Τετάρτη, 29 Αυγούστου 2018

The influence of Al 3+ on DNA methylation and sequence changes in the triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) genome

Abstract

Abiotic stressors such as drought, salinity, and exposure to heavy metals can induce epigenetic changes in plants. In this study, liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), methylation amplified fragment length polymorphisms (metAFLP), and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms (MSAP) analysis was used to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) stress on DNA methylation levels in the crop species triticale. RP-HPLC, but not metAFLP or MSAP, revealed significant differences in methylation between Al-tolerant (T) and non-tolerant (NT) triticale lines. The direction of methylation change was dependent on phenotype and organ. Al treatment increased the level of global DNA methylation in roots of T lines by approximately 0.6%, whereas demethylation of approximately 1.0% was observed in NT lines. DNA methylation in leaves was not affected by Al stress. The metAFLP and MSAP approaches identified DNA alterations induced by Al3+ treatment. The metAFLP technique revealed sequence changes in roots of all analyzed triticale lines and few mutations in leaves. MSAP showed that demethylation of CCGG sites reached approximately 3.97% and 3.75% for T and NT lines, respectively, and was more abundant than de novo methylation, which was observed only in two tolerant lines affected by Al stress. Three of the MSAP fragments showed similarity to genes involved in abiotic stress.



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Three-Dimensional Coprinting of Liquid Metals for Directly Fabricating Stretchable Electronics

3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, Ahead of Print.


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Mushroom Body Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Dynamic Regulation of Learning and Memory Genes After Acquisition of Long-Term Courtship Memory in Drosophila

The formation and recall of long-term memory (LTM) requires neuron activity-induced gene expression. Transcriptome analysis has been used to identify genes that have altered expression after memory acquisition, however, we still have an incomplete picture of the transcriptional changes that are required for LTM formation. The complex spatial and temporal dynamics of memory formation creates significant challenges in defining memory-relevant gene expression changes. The Drosophila mushroom body (MB) is a signaling hub in the insect brain that integrates sensory information to form memories across several different experimental memory paradigms. Here, we performed transcriptome analysis in the MB at two time points after the acquisition of LTM: 1 hour and 24 hours. The MB transcriptome was compared to biologically paired whole head (WH) transcriptomes. In both, we identified more transcript level changes at 1 hour after memory acquisition (WH = 322, MB = 302) than at 24 hours (WH = 23, MB = 20). WH samples showed downregulation of developmental genes and upregulation of sensory response genes. In contrast, MB samples showed vastly different changes in transcripts involved in biological processes that are specifically related to LTM. MB-downregulated genes were highly enriched for metabolic function. MB-upregulated genes were highly enriched for known learning and memory processes, including calcium-mediated neurotransmitter release and cAMP signalling. The neuron activity inducible genes Hr38 and sr were also specifically induced in the MB. These results highlight the importance of sampling time and cell type in capturing biologically relevant transcript level changes involved in learning and memory. Our data suggests that MB cells transiently upregulate known memory-related pathways after memory acquisition and provides a critical frame of reference for further investigation into the role of MB-specific gene regulation in memory.



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Combinatorial Genetic Control of Rpd3S Through Histone H3K4 and H3K36 Methylation in Budding Yeast

Much of euchromatin regulation occurs through reversible methylation of histone H3 lysine-4 and lysine-36 (H3K4me and H3K36me). Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we previously found that levels of H3K4me modulated temperature sensitive alleles of the transcriptional elongation complex Spt6-Spn1 through an unknown H3K4me effector pathway. Here we identify the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex as the H3K4me effector underlying these Spt6-Spn1 genetic interactions. Exploiting these Spt6-Spn1 genetic interactions, we show that H3K4me and H3K36me collaboratively impact Rpd3S function in an opposing manner. H3K36me is deposited by the histone methyltransferase Set2 and is known to promote Rpd3S function at RNA PolII transcribed open reading frames. Using genetic epistasis experiments, we find that mutations perturbing the Set2-H3K36me-Rpd3S pathway suppress the growth defects caused by temperature sensitive alleles of SPT6 and SPN1, illuminating that this pathway antagonizes Spt6-Spn1. Using these sensitive genetic assays, we also identify a role for H3K4me in antagonizing Rpd3S that functions through the Rpd3S subunit Rco1, which is known to bind H3 N-terminal tails in a manner that is prevented by H3K4me. Further genetic experiments reveal that the H3K4 and H3K36 demethylases JHD2 and RPH1 mediate this combinatorial control of Rpd3S. Finally, our studies also show that the Rpd3L complex, which acts at promoter-proximal regions of PolII transcribed genes, counters Rpd3S for genetic modulation of Spt6-Spn1, and that these two Rpd3 complexes balance the activities of each other. Our findings present the first evidence that H3K4me and H3K36me act combinatorially to control Rpd3S.



