found for dopamine transporter binding. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that aerobic exercise results in changes in the mesolimbic pathway that could mediate exercise-induced attenuation of drug-seeking behavior.

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Intravenous Iron Does Not Augment the Hemoglobin Mass Response to Simulated Hypoxia

imagePurpose Iron is integral for erythropoietic adaptation to hypoxia, yet the importance of supplementary iron compared with existing stores is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the magnitude of the hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude in athletes with intravenous (IV), oral, or placebo iron supplementation. Methods Thirty-four, nonanemic, endurance-trained athletes completed 3 wk of simulated altitude (3000 m, 14 h·d−1), receiving two to three bolus iron injections (ferric carboxymaltose), daily oral iron supplementation (ferrous sulfate), or a placebo, commencing 2 wk before and throughout altitude exposure. Hbmass and markers of iron regulation were assessed at baseline (day −14), immediately before (day 0), weekly during (days 8 and 15), and immediately, 1, 3, and 6 wk after (days 22, 28, 42, and 63) the completion of altitude exposure. Results Hbmass significantly increased after altitude exposure in athletes with IV (mean % [90% confidence interval (CI)], 3.7% [2.8–4.7]) and oral (3.2% [2.2–4.2]) supplementation and remained elevated at 7 d postaltitude in oral (2.9% [1.5–4.3]) and 21 d after in IV (3.0% [1.5–4.6]) supplementation. Hbmass was not significantly higher than baseline at any time point in placebo. Conclusions Iron supplementation appears necessary for optimal erythropoietic adaptation to altitude exposure. IV iron supplementation during 3 wk of simulated live high–train low altitude training offered no additional benefit in terms of the magnitude of the erythropoietic response for nonanemic endurance athletes compared with oral supplementation.

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Timing and Predictors of Mild and Severe Heat Illness among New Military Enlistees

imagePurpose Heat illnesses are important and potentially fatal conditions among physically active individuals. We determined predictors of heat illness among enlistees in a large military population experiencing common physical activity patterns. Methods We estimated the adjusted odds of mild (MHI) and severe (SHI) heat illness associated with demographic, health-related, and geographic factors among active-duty, US Army soldiers enlisting between January 2011 and December 2014 (N = 238,168) using discrete-time multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results We observed 2612 incident cases of MHI and 732 incident cases of SHI during 427,922 person-years of follow-up, with a mean and median of 21.6 and 21 months per subject. During the first 6 duty months, 71.3% of the MHIs and 60.2% of the SHIs occurred, peaking at month 2. The odds of MHI quadrupled among those with prior SHI (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–6.03). Body mass index (BMI) extremes increased the odds substantially (OR at BMI ≥30 kg·m−2: for MHI, 1.41 (CI, 1.19–1.67); for SHI, 1.94 (CI, 1.47–2.56); OR at BMI

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Acute High-Intensity Interval Cycling Improves Postprandial Lipid Metabolism

imagePurpose This study aimed to examine the effects of two exercise regimes on physiological and postprandial lipemic responses. Methods Thirty-six active men (peak oxygen uptake [V˙O2peak], 46.5 ± 6.4 mL·kg−1·min−1) were randomly assigned to a high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), involving 10 × 60 s cycling at 85% V˙O2peak interspersed with 120 s recovery; a moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE), involving 50 min continuous exercise at 65% V˙O2peak; and a nonexercise control (Con). In the next morning after evening exercising, fasting blood samples were obtained. Additional blood samples were obtained 1–4 h after eating a given high-fat meal that based on participants' body mass. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates were measured before and after the meal. Results After exercise, glucose and insulin concentrations decreased by 33% and 70% in MICE compared with those in HIIE (P = 0.00–0.03). During the 1- to 2-h postprandial periods, the fat oxidation rate increased by 24%–37% in HIIE that that in MICE and Con (P = 0.01–0.03); however, the carbohydrate oxidation rate was not significantly different among the conditions (P = 0.28). During the postprandial period, insulin (P = 0.02–0.04) and triglyceride (P = 0.02–0.03) concentrations were lower in HIIE than those in MICE and Con. No difference was observed in free fatty acid or the total areas under the curve of triglyceride and free fatty acid among the conditions (P = 0.24–0.98). Conclusion Acute MICE improved glucose and insulin metabolism immediately after exercise. However, HIIE performed in the evening exerts more favorable effects than MICE for decreasing postprandial insulin and triglyceride levels and increasing fat oxidation in the next morning.

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Prepregnancy Fitness and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Longitudinal Analysis

imagePurpose This study aimed to assess the associations of prepregnancy cardiorespiratory fitness, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and time spent watching television with subsequent development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Participants were 1333 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study who did not have diabetes either at baseline (1985–86) or before births occurring after baseline. Baseline fitness was estimated using a graded symptom-limited maximal exercise treadmill test and expressed in MET units. Baseline MVPA (exercise units per day) was measured using the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults physical activity history questionnaire, and television viewing (h·d−1) was assessed by self-report in 1990–1991. Logistic regression analysis was used to derive odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for time from baseline to delivery and baseline study center, age, race, education, parity, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol, saturated fat intake, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and HDL cholesterol. Results Over 25 yr of follow-up, 164 women developed GDM. The odds of developing GDM were 21% lower for each 1 SD increment in baseline level of fitness (2.3 METs, odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.65–0.96). Prepregnancy MVPA and television viewing were not statistically associated with the development of GDM. Conclusion Study findings indicate that objectively assessed prepregnancy fitness, but not self-reported MVPA or television time, is associated with GDM. Clinicians should counsel women on the benefits of improving fitness in the preconception period, particularly among women at greater risk for GDM.

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Influence of Estradiol Status on Physical Activity in Premenopausal Women

imagePurpose This study aimed to determine the effects of 5 months of ovarian hormone suppression in premenopausal women on objectively measured physical activity (PA). Methods Participants (age, 35 ± 8 yr; body mass index, 27 ± 6 kg·m−2) received monthly intramuscular injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHAG) therapy, which suppresses pituitary gonadotropins and results in suppression of ovarian sex hormones. Women were randomized to receive concurrent transdermal E2 (GnRHAG + E2; n = 30) or placebo (GnRHAG + PL, n = 31). PA was assessed for 1 wk before and during each month of the 5-month intervention using a hip-worn accelerometer (Actical, Mini Mitter Co., Inc., Bend, OR). Estimates of time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were derived using a previously published equation. Subsets of participants in each group were also randomized to a supervised progressive resistance exercise training program. Results Total MVPA tended toward being higher (P = 0.08) in the GnRHAG + E2 group at month 4. There were no significant effects of intervention or time in sedentary or light PA. In the subset of women who did not participate in structured exercise training for which Actical data were obtained (n = 16 in each group), total MVPA was higher at month 4 (P = 0.01). Conclusions PA levels seem to be maintained at a higher level in women undergoing pharmacological suppression of ovarian function with E2 add-back when compared with women treated with placebo. These data provide proof-of-concept data that E2 contributes to the regulation of PA in humans. However, given the exploratory nature of this study, future confirmatory investigations will be necessary.

