Σάββατο, 20 Μαΐου 2017

IRAQ EMT TRAINER - The Global Surgical and Medical Support Group GSMSG

Contingent on US Government Award Apply at www.GSMSG.org/join Role: You will be part of an 8-person training team directly responsible for EMT student education. Each trainer will have an interpreter and 4 local EMT trainees. You will provide constant feedback to the rest of the team regarding the progress of their group of trainees. You will also be responsible for collecting basic trainee demographic ...

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Assessing the causal relationship between obesity and venous thromboembolism through a Mendelian Randomization study

Abstract

Observational studies have shown an association between obesity and venous thromboembolism (VTE) but it is not known if observed associations are causal, due to reverse causation or confounding bias. We conducted a Mendelian Randomization study of body mass index (BMI) and VTE. We identified 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with BMI and assessed the association between genetically predicted high BMI and VTE leveraging data from a previously conducted GWAS within the INVENT consortium comprising a total of 7507 VTE cases and 52,632 controls of European ancestry. Five BMI SNPs were associated with VTE at P < 0.05, with the strongest association seen for the FTO SNP rs1558902 (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02–1.12, P = 0.005). In addition, we observed a significant association between genetically predicted BMI and VTE (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.30–1.93 per standard deviation increase in BMI, P = 5.8 × 10−6). Our study provides evidence for a causal relationship between high BMI and risk of VTE. Reducing obesity levels will likely result in lower incidence in VTE.



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Pancreatic Cysts and Guidelines

Abstract

Pancreatic cysts, especially incidental asymptomatic ones seen on noninvasive imaging such as CT or MR imaging, remain a clinical challenge. The etiology of such cysts may range from benign cysts without any malignant potential such as pancreatic pseudocysts and serous cystadenomas to premalignant or frankly malignant cysts such as mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, cystic degeneration associated with solid tumors such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. The clinical challenge in 2017 is to accurately preoperatively diagnose them and their malignant potential before deciding about surgery, surveillance or doing nothing. This review will focus on the currently available clinical guidelines for doing so.



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The Association Between Primary Source of Healthcare Coverage and Colorectal Cancer Screening Among US Veterans

Abstract

Background

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a deadly but largely preventable disease. Screening improves outcomes, but screening rates vary across healthcare coverage models. In the Veterans Health Administration (VA), screening rates are high; however, it is unknown how CRC screening rates compare for Veterans with other types of healthcare coverage.

Aims

To determine whether Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage (VA, military, TRICARE) have higher rates of CRC screening than Veterans with alternate sources of healthcare coverage.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of Veterans 50–75 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. We examined CRC screening rates and screening modalities. We performed multivariable logistic regression to identify the role of coverage type, demographics, and clinical factors on screening status.

Results

The cohort included 22,138 Veterans. Of these, 76.7% reported up-to-date screening. Colonoscopy was the most common screening modality (83.7%). Screening rates were highest among Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage (82.3%), as was stool-based screening (10.8%). The adjusted odds of up-to-date screening among Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage were 83% higher than among Veterans with private coverage (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.52–2.22). Additional predictors of screening included older age, black race, high income, access to medical care, frequent medical visits, and employed or married status.

Conclusions

CRC screening rates were highest among Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage. High CRC screening rates among US Veterans may be related to system-level characteristics of VA and military care. Insight to these system-level characteristics may inform mechanisms to improve CRC screening in non-VA settings.



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Reprint of “A new approach to analyze data from EEG-based concealed face recognition system”

Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): A.H. Mehrnam, A.M. Nasrabadi, Mahrad Ghodousi, A. Mohammadian, Sh. Torabi
The purpose of this study is to extend a feature set with non-linear features to improve classification rate of guilty and innocent subjects. Non-linear features can provide extra information about phase space. The Event-Related Potential (ERP) signals were recorded from 49 subjects who participated in concealed face recognition test. For feature extraction, at first, several morphological characteristics, frequency bands, and wavelet coefficients (we call them basic-features) are extracted from each single-trial ERP. Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) measures are then computed as non-linear features from each single-trial. We apply Genetic Algorithm (GA) to select the best feature set and this feature set is used for classification of data using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier. Next, we use a new approach to improve classification results based on introducing an adaptive-threshold. Results indicate that our method is able to correctly detect 91.83% of subjects (45 correct detection of 49 subjects) using combination of basic and non-linear features, that is higher than 87.75% for basic and 79.59% for non-linear features. This shows that combination of non-linear and basic- features could improve classification rate.



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Penetrating Craniomaxillofacial Injury Caused by a Pneumatic Nail Gun.