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Hierarchical Assessment of Mutation Properties in Daphnia magna

Understanding the context-dependence of spontaneous mutations is crucial to predicting evolutionary trajectories. In this experiment, the impact of genetic background and trait-type on mutational susceptibility was investigated. Mutant and non-mutant lines of six unique genotypes from two populations of Daphnia magna were phenotypically assayed using a common-garden experiment. Morphological, life-history, and behavioral traits were measured and estimates of the mutation parameters were generated. The mutation parameters varied between the populations and among genotypes, suggesting differential susceptibility to mutation depending upon genomic background. Traits also varied in their susceptibility to mutation with behavioral traits evolving more rapidly than life-history and morphological traits. These results may reflect the unique selection histories of these populations.



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Bilateral independent periodic discharges are associated with electrographic seizures and poor outcome: a case-control study

Bilateral independent periodic discharges (BIPDs; previously known as bilateral independent periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges or BIPLEDs) are EEG abnormalities consisting of discharges that occur repeatedly with a quantifiable and nearly regular inter-discharge interval, and independently (asynchronously) over each hemisphere. (Hirsch et al. 2013) The prevalence and clinical and prognostic significance of BIPDs in patients undergoing continuous EEG monitoring (CEEG) remains unclear. One study previously showed prevalence of 0.1% in unselected sets of inpatient and outpatient EEGs (Chatrian et al.

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Neurophysiological Monitoring during Cervical Spine Surgeries: Longitudinal Costs and Outcomes

Cervical spine surgeries are among the most frequent and expensive procedures performed in the United States. They commonly address disabling neck pain that fails to respond to more conservative measures, through removal of removal of part or all of the damaged disc, sometimes followed by fusion of adjacent vertebrae with fixation using metallic implants (Irwin et al., 2005). Due to proximity of neural structures, the risks of cervical spine surgery include paralysis from spinal cord injury (iatrogenic myelopathy) and damage to exiting cervical nerve roots resulting in loss of function in the hands or arms (iatrogenic radiculopathy) (Cheung and Luk, 2016).

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Identification of Overweight and Obesity in Low-Income Minority Children by Pediatric Providers and Child Characteristics Associated With Underrecognition

Childhood overweight and obesity remains prevalent. We sought to identify characteristics associated with correct coding of obese and overweight children ages 2-9 years by pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) in an urban, minority clinic.

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Effects of pars intercerebralis removal on circatidal rhythm in the mangrove cricket, Apteronemobius asahinai

Abstract

The circatidal rhythm is an endogenous rhythm corresponding to the tidal cycles, and its neural mechanism remains unknown. The mangrove cricket, Apteronemobius asahinai, possesses both circatidal and circadian clocks, and simultaneously exhibits circatidal and circadian rhythms in its locomotor activity. In a previous study, we showed that surgical removal of the optic lobes, the principal circadian clock locus in crickets, disrupted their circadian rhythm, but not their circatidal rhythm. In this study, we focused on the pars intercerebralis (PI) because surgical removal of the PI disrupts the circadian rhythm and causes arrhythmic activity in some cricket species. After surgical removal of the PI, the proportion of crickets displaying circatidal rhythm decreased, and more than half of the crickets exhibited arrhythmic activity. Surgical removal of the regions around the PI also caused a similar effect on locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the PI and/or its surrounding regions are important not only for circadian but also for circatidal rhythm. This suggests the presence of a neural or hormonal pathway in the PI and/or its surrounding regions that is common to the circatidal and circadian rhythms.



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Unique EMS training opportunity: The Center for Domestic Preparedness

Complete with a mock community and former hospital, the CDP gives responders the opportunity to train on emergency and disaster response

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VEGF‐A165b to the rescue: Vascular integrity and pain sensitization

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Pa. EMS agency crews to wear ballistic vests when responding to calls

The service will use the donation of nearly $15,000 to buy bulletproof vests for each of its full-time employees and additional vests for part-timers

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Videolaryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy for nasotracheal intubation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Related Articles

Videolaryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy for nasotracheal intubation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

J Clin Anesth. 2018 Aug 25;52:6-16

Authors: Jiang J, Ma DX, Li B, Wu AS, Xue FS

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) is a common practice in the oral and maxillofacial surgeries. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine whether videolaryngoscopy (VL) compared with direct laryngoscopy (DL) can lead to better outcomes for NTI in adult surgical patients.
MEASUREMENTS: Only randomised controlled trials comparing VL and DL for NTI were included. The primary outcome was overall success rate and the second outcomes were first-attempt success rate, intubation time, rate of Cormack and Lehane classification 1, rate of Magill Forceps used, rate of postoperative sore throat, and ease of intubation.
MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen studies with 20 comparisons (n = 1052) were included in quantitative synthesis. The overall success rate was similar between two groups (RR, 1.03; p = 0.14; moderate-quality evidence). VL was associated with a higher first-attempt success rate (RR 1.09; p = 0.04; low-quality evidence), a shorten intubation time (MD-6.72 s; p = 0.0001; low-quality evidence), a higher rate of Cormack and Lehane classification 1 (RR, 2.11; p < 0.01; high-quality evidence), a less use of the Magill forceps (RR, 0.11; p < 0.01; high-quality evidence) and a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat (RR, 0.50; p = 0.03; high-quality evidence). Subgroup analysis based on whether with a difficult airway showed higher overall success (p < 0.01) and first-attempt success rates with VL (p = 0.04) in patients with difficult airways; however, these benefits was not shown in patients with a normal airway (p > 0.05); Subgroup analysis based on operators' experience showed that success rate did not differ between groups (p > 0.05), but intubation time was shortened by more than 50s by non-experienced operators (p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis based on different devices used showed that only non-integrated VL led to a shorter intubation time (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The use of VL does not increase the overall success rate of NTI in adult patients with general anesthesia, but it improves the first-attempt success rate and laryngeal visualization, and shortens the intubation time. VL is particularly beneficial for patients with difficult airways.