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A partial Homo pelvis from the Early Pleistocene of Eritrea

Publication date: Available online 13 July 2018

Source: Journal of Human Evolution

Author(s): Ashley S. Hammond, Sergio Almécija, Yosief Libsekal, Lorenzo Rook, Roberto Macchiarelli

Abstract

Here we analyze 1.07–0.99 million-year-old pelvic remains UA 173/405 from Buia, Eritrea. Based on size metrics, UA 173/405 is likely associated with an already described pubic symphysis (UA 466) found nearby. The morphology of UA 173/405 was quantitatively characterized using three-dimensional landmark-based morphometrics and linear data. The Buia specimen falls within the range of variation of modern humans for all metrics investigated, making it unlikely that the shared last common ancestor of Late Pleistocene Homo species would have had an australopith-like pelvis. The discovery of UA 173/405 adds to the increasing number of fossils suggesting that the postcranial morphology of Homo erectus s.l. was variable and, in some cases, nearly indistinguishable from modern human morphology. This Eritrean fossil demonstrates that modern human-like pelvic morphology may have had origins in the Early Pleistocene, potentially within later African H. erectus.



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Reversing Antimicrobial Resistance in Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae of Clinical Origin Using 1-(1-Naphthylmethyl)-Piperazine

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


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Expression of miRNA-143 in Pancreatic Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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The Role of Inflammatory Cytokines in Creating T Cell Exhaustion in Cancer

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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Nuclear and Optical Bimodal Imaging Probes Using Sequential Assembly: A Perspective

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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Expression of miRNA-143 in Pancreatic Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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The Role of Inflammatory Cytokines in Creating T Cell Exhaustion in Cancer

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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Nuclear and Optical Bimodal Imaging Probes Using Sequential Assembly: A Perspective

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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CORL Expression and Function in Insulin Producing Neurons Reversibly Influences Adult Longevity in Drosophila

CORL proteins (known as SKOR in mice, Fussel in humans and fussel in Flybase) are a family of CNS specific proteins related to Sno/Ski oncogenes. Their developmental and adult roles are largely unknown. A Drosophila CORL (dCORL) reporter gene is expressed in all Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (dILP2) neurons of the pars intercerebralis (PI) of the larval and adult brain. The transcription factor Drifter is also expressed in the PI in a subset of dCORL and dILP2 expressing neurons and in several non-dILP2 neurons. dCORL mutant virgin adult brains are missing all dILP2 neurons that do not also express Drifter. This phenotype is also seen when expressing dCORL-RNAi in neurosecretory cells of the PI. dCORL mutant virgin adults of both sexes have a significantly shorter lifespan than their parental strain. This longevity defect is completely reversed by mating (lifespan increases over 50% for males and females). Analyses of dCORL mutant mated adult brains revealed a complete rescue of dILP2 neurons without Drifter. Taken together, the data suggest that dCORL participates in a neural network connecting the insulin signaling pathway, longevity and mating. The conserved sequence and CNS specificity of all CORL proteins imply that this network may be operating in mammals.



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Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscle: Report of a Symptomatic Case With Emphasis on Imaging Findings

imageAbstract: We report a case of a symptomatic tensor fasciae suralis (TFS) muscle in an elite jumper, with a very rare tear in its origin. The TFS muscle must be recognized and differentiated from other pathologic entities in the popliteal region. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) can reliably identify this variant and its pathology.

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Short Sleep and Adolescents' Performance on a Concussion Assessment Battery: An Experimental Sleep Manipulation Study

imageObjective: Correlational studies have linked short sleep to adolescents' report of postconcussion symptoms and cognitive performance during concussion assessments. This study tested whether those are cause–effect relationships. Design: Three-week randomly counterbalanced, within-subjects, crossover experiment. Setting: Adolescents slept at home with weekly visits to an outpatient clinic for sleep monitor uploads and outcome assessments. Participants: Twenty-four healthy 14- to 17.9-year-olds. Conditions: After an initial sleep-stabilization period, adolescents experienced 5-night spans of short sleep (SS; 6.5 hours/night in bed) versus Healthy Sleep Opportunity (HS; 9.5 hours/night in bed). Main Outcome Measures: Cognitive indexes and the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) from the Immediate PostConcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing. Results: Adolescents reported significantly worse symptoms on the PCSS after SS than HS, even after excluding items manifestly related to sleep. Verbal memory was also worse after SS than HS, though the effect was small. The manipulation did not significantly affect other cognitive indexes. Conclusions: A realistic "dose" of short sleep, similar to what many adolescents experience regularly on school nights, can cause or contribute to symptom reports during concussion assessments. Consistent with previous sleep research, one-on-one cognitive tests seem to be less sensitive than measures of emotional and behavioral functioning to the effects of short sleep.

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Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound as a New Investigative Tool in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries—A Pilot Study Evaluating Conventional Ultrasound, CEUS, and Findings in MRI

imageObjective: To emphasize the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries with different degrees of severity by comparing findings to established imaging modalities such as conventional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design: Case series. Setting: Institutional study. Conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed in the Department of Internal Medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in the Department of Radiology within the Magnetom Avanto 1.5T and Magnetom Skyra fit 3T (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany) and in the Institution of Imaging Diagnostics and Therapy (Magnetom Avanto 1.5T; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Patients: Fifteen patients who underwent an acute muscle injury were recruited. Main Outcome Measures: The appearance and detectable size of muscle injuries were compared between each imaging modality. The injuries were assessed by 3 independent observers and blinded between imaging modalities. Results: All 15 injuries were identified on MRI and CEUS, whereas 10 injuries showed abnormalities in conventional ultrasound. The determination and measurement revealed significant differences between conventional ultrasound and CEUS depending on injury severity. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed an impairment of microcirculation in grade I lesions (corresponding to intramuscular edema observed in MRI), which was not detectable using conventional ultrasound. Conclusions: Our results indicate that performing CEUS seems to be a sensitive additional diagnostic modality in the early assessment of muscle injuries. Our results highlight the advantages of CEUS in the imaging of low-grade lesions when compared with conventional ultrasound, as this was the more accurate modality for identifying intramuscular edema.