Related Articles

Penetrating Craniomaxillofacial Injury Caused by a Pneumatic Nail Gun.

Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr. 2017 Jun;10(2):159-161

Authors: Choi KJ, Ryan MA, Cheng T, Powers D

Abstract
Craniomaxillofacial injuries can be complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The primary survey is always the first step in trauma management prior to proceeding with further evaluation and treatment. A 26-year-old man presented with a penetrating nail gun injury through the oral and nasal cavities. He did not present in extremis but required elective endotracheal intubation for intraoperative assessment and treatment. Airway management was enhanced by the use of lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve blocks via the Vazirani-Akinosi technique to maintain spontaneous respiration while the tongue was distracted from the palate. The nail was removed and rapid sequence induction initiated for orotracheal intubation. Local nerve blocks can be an effective tool in the armamentarium of the craniomaxillofacial trauma surgeon in managing blunt and penetrating injuries. We demonstrate its utility in airway management when a penetrating foreign body in the upper airway precludes orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation.

PMID: 28523090 [PubMed - in process]



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Improving the standard sequential treatment of Helicobacter pylori with either extended treatment or by adding bismuth

Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Zehra Akpinar, Sinan Akay, Belkis Unsal
Background and study aimsStandard sequential treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication has less success because of increasing clarithromycin resistance. Extended treatment and bismuth containing regimens were, therefore, investigated.Patients and methodsConsecutive H. pylori-positive patients with dyspepsia were randomly allocated to one of the three sequential regimens: The first group was given lansoprazole 30mg b.i.d. plus amoxicillin 1g b.i.d. for the first 5days, followed by lansoprazole 30mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500mg b.i.d., and metronidazole 500mg t.i.d. for the second 5days (standard sequential, SS). The second group was given the same regimen but for 7+7days instead of 5+5days (extended sequential, ES). In the third group, colloidal bismuth 600mg b.i.d. was added to the second regimen for 14days (extended sequential+bismuth subcitrate, ES+B). Urea breath test or histology was performed before enrolment and 6weeks after the end of treatment to detect H. pylori.ResultsA total of 280 patients were included in the study. Per-protocol eradication rates were 62% (56/90), 72% (56/78), and 75% (54/72) in patients who received SS, ES, and ES+B regimens, respectively. Moreover, intention-to-treat eradication rates were 53% (56/104), 62% (56/90) and 62% (54/86), respectively. The differences in eradication rates between the groups were not statistically significant.ConclusionAlthough prolonging of the sequential treatment to 14days may be considered, addition of bismuth to the regimen is of no avail.



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Hominid visitation of the Moravian Karst during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition: New results from Pod Hradem Cave (Czech Republic)

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Publication date: July 2017
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 108
Author(s): L. Nejman, R. Wood, D. Wright, L. Lisá, Z. Nerudová, P. Neruda, A. Přichystal, J. Svoboda
In 1956–1958, excavations of Pod Hradem Cave in Moravia (eastern Czech Republic) revealed evidence for human activity during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition. This spanned 25,050–44,800 cal BP and contained artefacts attributed to the Aurignacian and Szeletian cultures, including those made from porcelanite (rarely used at Moravian Paleolithic sites). Coarse grained excavation techniques and major inversions in radiocarbon dates meant that site chronology could not be established adequately. This paper documents re-excavation of Pod Hradem in 2011–2012. A comprehensive AMS dating program using ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC pre-treatments provides new insights into human occupation at Pod Hradem Cave. Fine-grained excavation reveals sedimentary units spanning approximately 20,000 years of the Early Upper Paleolithic and late Middle Paleolithic periods, thus making it the first archaeological cave site in the Czech Republic with such a sedimentary and archaeological record. Recent excavation confirms infrequent human visitation, including during the Early Aurignacian by people who brought with them portable art objects that have no parallel in the Czech Republic. Raw material diversity of lithics suggests long-distance imports and ephemeral visits by highly mobile populations throughout the EUP period.



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Chronic Amphetamine Users Do Not Need More Drugs During General Anesthesia

imageNo abstract available

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Magic Mirror, on the Wall—Which Is the Right Study Design of Them All?—Part I

imageThe assessment of a new or existing treatment or intervention typically answers 1 of 3 research-related questions: (1) "Can it work?" (efficacy); (2) "Does it work?" (effectiveness); and (3) "Is it worth it?" (efficiency or cost-effectiveness). There are a number of study designs that on a situational basis are appropriate to apply in conducting research. These study designs are classified as experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational, with observational studies being further divided into descriptive and analytic categories. This first of a 2-part statistical tutorial reviews these 3 salient research questions and describes a subset of the most common types of experimental and quasi-experimental study design. Attention is focused on the strengths and weaknesses of each study design to assist in choosing which is appropriate for a given study objective and hypothesis as well as the particular study setting and available resources and data. Specific studies and papers are highlighted as examples of a well-chosen, clearly stated, and properly executed study design type.