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Prevention of Ankle Sprain Injuries in Youth Soccer and Basketball: Effectiveness of a Neuromuscular Training Program and Examining Risk Factors

imageObjectives: The primary objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a neuromuscular training (NMT) warm-up program in reducing the risk of ankle sprain injury (ASI) in youth soccer and basketball. The secondary objective included the evaluation of risk factors for ASI. Study Design: Secondary analysis of pooled data from 5 studies. Participants: Male and female youth (11-18 years) soccer and basketball players (n = 2265) in Alberta, Canada. Outcome Measures: Ankle sprain injury was the primary outcome and was recorded using a validated prospective injury surveillance system consistent in all studies. The primary exposure of interest was NMT warm-up, which included aerobic, strength, agility, and balance components. Multivariable Poisson regression, controlling for clustering by team and offset for exposure hours, was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with considerations for confounding and effect modification and evaluating all covariates as potential risk factors. Results: A total of 188 ASIs were reported in 171 players. Neuromuscular training significantly reduced the risk of ASI [IRR = 0.68 (95% CI; 0.46-0.99)]. Independent risk factors for ASI included previous ASI [IRR = 1.98 (95% CI; 1.38-2.81)] and participation in basketball versus soccer [IRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.18-2.85)]. Sex, age, body mass index, and previous lower extremity injury (without previous ASI) did not predict ASI (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to an NMT program is significantly protective for ASI in youth soccer and basketball. Risk of ASI in youth basketball is greater than soccer, and players with a history of ASI are at greater risk.

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Efficacy of Whole-Body Vibration Board Training on Strength in Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Randomized Controlled Study

imageObjective: To evaluate whether an 8-week whole-body vibration training program may improve recovery of knee flexion/extension muscular strength in athletes after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Single outpatient rehabilitation center. Participants: Thirty-eight female volleyball/basketball players (aged between 20 and 30), randomized into 2 treatment groups. Interventions: During a standardized six-month rehabilitation program, from week 13 to week 20 after surgery, the whole-body vibration group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 19) performed additional static knee flexor/extensor exercises on a vibration platform. For the whole-body vibration group, the vibration platform was set to 2.5 mm of amplitude and 26 Hz of frequency. The control group followed the same whole-body vibration board training with no vibrations. Main Outcome Measures: All patients were evaluated using an isokinetic strength test with a Biodex dynamometer at the beginning and at the end of the additional treatment protocol. The parameters tested were the peak torque and the maximum power of knee flexor and extensor muscles performing strength and endurance tests. Results: No vibration-related side effects were observed. Improvements were noticed in both groups, but increase in knee muscle isokinetic strength values was statistically significant in the whole-body vibration group when compared with the control group (differences in extension: peak torque 11.316/10.263 N·m and maximum power 13.684/11.211 W; flexion: peak torque 9.632/11.105 N·m and maximum power 10.158/9.474 W; P

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Pitch Counts in Youth Baseball and Softball: A Historical Review

imageObjective: Pitching injuries are getting increased attention in the mass media. Many references are made to pitch counts and the role they play in injury prevention. The original purpose of regulating the pitch count in youth baseball was to reduce injury and fatigue to pitchers. This article reviews the history and development of the pitch count limit in baseball, the effect it has had on injury, and the evidence regarding injury rates on softball windmill pitching. Data Source: Literature search through PubMed, mass media, and organizational Web sites through June 2015. Results: Pitch count limits and rest recommendations were introduced in 1996 after a survey of 28 orthopedic surgeons and baseball coaches showed injuries to baseball pitchers' arms were believed to be from the number of pitches thrown. Follow-up research led to revised recommendations with more detailed guidelines in 2006. Since that time, data show a relationship between innings pitched and upper extremity injury, but pitch type has not clearly been shown to affect injury rates. Current surveys of coaches and players show that coaches, parents, and athletes often do not adhere to these guidelines. There are no pitch count guidelines currently available in softball. Conclusions: The increase in participation in youth baseball and softball with an emphasis on early sport specialization in youth sports activities suggests that there will continue to be a rise in injury rates to young throwers. The published pitch counts are likely to positively affect injury rates but must be adhered to by athletes, coaches, and parents.

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Marijuana and Its Effects on Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review

imageObjective: To determine the effects of marijuana on athletic performance. Design: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, and SPORTDiscus from their beginning to September 2016. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias and the Cochrane GRADE scale. No meta-analyses were performed for this review. Setting: Subjects in a track, gym, or recreational ward. Participants: Any primary study which included male and female adults of any athletic background between ages 18 and 65, with no other comorbid conditions. Interventions: Any primary study which used marijuana cigarettes and included a control group. Main Outcome Measures: Vital signs, pulmonary measures, physical work capacity, grip strength, and exercise duration were determined to be relevant outcomes. Results: Three trials examined marijuana and its effects on athletic performance. Two trials had a high risk of bias and 1 trial had an unclear risk of bias. The effect of marijuana on outcomes including heart rate, blood pressure, and exercise duration remains unclear. Low quality evidence suggests that treatment, sham, and inactive control groups do not have a significant difference for grip strength. Low quality evidence suggests that there is an ergogenic effect of treatment demonstrated by increased bronchodilation and FEV1 compared with inactive control and that there is an ergolytic effect of treatment demonstrated by decreased physical work capacity compared with sham and inactive control groups. Conclusion: Because the number and quality of studies was low, the effects of marijuana on athletic performance remain unclear.

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Unusual Cause of Thoracic Wall Pain in a Kayaker: A Case Report

imageAbstract: Chest wall injuries are common in paddle-based sports such as kayaking. We present the case of a 46-year-old amateur kayaker who presented with signs and symptoms in keeping with a rib stress response or fracture. The patient failed to respond to conservative management and subsequent imaging revealed an obstructed left kidney with associated hydronephrosis. This case report highlights the importance of considering the wider differential diagnoses when managing athletes participating in paddle-based sports, especially when symptoms fail to settle with appropriate conservative management.

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Functional Movement Screening and Injury Rates in High School and Collegiate Runners: A Retrospective Analysis of 3 Prospective Observational Studies

imageObjective: Determine if the Functional Movement Screening (FMS) can be used to predict injury in high school and collegiate cross-country and track runners. Design: Prospective Observational, Cohort Study, Level of Evidence, 2. Setting: High schools and colleges in the Central Ohio area. Patients: Inclusion: (1) cross-country or track runners at participating schools; (2) full participation without restrictions; and (3) signed informed assent or consent. Exclusion: (1) Any injury or lower extremity surgery within 30 days; (2) planned limited participation in the upcoming season; or (3) other participation restrictions. Interventions: Functional Movement Screening was completed before the start of each season. Injuries were tracked during the regular season. No interventions were made based on FMS score. Main Outcome Measures: Functional Movement Screening scores, including overall, lower extremity, and specific exercises were compared between runners who did and did not sustain an injury using 2 sample t tests. A cutoff FMS score of ≤14 (most common in previous studies), and ≤15 (determined by a receiver operating characteristic curve), were compared using χ2 tests. Results: One hundred eighty-three runners were enrolled in the study. Overall, 32 (17.5%) runners sustained an injury. Functional Movement Screening score was not accurate in predicting injury for ≤14 (sensitivity: 65.6%; specificity: 39.7%; and area under the curve = 0.501) or ≤15 (sensitivity: 84.4% and specificity: 23.8%). There was no difference in risk of injury for runners with a FMS score of ≤14 (15.5%) and >14 (18.8%) (P = 0.572) or with a FMS score of ≤15 (17.5%) and >15 (17.4%) (P = 0.988). Conclusions: Functional Movement Screening composite score may not be useful for injury prediction in populations of high school and collegiate runners.

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Is There a Relationship Between the Functional Movement Screen, Star Excursion Balance Test, and Balance Error Scoring System?

imageObjective: To evaluate associations between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) scores. Design: Correlational. Setting: College athletic training facilities. Participants: Fifty-two intercollegiate athletes (men = 36 and women = 16) representing 8 sports and cleared for unrestricted sport participation. Interventions: Participants completed the FMS, SEBT, and BESS, in random order, during 1 testing session. Testing order was randomized to control for fatigue and learning effects. Main Outcome Measures: Composite and item scores for the FMS, SEBT, and BESS. Results: A fair, negative correlation was found between FMS asymmetry and SEBT composite (r = −0.31, P = 0.03) scores. Fair, positive correlations were reported for FMS rotary stability task and SEBT anterior (r = 0.37-0.41, P ≤ 0.007) and posteromedial (r = 0.31, P = 0.03) reaches. Fair, negative correlations were reported for FMS deep squat and BESS single-leg firm (r = −0.33, P = 0.02), double-leg foam (r = −0.34, P = 0.02) and tandem foam (r = −0.40, P = 0.003), FMS inline lunge and BESS single-leg firm (r = −0.39, P = 0.004), FMS trunk stability pushup and tandem foam (r = −0.31, P = 0.025), and FMS composite and BESS single-leg firm (r = −0.37, P = 0.007). Little-to-no correlations were reported for remaining comparisons. Conclusions: Results indicate that each instrument provides distinct information about function, with only small areas of overlap. Associations between the FMS asymmetry score and SEBT composite score may indicate a relationship between movement asymmetry and postural stability. Associations between the FMS deep squat and BESS foam tasks may be related to underlying neuromuscular control factors.

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Multidisciplinary Assessment of 100 Athletes With Groin Pain Using the Doha Agreement: High Prevalence of Adductor-Related Groin Pain in Conjunction With Multiple Causes

imageObjective: To examine the prevalence of different causes of groin pain in athletes using the recent Doha consensus classification of terminology and definitions of groin pain in athletes. Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting: Multidisciplinary sports groin pain clinic at Aspetar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Patients: The clinical records of 100 consecutive athletes with complaints of groin pain who attended the multidisciplinary sports groin pain clinic between January and December 2014 were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: The causes of groin pain were categorized according to terminology and definitions agreed upon at the Doha consensus meeting on groin pain classification in athletes. The classification system has 3 main subheadings; defined clinical entities for groin pain (adductor-related, iliopsoas-related, inguinal-related, and pubic-related groin pain), hip-related groin pain, and other causes of groin pain in athletes. Results: The majority of athletes were male (98%) soccer players (60%). Multiple causes for groin pain were found in 44% of the athletes. Adductor-related groin pain was the most prevalent defined clinical entity (61% of athletes), and pubic-related groin pain was the least prevalent (4% of athletes). Conclusions: Adductor-related groin pain is the most commonly occurring clinical entity in this athlete population in mainly kicking and change of direction sports and frequently, multiple causes are found. Clinical Relevance: This is the first study to use the Doha agreement classification system and highlights the prevalence of adductor-related groin pain and that often multiple clinical entities contribute to an athlete's groin pain. Consequently, prevention programs should be implemented with these factors in mind.

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Predictors of the Biomechanical Effects of Customized Foot Orthoses in Adults With Flat-Arched Feet

imageObjective: To determine the potential presence and characteristics of biomechanical responders to customized foot orthoses during walking in adults with flat-arched feet. Design: Experimental, repeated-measures. Setting: University clinic and laboratory. Participants: Eighteen symptom-free adults with flat-arched feet. Interventions: Customized foot orthoses. Main Outcome Measures: In-shoe foot biomechanics were measured during walking with and without customized foot orthoses using 3D analysis. Selected kinematic and kinetic variables during baseline walking were compared between subgroups who displayed reductions in calcaneal eversion with foot orthoses to those with no change or increases. Results: Biomechanical responders displayed significantly greater peak calcaneal eversion (+2.2 degrees, P = 0.009). Time to peak calcaneal eversion (−11%, P = 0.006), peak dorsiflexion of the hallux (−6 degrees, P = 0.001), and medial–lateral excursion of the center of pressure during loading response were all reduced in the responder subgroup (−2 mm, P ≤ 0.001). Variables significantly different between subgroups were moderately associated with the response to foot orthoses (canonical correlation = 0.687, effect size = 0.47, P = 0.063). Conclusions: Individuals with increased dynamic foot pronation were more likely to show a favorable biomechanical response to customized foot orthoses, providing preliminary evidence to support the stratified use of foot orthoses to optimize their effectiveness.

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Differences in Athletic Performance Between Sportsmen With Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement and Healthy Controls

imageObjective: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a commonly recognized condition in athletes characterized by activity-related hip pain and stiffness, which if left untreated can progress to hip osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of symptomatic FAI on performance in young athletes based on the hypothesis that athletes with FAI would show deficits in performance compared with healthy controls. Design: The functional performance of a cohort of preoperative, competitive sportsmen with symptomatic FAI (FAI group, n = 54), was compared with that of a group of age, sex and activity-level matched controls (n = 66). Outcome Measures: Participants performed functional tests including a 10-m sprint, a modified agility T-test, a maximal deep squat test and a single-leg drop jump (reactive strength index). Hip range of motion was assessed by measuring maximal hip flexion, abduction, and internal rotation (at 90 degree hip flexion). Results: The FAI group was significantly slower during the 10-m sprint (3%, P = 0.002) and agility T-test (8%, P