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An Observational Assessment of Anesthesia Capacity in Madagascar as a Prerequisite to the Development of a National Surgical Plan

imageBACKGROUND: The global lack of anesthesia capacity is well described, but country-specific data are needed to provide country-specific solutions. We aimed to assess anesthesia capacity in Madagascar as part of the development of a Ministry of Health national surgical plan. METHODS: As part of a nationwide surgical safety quality improvement project, we surveyed 19 of 22 regional hospitals, representing surgical facilities caring for 75% of the total population. The assessment was divided into 3 areas: anesthesia workforce density, infrastructure and equipment, and medications. Data were obtained by semistructured interviews with Ministry of Health officials, hospital directors, technical directors, statisticians, pharmacists, and anesthesia providers and through on-site observations. Interview questions were adapted from the World Health Organization Situational Analysis Tool and the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists International Standards for Safe Practice of Anaesthesia. Additional data on workforce density were collected from the 3 remaining regions so that workforce density data are representative of all 22 regions. RESULTS: Anesthesia physician workforce density is 0.26 per 100,000 population and 0.19 per 100,000 outside of the capital region. Less than 50% of hospitals surveyed reported having a reliable electricity and oxygen supply. The majority of anesthesia providers work without pulse oximetry (52%) or a functioning vaporizer (52%). All the hospitals surveyed had very basic pediatric supplies, and none had a pediatric pulse oximetry probe. Ketamine is universally available but more than 50% of hospitals lack access to opioids. None of the 19 regional hospitals surveyed was able to completely meet the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists' standards for monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Improving anesthesia care is complex. Capacity assessment is a first step that would enable progress to be tracked against specific targets. In Madagascar, scale-up of the anesthesia workforce, investment in infrastructure and equipment, and improvement in medication supply-chain management are needed to attain minimal international standards. Data from this study were presented to the Ministry of Health for inclusion in the development of a national surgical plan, together with recommendations for the needed improvements in the delivery of anesthesia.

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Back to the Future: Will Noninvasive Hemoglobin Follow the Glucose Measurement Path?

No abstract available

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Chronic Pain and HIV: A Practical Approach

No abstract available

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Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion-Induced Adverse Effects: More Smoke; Is There Fire?

No abstract available

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Cross-Disciplinary Perceptions of Structured Interprofessional Rounds in Promoting Teamwork Within an Academic Tertiary Care Obstetric Unit

imageBACKGROUND: In 2005, physician and nursing leaders at Brigham and Women's Hospital initiated structured interprofessional rounds (SIPRs) on the labor and delivery (L&D) suite to improve team communication. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of providers' perceptions of SIPRs and their effectiveness in improving teamwork. We hypothesized that on average, providers would perceive SIPRs as being effective in promoting teamwork, but ratings would differ among professional groups. METHODS: After a factor analysis and internal consistency assessment, a 19-item paper-based questionnaire was used to evaluate providers' perceptions using a 5-point Likert scale. Respondents included L&D nurses, midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists who participate in SIPRs. The primary aim was to evaluate the providers' perceptions of SIPRs and their association with professional roles. The outcome was total response score for each provider, ranging from 19 to 95; perception of SIPRs as being effective in promoting teamwork was defined as having a total response score of >66.5 (mean score, >3.5 per question). A univariable linear regression model was performed, followed by a multivariable analysis adjusting for predictors that modified the outcome; predictors included years of professional practice, years of experience on the L&D suite, number of clinical work hours worked weekly, and principal shift assignment among nurses. The associations between these predictors and providers' perceptions were assessed as a secondary aim. RESULTS: A total of 234 practitioners responded (100% response rate). The mean total response score (SD) for all providers was 73.3 (9.5). After multivariable adjustment, the mean total response scores were significantly higher for obstetric providers than for anesthesia (Δ mean, 6.5, 95% CI, 0.3, 12.7 P = .036) and midwifery (Δ mean, 12.5, 95% CI, 2.0, 23.0, P = .009) providers. Providers scored significantly lower if they worked >60 clinical hours per week compared with ≤20 (Δ mean, −13.7, 95% CI, −25.3, −2.1, P = .009), 21–40 (Δ mean, −8.0, 95% CI, −15.8, −0.09, P = .049), or 41–60 hours (Δ mean, −8.1, 95% CI, −14.5, −1.7, P = .004). Duration of practice in professional role and experience on the L&D suite were not predictive of SIPRs ratings. CONCLUSIONS: On average, providers on the L&D suite perceive SIPRs as being effective in promoting teamwork. Perception ratings were significantly influenced by professional role and number of clinical hours worked weekly, suggesting that these factors should be explored in future research to minimize perception gaps and support a dynamic culture of interprofessional collaboration.