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Epidemiology of Injuries in Women's Lacrosse: Implications for Sport-, Level-, and Sex-Specific Injury Prevention Strategies

imageObjective: By the end of 2013, the United States had an estimated 278 000 female lacrosse players, with half of those participating at the youth level. The effects of the sport's rapid growth on injury rates have yet to be determined. The purpose of this clinical review is to synthesize the available published data on injuries that have occurred in the sport of women's lacrosse. Of particular interest was the risk of injury based on the level of play and position. Data Sources: A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, High Wire Press, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and Ovid using the keywords "Lacrosse Injuries," "Epidemiology Lacrosse Injuries," "Lacrosse Injury," "Lacrosse," and "Injury." Study Selection: The electronic search included material published during or after 1950. In addition, all bibliographies of electronically found sources were cross-referenced to identify any additional publications that were not produced in the electronic searches. Data Extraction: All articles with data on women's injury rates were categorized by overall injury rates, rates by session (competition vs practice), nature of injury, location, type, severity, and player position. Data Synthesis: Injury rates increase with age: from youth leagues to high school and finally to the collegiate level. Rates of injury varied from 0.03 to 3.9 injuries/100 athletes. Women's game injury rates are consistently higher than practice injury rates (ranging from 0.2 to 7.1 vs 0.01 to 3.3). Injuries occur most frequently from stick-to-player or player-to-ball contact, rather than player-to-player contact. Women sustain a higher percentage of head and facial injuries relative to male lacrosse players. The most common types of injuries for women are concussions, sprains, contusions, and lacerations. More than half of all injuries are in the mild category resulting in players missing practice and games for 1 to 7 days. Offensive players had the most injuries, followed by defensive players and then midfielders, with goalies having the fewest number of injuries. Conclusions: In women's lacrosse, the rules and equipment used are substantially different than for the men's game. Face and hand injuries are more prevalent for women when compared with men, and ankle injuries are most prevalent in female youth. Medical professionals who treat lacrosse players can benefit from an improved understanding of the types and rates of the injuries they are likely to encounter. Improved awareness of lacrosse-specific injuries can assist these professionals to be more prepared to treat these athletes, which may lead to improved care and outcomes.

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“Recognize and Remove”: A Universal Principle for the Management of Sports Injuries

imageObjective: To identify the locations and types of injury that result in players not being immediately removed from the field of play when injured and to quantify the magnitude of the situation. Design: Prospective cohort epidemiological study with definitions and procedures compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby. Setting: Sevens World Series (SWS) (2008-2016) and Rugby World Cup (RWC) (2007, 2011, 2015). Participants: Players from 17 countries taking part in the SWS and 22 countries taking part in the RWC. Main Outcome Measures: Location, type, and mean severity of injury, period of match when the injury occurred and whether players were removed from the field of play when injured. Results: Injured players (51.5%) in the SWS and 33.1% of injured players in the RWC were immediately removed from the field of play at the time of injury. The percentages of players immediately removed varied from 16.7% for hand fractures (severity: 71 days) to 96.7% for shoulder dislocations/subluxations (severity: 105 days) during the SWS and from 4.5% for shoulder ligament sprains (severity: 25 days) to 65.9% for concussions (severity: 9 days) during the RWC. The percentage of players immediately removed from play when injured was not related to the severity of the injury sustained. Conclusions: A high proportion of players continue to play (in the same game) after sustaining an injury although the likelihood of being removed from play is not dependent on injury severity.

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Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Therapy for a Symptomatic Persistent Olecranon Physis in an Adolescent Baseball Pitcher

imageAbstract: A 15-year-old competitive right-handed high school baseball pitcher experienced an acute onset of right elbow pain when throwing. He initially treated it conservatively with rest alone for 3 months, but on return to throwing, he was still experiencing pain. Radiographs revealed that he had a persistent olecranon physis. He proceeded with a trial of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy and attained radiographic evidence of bony union at 7 months postinjury, thus avoiding surgical intervention. He returned to pitching competitively 9 months after injury without elbow pain. This is the first reported case of using ultrasound bone stimulation for treatment of a symptomatic persistent olecranon physis in a baseball pitcher.

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Rock Climbing–Related Bone Marrow Edema of the Hand: A Follow-up Study

imageObjective: Sport climbers strain passive and active anatomical structures of their hands and fingers to the maximum during training or competition. This study was designed to investigate bone marrow edema (BME) in rock climbing athletes. Design: Systematic detection, treatment, and follow-up investigation of rock climbing athletes with BME of the hand. Setting: Primary-level orthopedic surgery and sports medicine division of a large academic medical center. Patients: Thirty-one high-level climbers with diffuse pain in the hand and wrist joint caused by rock climbing were included in this study. Interventions: The therapy consisted of consequent stress reduction and a break from sports. Main Outcome Measures: Reduction of BME shown through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and regaining of preinjury climbing levels (Union Internationale des Associations d' Alpinisme metric scale). Results: In 28 patients, MRI revealed osseous edema because of overload at the respective area of interest, mainly in the distal radius, the distal ulna, or the carpal bones, which could not be otherwise diagnosed as inflammations, tumors, or injuries. We classified these edemas and fractures of the hamate because of overload. The edema was a stress reaction to highly intensive training and climbing with presumably high traction to the wrist area. The control MRIs demonstrated that even with a consequent stress reduction, the edemas required 3 to 4 months to disappear completely. Conclusions: Climbers with nonspecific, diffuse pain in the wrist and/or the fingers should be examined with MRI to detect or exclude the diagnosis of a BME.

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A Rare Presentation of a Morel-Lavallee Lesion of the Lower Leg Successfully Treated With Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration

imageAbstract: A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) is a relatively rare condition that is caused by a traumatic shearing force. This force leads to a closed degloving injury of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia that creates a potential space that can fill with lymph, blood, and necrotic fat. The MLLs are traditionally seen after high impact trauma and typically located at the greater trochanter and pelvis, although recent reports have found them to be located at the knee, thigh, and lower leg. The MLLs typically present as swelling at the site of injury, which can be difficult to differentiate from several other diagnoses. This case report discusses an MLL in the lower extremity that occurred during a rugby game. A lack of familiarity with MLLs often leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis was eventually made with an magnetic resonance imaging, and the lesion was successfully treated with ultrasound-guided aspiration and compression. The athlete was able to return to play without recurrence of the lesion.

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The profiling of plasma free amino acids and the relationship between serum albumin and plasma-branched chain amino acids in chronic liver disease: a single-center retrospective study

Abstract

Background

It is poorly understood how an imbalance of plasma-free amino acids (PFAAs) occurs and how the imbalance shows an association with the serum albumin (sAlb) level during the progression of chronic liver disease (CLDs). The aim of this study is to elucidate the profiles of PFAAs and the relationship between sAlb and PFAAs in recent patients with CLDs during the progression.

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated the 1569 data of PFAAs data obtained from 908 patients with various CLDs (CHC, CHB. alcoholic, NAFLD/NASH, PBC, AIH, PSC, and cryptogenic). In total, 1140 data of PFAAs could be analyzed in patients with CLDs dependent of their Child–Pugh (CP) score.

Results

Various imbalances in PFAAs were observed in each CLDs during the progression. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that among 24 PFAAs, the level of plasma-branched chain amino acids (pBCAAs) was significantly associated with the CP score, especially the sAlb score, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC), NAFLD/NASH and PBC. The correlation coefficient values between sAlb and pBCAAs-to-Tyrosine ratio (BTR) in these patients were 0.53, 0.53 and 0.79, respectively. Interestingly, although the pBCAAs in NAFLD/NASH patients varied even when the sAlb was within the normal range, the pBCAAs tended to be low when the sAlb was below the normal range.

Conclusions

Although a decrease in the level of pBCAAs was observed during the progression regardless of the CLD etiology, the level of total pBCAAs was independently associated with the sAlb level in the PFAAs of CHC, PBC and NAFLD/NASH. The correlation between sAlb and BTR showed the highest value in PBC patients among the patients with CLDs. A decrease in pBCAAs often occurred in NASH even when the sAlb level was kept in the normal range.



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Autonomous multi-joint soft exosuit with augmentation-power-based control parameter tuning reduces energy cost of loaded walking

Soft exosuits are a recent approach for assisting human locomotion, which apply assistive torques to the wearer through functional apparel. Over the past few years, there has been growing recognition of the im...

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Congrats to the recipients of the 2018 ZOLL EMT Scholarship!

BROOMFIELD, Colo.—We recently announced the 12 recipients of the 2018 ZOLL EMT Scholarship Program. Each year, we award medical education grants to qualifying caregivers who demonstrate a career commitment to the profession in order to support the education of EMTs working toward their paramedic certification. This Year's Winners "These individuals have demonstrated their commitment ...

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5 tips for starting and sustaining a career in EMS

You may be surprised to treat more psych than critical patients, but protect the ABCs and you'll be off to a great start in a career in EMS

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Phenotypic and genotypic overlap between mosaic NF2 and schwannomatosis in patients with multiple non-intradermal schwannomas

Abstract

Schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are both characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas but represent different genetic entities. Whereas NF2 is caused by mutations of the NF2 gene, schwannomatosis is associated with germline mutations of SMARCB1 or LZTR1. Here, we studied 15 sporadic patients with multiple non-intradermal schwannomas, but lacking vestibular schwannomas and ophthalmological abnormalities, who fulfilled the clinical diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis. None of them harboured germline NF2 or SMARCB1 mutations as determined by the analysis of blood samples but seven had germline LZTR1 variants predicted to be pathogenic. At least two independent schwannomas from each patient were subjected to NF2 mutation testing. In five of the 15 patients, identical somatic NF2 mutations were identified (33%). If only those patients without germline LZTR1 variants are considered (n = 8), three of them (37.5%) had mosaic NF2 as concluded from identical NF2 mutations identified in independent schwannomas from the same patient. These findings imply that a sizeable proportion of patients who fulfil the diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis, are actually examples of mosaic NF2. Hence, the molecular characterization of tumours in patients with a clinical diagnosis of schwannomatosis is very important. Remarkably, two of the patients with germline LZTR1 variants also had identical NF2 mutations in independent schwannomas from each patient which renders differential diagnosis of LZTR1-associated schwannomatosis versus mosaic NF2 in these patients very difficult.



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Admixture mapping and fine-mapping of birth weight loci in the Black Women’s Health Study

Abstract

Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with birth weight. To date, however, most GWAS of birth weight have focused primarily on European ancestry samples even though prevalence of low birth weight is higher among African-Americans. We conducted admixture mapping using 2918 ancestral informative markers in 2596 participants of the Black Women's Health Study, with the goal of identifying novel genomic regions where local African ancestry is associated with birth weight. In addition, we performed a replication analysis of 11 previously identified index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and fine-mapped those genetic loci to identify better or new genetic variants associated with birth weight in African-Americans. We found that high African ancestry at 12q14 was associated with low birth weight, and we identified multiple independent birth weight-lowering variants in this genomic region. We replicated the association of a previous GWAS SNP in ADRB1 and our fine-mapping efforts suggested the presence of new birth weight-associated variants in ADRB1, HMGA2, and SLC2A4. Further studies are needed to determine whether birth weight-associated loci can in part explain race-associated birth weight disparities.



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Advancing Leadership Skills: A Multiyear Examination of LEND Trainee Self-Efficacy Growth

Abstract

Purpose The current healthcare system requires Maternal and Child Health (MCH) professionals with strong interdisciplinary leadership competence. MCH training programs utilize a conceptual framework for leadership and 12 validated MCH Leadership Competencies. Examining Trainee Perceived Leadership Competence (TPLC) through the competencies has the potential to inform our understanding of leadership development. Description Five cohorts of NH-ME leadership education in neurodevelopmental disabilities trainees (n = 102) completed the MCH Leadership Competencies Self-Assessment at three time points. Paired-sample t tests examined TPLC scores. A one-way analysis of variance tested for statistically significant differences in mean difference scores. A General Linear Model was used to examine the extent to which TPLC scores changed when controlling for specific variables. Assessment Statistically significant differences in mean scores between Time 1 and Time 3 were found. Cohen's d effect sizes fell in the moderate range. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated significant differences between groups in the spheres of self and others. TPLC mean scores between Time 1 and Time 3 in the sphere of wider community had the highest increases in four out of five cohorts. Age, discipline, experience, and relationship to disability did not contribute to the model. Conclusion On average, cohorts began the year with very different evaluations of their leadership competence but finished the year with similar scores. This suggests participation in the NH-ME LEND Program consistently supported the development of leadership self-identity. Small sample sizes limit the ability to draw definitive conclusions from these results. Further study with a larger sample may reveal relationships between cohort characteristics and change scores.