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Breaking Bad (Tissue): Epidural Adhesiolysis and Its Outcomes

No abstract available

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Exercise Combined With Ultrasound Attenuates Neuropathic Pain in Rats Associated With Downregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α, but With Upregulation of IL-10

imageBACKGROUND: Although there are several evidences that suggest efficacies of therapeutic ultrasound (TU) or treadmill exercise (TE) to alleviate nerve injury—associated pain, molecular mechanisms are less clear. We aimed to investigate the impact of TU and/or TE on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and their roles of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into (n = 10 per group) sham operation (sham), CCI procedure followed by false application of TU (CCI + TU0), CCI procedure followed by false application of TU and TE (CCI + TU0 + TE), CCI, and CCI procedure followed by TU alone (CCI + TU), TE alone (CCI + TE), or both TU and TE (CCI + TU + TE) groups. TU and TE were administered daily, starting on postoperative day 8 (POD 8) for 3 weeks. Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and IL-6 in the sciatic nerve were assessed on PODs 14 and 28. Data were analyzed by 1-way, 2-way, or 3-way analysis of variance of repeated measures or 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: After the interventions, there was statistical significance (all P ≤ .0001) between the groups for all outcome parameters, all in favor of the experimental group: 4.2 for mean mechanical withdrawal thresholds (95% confidence interval, 1.8–7.6) and 4.8 for mean thermal withdrawal latencies (95% confidence interval, 2.2–8.1). TU and/or TE provoked an increase in mechanical withdrawal thresholds and thermal withdrawal latencies in CCI rats. TU + TE was more effective to reverse pain hypersensitivity than having each treatment alone. On PODs 14 and 28, the CCI rats exhibited an upregulation of sciatic TNF-α and IL-6 expression, whereas TU or TE alone or TU + TE combination prevented the upregulation. TU and/or TE also showed the upregulation of less IL-10 expression in the sciatic nerve. CONCLUSIONS: We found that TU + TE is better than TU or TE alone for treating neuropathic pain. TU and/or TE for pain management may be straightly associated with less TNF-α and IL-6 expression and more IL-10 expression.

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Even a Child of Four Could Do It!a Maximizing Efficiency in a Preoperative Clinic Using the Patient-Centered Anesthesia Triage System

No abstract available

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Pocket Anesthesia

No abstract available

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Reassessing RECESS: In Pursuit of the Golden Ratio of Hemostatic Components to Red Blood Cells

No abstract available

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In Response

No abstract available

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Preoperative Process Quality Improvement: Value Is in the Eye of the Beholder

No abstract available

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Deep Neuromuscular Block and Surgical Conditions During Bariatric Surgery

No abstract available

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Surveying the Literature: Synopsis of Recent Key Publications

No abstract available

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Red Cell Transfusion–Associated Hemolysis in Cardiac Surgery: An Observational Cohort Study

imageBACKGROUND: Red cell viability is impaired during storage, resulting in excess hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. As a result, transfusions may oversaturate the hemoglobin clearance pathways, resulting in cell-free hemoglobin and iron toxicity in susceptible patients, such as those undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. To explore this hypothesis, we assessed the relationship of red cell transfusions with cell-free hemoglobin and transferrin saturation levels in a consecutive cohort of cardiac surgical patients. METHODS: Laboratory measures of hemolysis were obtained in consecutive cardiac surgical patients 15 to 30 minutes after bypass. Multivariable regression models controlling for important confounders were constructed to determine the independent relationship of red cell transfusions during bypass with cell-free hemoglobin and transferrin saturation levels post-bypass, analyzed as continuous variables (linear regression) and categorized at the 90th percentiles (logistic regression). RESULTS: Of the 543 included patients, 82 (15.1%) received red cell transfusions during bypass (median 1; interquartile range 1–2 units). Cell-free hemoglobin was detected in all patients (mean 11.3; standard deviation ± 9.3; 90th percentile 18 μmol/L), and transferrin saturations were relatively high (mean 41 ± 19%; 90th percentile 66%). After controlling for confounders, transfusions were not associated with cell-free hemoglobin (P > .25 in linear and logistic regression) but were directly associated with transferrin saturation levels (P 66%) transferrin saturation levels. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the hypothesis that transfusion-related adverse events may be in part caused by the excessive hemolysis of transfused red cells, which can lead to acute iron overload and related toxicity. This suggests that strategies aimed at avoiding or mitigating transfusion-related acute iron overload may improve the safety of red cell transfusions.