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Gestational Weight Loss: Comparison Between the Birth Certificate and the Medical Record, Florida, 2012

Abstract

Objective Examine agreement with the medical record (MR) when gestational weight loss (GWL) on the Florida birth certificate (BC) is ≥ 0 pounds (lbs). Methods In 2012, 3923 Florida-resident women had a live, singleton birth where BC indicated GWL ≥ 0 lbs. Of these, we selected a stratified random sample of 2141 and abstracted from the MR prepregnancy and delivery weight data used to compute four estimates of GWL (delivery minus prepregnancy weight) from different sources found within the MR (first prenatal visit record, nursing admission record, labor/delivery records, BC worksheet). We assessed agreement between the BC and MR estimates for GWL categorized as 0, 1–10, 11–19, and ≥ 20 lbs. Results Prepregnancy or delivery weight was missing or source not in the MR for 23–81% of records. Overall agreement on GWL between the BC and the four MR estimates ranged from 39.1 to 57.2%. Agreement by GWL category ranged from 10.6 to 38.0% for 0 lbs, 47.6 to 64.3% for 1–10 lbs, 49.5 to 60.0% for 11–19 lbs, and 47.8 to 67.7% for ≥ 20 lbs. Conclusions Prepregnancy and delivery weight were frequently missing from the MR or inconsistently documented across the different sources. When the BC indicated GWL ≥ 0 lbs, agreement with different sources of the MR was moderate to poor revealing the need to reduce missing data and better understand the quality of weight data in the MR.



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Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Lesions pH Using 11C-Labeled Bicarbonate

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Lesions pH Using 11C-Labeled Bicarbonate

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


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Woman training to be paramedic after horrific crash

Molly Tarawally decided she wanted to be a paramedic after she was extricated from her car and treated for more than an hour by EMS providers

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The effect of xenon‐augmented sevoflurane anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and early postoperative neurocognitive function in children undergoing cardiac catheterization: A randomized controlled pilot trial

Pediatric Anesthesia, EarlyView.


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The weight of a thank you

You never know when a simple "thank you" to an educator, nurse, law enforcement officer or firefighter might make a life-changing impact

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Ohio’s Medicaid Expansion and Unmet Health Needs Among Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age

Abstract

Objective To examine changes in the prevalence and odds of unmet healthcare needs and healthcare utilization among low-income women of reproductive age (WRA) after Ohio's 2014, ACA-associated Medicaid expansion, which extended coverage to non-senior adults with a family income ≤ 138% of the federal poverty level. Methods We analyzed publically available data from the 2012 and 2015 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey (OMAS), a cross-sectional telephone survey of Ohio's non-institutionalized adult population. The study included 489 low-income women in 2012 and 1273 in 2015 aged 19–44 years who were newly eligible for Medicaid after expansion in January 2014. Four unmet healthcare need and three healthcare utilization measures were examined. We fit survey-weighted logistic regression models adjusted for race/ethnicity, working status, and educational attainment to determine whether the odds of each measure differed between 2012 and 2015. Results In 2015, low-income WRA had a significantly lower odds of reporting an unmet dental care need (ORadj = 0.72, 95% CI 0.54, 0.95), unmet vision care need (ORadj = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50, 0.93), unmet mental health need (ORadj = 0.57, 95% CI 0.39, 0.83), and unmet prescription need (ORadj = 0.39, 95% CI 0.45, 0.80) compared to 2012. There were no significant differences in the odds of seeing a doctor or dentist in the past year or of having a usual source of care for low-income WRA in 2012 and 2015. Conclusions for Practice After Ohio's 2014 Medicaid expansion the odds of low-income WRA having unmet healthcare needs was reduced. Future research should examine outcomes after a longer period of follow-up and include additional measures, such as self-rated health status.



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Breastfeeding Discontinuation Not Associated with Maternal Pregravid BMI But Associated with Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race in Hawaii and Puerto Rico WIC Participants

Abstract

Objectives This study investigated the association between maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI) and breastfeeding discontinuation at 4–6 months postpartum in Hawaii and Puerto Rico participants from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods A secondary data analysis was conducted from a text message-based intervention in WIC participants in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The analysis included 87 women from the control group who initiated breastfeeding and whose breastfeeding status was known at the end of the study when infants were 4–6 months old. Pregravid BMI and breastfeeding discontinuation were assessed using questionnaires. Results The association between pregravid BMI and breastfeeding discontinuation was not significant in the unadjusted model or in the adjusted model. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) participants showed significantly increased odds of discontinuing breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 7.12; 95% CI 1.34, 37.97; p = .02) compared to all the other racial/ethnic participants, as did older women ages 32–39 years versus women who were 25–31 years old (AOR 4.21; 95% CI 1.13, 15.72; p = .03). Women who took vitamins while breastfeeding had decreased odds of discontinuing breastfeeding (AOR 0.15; 95% CI 0.05, 0.46; p = .0009). Conclusions for Practice Pregravid BMI was not significantly associated with breastfeeding discontinuation at 4–6 months postpartum in women from Hawaii and Puerto Rico WIC, but NHOPIs and women who were older had higher odds of discontinuing breastfeeding. The results of this study may inform strategies for breastfeeding promotion and childhood obesity prevention but should be further investigated in larger studies. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02903186.



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Integrated analysis of human genetic association study and mouse transcriptome suggests LBH and SHF genes as novel susceptible genes for amyloid-β accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurological disease that causes dementia in humans. Although the reports of associated pathological genes have been increasing, the molecular mechanism leading to the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in human brain is still not well understood. To identify novel genes that cause accumulation of Aβ in AD patients, we conducted an integrative analysis by combining a human genetic association study and transcriptome analysis in mouse brain. First, we examined genome-wide gene expression levels in the hippocampus, comparing them to amyloid Aβ level in mice with mixed genetic backgrounds. Next, based on a GWAS statistics obtained by a previous study with human AD subjects, we obtained gene-based statistics from the SNP-based statistics. We combined p values from the two types of analysis across orthologous gene pairs in human and mouse into one p value for each gene to evaluate AD susceptibility. As a result, we found five genes with significant p values in this integrated analysis among the 373 genes analyzed. We also examined the gene expression level of these five genes in the hippocampus of independent human AD cases and control subjects. Two genes, LBH and SHF, showed lower expression levels in AD cases than control subjects. This is consistent with the gene expression levels of both the genes in mouse which were negatively correlated with Aβ accumulation. These results, obtained from the integrative approach, suggest that LBH and SHF are associated with the AD pathogenesis.



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Understanding of Key Obstetric Quality Terminology by Asian and Pacific Islander Subgroups: Implications for Patient Engagement and Health Equity

Abstract

Introduction Comprehension of healthcare terminology across diverse populations is critical to patient education and engagement. Methods Women in Oahu, Hawai'i with a recent delivery were interviewed about their understanding of ten common obstetric terms. Health literacy was assessed by the rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM). Multivariable models predicted total terms comprehended by demographic factors. Results Of 269 participants, self-reported primary race was 20.5% Japanese, 19.0% Native Hawaiian, 19.0% White, 16.7% Filipino, 11.5% other Asian, 9.7% other Pacific Islander, and 3.7% other race/ethnicity; 12.7% had low health literacy. On average, participants understood 6.0 (SD: 2.2) of ten common obstetric terms. Comprehension varied by term, ranging from 97.8% for "Breastfeeding" to 27.5% for "VBAC routinely available." Models showed (1) being Filipino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander (vs. white); (2) having low (vs. adequate) health literacy; (3) having a high school (vs. a college) degree; and (4) being under 25-years-old (vs. 35 +) were significantly associated with less comprehension. Discussion Participants were unfamiliar with common obstetrics terminology. Comprehension struggles were more common among populations with maternal health disparities, including Asian and Pacific Islander subgroups, and those with low health literacy.



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Reduced incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma with tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B patients with and without cirrhosis - A propensity score matched study

The Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Taurocholic acid is an active promoting factor, not just a biomarker of progression of liver cirrhosis: Evidence from a human metabolomic study and in vitro experiments

BMC Gastroenterology

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Colorectal adenomas and cancers after childhood cancer treatment: A DCOG-LATER record linkage study

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

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Maintenance Adalimumab Concentrations Are Associated with Biochemical, Endoscopic, and Histologic Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Abstract

Background

A treat-to-target therapeutic approach is emerging as the new standard of care for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC).

Aims

We aimed to investigate the association of serum adalimumab concentrations during maintenance therapy with biochemical, endoscopic, and histologic remission in IBD.

Methods

This retrospective multicenter study included consecutive IBD patients on adalimumab maintenance therapy who had a C-reactive protein (CRP) within 1 week and/or endoscopic evaluation within 12 weeks of therapeutic drug monitoring between July 2013 and December 2016. Biochemical remission was defined as a normal CRP (≤ 5 mg/L). Endoscopic remission was defined as the absence of any ulceration/erosion or a Rutgeerts score of ≤ i1 for patients with an ileocolonic resection for CD and a Mayo endoscopic score of ≤ 1 for UC. Histologic remission was defined as the absence of any sign of active inflammation. Adalimumab concentrations were measured using the homogeneous mobility shift assay.

Results

Ninety-one CRP levels and 72 colonoscopies from 98 IBD patients [CD: n = 72 (73%)] were evaluated. Based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, we identified an adalimumab concentration threshold of 11.8, 12, and 12.2 μg/mL in CD and 10.5, 16.2, and 16.2 μg/mL in UC to stratify patients with or without biochemical, endoscopic, or histologic remission, respectively. Adalimumab concentrations ≥ 12 μg/mL (OR 8; 95% CI 2–31.9; p = 0.003) and ≥ 12.2 μg/mL (OR 9.6; 95% CI 1.7–56.1; p = 0.012) were independently associated with endoscopic and histologic remission in CD, respectively.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that higher maintenance adalimumab concentrations are associated with objective therapeutic outcomes in IBD.



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Hepatocellular carcinoma as a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Abstract

Background

We reported a cross-sectional study on causes of liver injury in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients (JG 2013). We assessed overall and cause-specific mortality risk during follow-up of patients enrolled in JG 2013.

Methods

This was a longitudinal, multicenter cohort study. Of the 5642 Japanese T2D patients who visited T2D clinics of nine hospitals in the original study, 3,999 patients were followed up for an average of 4.5 years. Expected deaths in T2D patients were estimated using age-specific mortality rates in the general population (GP) of Japan. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to compare mortality between T2D patients and GP.

Results

All-cancer mortality was significantly higher in T2D patients than in the GP [SMR 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–1.87]. Among malignancies, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) conferred the highest mortality risk in T2D patients (SMR 3.57, 95% CI 2.41–5.10). HCC-associated mortality risk in T2D patients remained significantly high (SMR 2.56, 95% CI 1.64–3.97) after adjusting for high positivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (1.7%) and anti-hepatitis C virus (5.3%). In T2D patients with platelet counts < 200 × 103/μl, SMR of HCC increased from 3.57 to 6.58 (95% CI 4.34–9.58). T2D patients with platelet count > 200 × 103/μl showed no increase in mortality risk (SMR 0.68) of HCC.

Conclusions

HCC-associated mortality risk was the highest among all cancers in Japanese T2D patients. Regular follow-up may be important for T2D patients with platelet counts < 200 × 103/μl for early detection of HCC.



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Nutritional support in mitochondrial diseases: the state of the art

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of rare multisystem disorders characterized by genetic heterogeneity and pleomorphic clinical manifestations. The clinical burden may be heavy for patients and their caregivers. There are no therapies of proven efficacy until now and a multidisciplinary supportive care is therefore necessary. Since the common pathogenic mechanism is the insufficient energy production by defective mitochondria, nutrition may play a crucial role. However, no guidelines are still available.

The article reports the current evidence, highlighting nutrition both as support and as therapy. The estimate of nutritional status, energy needs and nutritional behaviors are firstly discussed. Then, we go in-depth on the scientific rationale and the clinical evidence of the use of anti-oxidants and enzyme-cofactors in the clinical practice. In particular, we analyze the role of Coenzyme Q10, Creatine monohydrate, α-lipoic acid, riboflavin, arginine and citrulline, folinic acid, carnitine, vitamin C, K, and E.

Every attempt at nutritional intervention should be made knowing patient's disease and focusing on his/her energy and nutrients' requirements. For this reason, clinicians expert in mitochondrial medicine and clinical nutritionists should work together to ameliorate care in these fragile patients.

L'articolo Nutritional support in mitochondrial diseases: the state of the art sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Postpartum Depression and Anxiety Among Mothers Whose Child was Placed in Care of Child Protection Services at Birth: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using Linkable Administrative Data

Abstract

Objectives This study examines whether mothers involved with child protection services (CPS) at the birth of their first child had higher rates of postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2015 is used. Postpartum depression and anxiety among mothers whose first child was placed in care at birth (n = 776) was compared with mothers who received services from CPS (but whose children were not placed in care) (n = 4,270), and a 3:1 matched group of mothers who had no involvement with CPS in the first year of their firstborn's life (n = 2,328). Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of depression and anxiety diagnoses in the first year postpartum were obtained from logistic regression models. Adjusted rate ratios (ARR) of antidepressant use obtained using Poisson models. Results Mothers whose children were taken into care have greater odds of having a postpartum depression or anxiety diagnosis than mothers receiving services (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.08–1.59) and those not involved with CPS (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.67–2.73). Among mothers who had a postpartum depression or anxiety diagnosis, mothers whose children were placed in care had significantly higher rates of antidepressant use than mothers receiving services only (ARR = 2.00; 1.82, 2.19) and mothers who were not involved with CPS (ARR = 2.42; 95% CI 1.94–3.51). Conclusions for Practice Targeted programs should be implemented to address postpartum mental illness among mothers who are involved with CPS at the birth of their child.



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