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Haptoglobin Administration in Cardiovascular Surgery Patients: Its Association With the Risk of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury

imageBACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) often occurs after cardiac surgery. During cardiac surgery, plasma free hemoglobin (fHb) would increase due to hemolysis. Since plasma fHb is thought to be nephrotoxic, haptoglobin, which is an fHb scavenger, may have the potential to prevent postoperative AKI (pAKI). However, there have been few studies in which the association of intraoperative administration of haptoglobin with the incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery was assessed. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational study to assess the independent association of intraoperative administration of haptoglobin with the incidence pAKI in cardiac surgery patients. We screened cardiac surgery patients who required cardiopulmonary bypass from 2008 to 2015. We excluded patients who required renal replacement therapy preoperatively. We also excluded patients in whom descending aortic replacement was performed. pAKI was defined according to AKI Network criteria. A propensity score–matched model was used to adjust confounders. For sensitive analysis, we further developed a logistic regression model. RESULTS: We included 1326 patients in this study. The incidence of AKI in the total cohort was 25.5% (338 patients). Haptoglobin was administered in 260 patients (19.6%). In the crude cohort, the incidence of AKI in patients with haptoglobin administration was 24.6%, which was not significantly different from the incidence of 25.7% in those without haptoglobin administration (P = .72; odds ratio, 0.94 [95% confidence interval, 0.69–1.29]). After propensity score matching, we had 249 patients in each group (for a total of 498 patients). In this propensity score–matched cohort, the incidence of AKI in patients with haptoglobin administration was 22.5%, which was significantly lower than the incidence of 30.9% in those without haptoglobin administration (P = .033; odds ratio, 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). In our logistic regression model for the risk of pAKI, haptoglobin administration was independently associated with decreased risk of AKI (P = .029; adjusted odds ratio, 0.54 [0.31, 0.93]). CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating, single-center retrospective observational study, intraoperative administration of haptoglobin was independently associated with lower risk of AKI after cardiovascular surgery.

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A Retrospective Study to Evaluate the Effect of Concentration of Hypertonic Saline on Efficacy and Safety of Epidural Adhesiolysis

imageBACKGROUND: Percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis (PEA) is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed to relieve low back and/or lower limb pain secondary to adhesions or scarring in the epidural space that is refractory to conservative treatment. The optimal concentration of hypertonic saline might be an important factor in the safety and efficacy of PEA. We evaluated differences in the efficacy and safety of 2 concentrations of hypertonic saline (5% and 10%) used in lumbar PEA at our institutions in a retrospective study. METHODS: Patients who received lumbar PEA between January 2009 and June 2014 at either of 2 large civilian teaching institutions in South Korea were assigned to the 5% or 10% groups according to the osmolality of saline. The primary outcome of this study was the difference in change in the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) scores of low back and leg pain from baseline to 6 months after PEA between patients in the 2 groups. The number of additional epidural injections, patients' satisfaction with PEA, and any complications that occurred within 6 months after PEA were reviewed. RESULTS: This study included 543 patients (5% group, 333; 10% group, 210). Post-PEA NRS pain scores were significantly lower compared with those at baseline in both groups; however, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups at 6 months or any time point after PEA with regard to any of the clinical characteristics, except infusion-related pain, which exhibited borderline significance for greater scores in the 10% group compared with those in the 5% group (P = .041). Multivariable linear regression analysis with adjustments for covariates, including the number of additional epidural injections, revealed no significant association between patient group and the decrease in NRS pain scores at 6 months of follow-up. Transient adverse events related to PEA were recorded in 3 patients (10% group, 2; 5% group, 1). CONCLUSIONS: In PEA, 5% hypertonic saline exhibited similar positive outcomes after 6 months of follow-up as 10% hypertonic saline, with less infusion-related pain. This result suggests that infusion of 5% hypertonic saline may be considered as an alternative to 10% hypertonic saline in lumbar PEA. Further prospective randomized studies are required to better appreciate the outcome with regard to the use of different concentrations of hypertonic saline for PEA.

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