PMID: 30153543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Food Insecurity, Cardiometabolic Health, and Health Care in U.S.-Mexico Border Immigrant Adults: An Exploratory Study

Abstract

Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to poorer cardiometabolic health and reduced health care access but few studies have examined these issues in the large Mexican immigrant population living on the U.S.-Mexico border. This exploratory study examined the association of HFI with cardiometabolic conditions and health care in 40–84 year urban border immigrants (n = 75). Data were collected on HFI, self-reported and clinical cardiometabolic conditions, health care sources and use. HFI affected 45% of participants. HFI was associated with self-reported and clinical diabetes but not hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. It also was associated with increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations but not source of primary health care or preventative health care use. These findings highlight the need for additional research on the relationship of HFI with cardiometabolic health and health care in border immigrants as well as reassessment of current immigrant food security and health laws and policies.



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What does a butterfly hear? Physiological characterization of auditory afferents in Morpho peleides (Nymphalidae)

Abstract

Many Nymphalidae butterflies possess ears, but little is known about their hearing. The tympanal membrane of butterflies typically comprises distinct inner and outer regions innervated by auditory nerve branches NII and NIII and their respective sensory organs. Using the Blue Morpho butterfly (Morpho peleides) as a model, we characterized threshold and suprathreshold responses of NII and NIII. Both are broadly tuned to 1–20 kHz with best frequencies at 1–3 kHz, but NIII is significantly more sensitive than NII. The compound action potentials (CAPs) of both branches increase their first peak amplitudes and areas in response to higher sound levels. NII and NIII differed in their suprathreshold CAP responses to sound frequencies, with stronger responses to 1–3 and 4–6 kHz, for NIII and NII respectively; results that are consistent with tympanal membrane mechanics. These results indicate that butterflies are capable of amplitude and frequency discrimination. Both auditory branches responded to playbacks of the flight and calls of predatory birds. We propose that the ears of butterflies, like those of many vertebrate prey such as some rabbits and lizards, function primarily in predator risk assessment.



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RNA localization and transport

Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Beat Suter

Abstract

RNA localization serves numerous purposes from controlling development and differentiation to supporting the physiological activities of cells and organisms. After a brief introduction into the history of the study of mRNA localization I will focus on animal systems, describing in which cellular compartments and in which cell types mRNA localization was observed and studied. In recent years numerous novel localization patterns have been described, and countless mRNAs have been documented to accumulate in specific subcellular compartments. These fascinating revelations prompted speculations about the purpose of localizing all these mRNAs. In recent years experimental evidence for an unexpected variety of different functions has started to emerge. Aside from focusing on the functional aspects, I will discuss various ways of localizing mRNAs with a focus on the mechanism of active and directed transport on cytoskeletal tracks. Structural studies combined with imaging of transport and biochemical studies have contributed to the enormous recent progress, particularly in understanding how dynein/dynactin/BicD (DDB) dependent transport on microtubules works. This transport process actively localizes diverse cargo in similar ways to the minus end of microtubules and, at least in flies, also individual mRNA molecules. A sophisticated mechanism ensures that cargo loading licenses processive transport.



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Influence of Regular Physical Activity and Fitness on Stress Reactivity as Measured with the Trier Social Stress Test Protocol: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Psychosocial stress is associated with multiple health complaints. Research to date suggests that regular physical activity (PA) and higher cardiorespiratory fitness may reduce stress reactivity and therefore contribute to a reduction of stress-related risk factors. While previous reviews have not differentiated between stressors, we focus on psychosocial stress elicited with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST).

Objective

Our objective was to examine the effect of regular PA and cardiorespiratory fitness on stress reactivity, with a particular focus on the TSST. The TSST is the laboratory task most widely used to induce socio-evaluative stress and elicits stronger stress reactions than most other cognitive stressor tasks.

Methods

A systematic search within various databases was performed in January 2018. The following outcomes were considered: cortisol, heart rate, psychological stress reactivity, and potential moderators (age, sex, exercise intensity, assessment mode, and psychological constructs).

Results

In total, 14 eligible studies were identified. Cortisol and heart rate reactivity were attenuated by higher PA or better fitness in seven of twelve studies and four of nine studies, respectively. Two of four studies reported smaller increases in anxiety and smaller decreases in calmness in physically active/fitter participants. Three of four studies found that higher PA/fitness was associated with more favorable mood in response to the TSST.

Conclusion

About half of the studies suggested that higher PA/fitness levels were associated with an attenuated response to psychosocial stress. Currently, most evidence is based on cross-sectional analyses. Therefore, a great need for further studies with longitudinal or experimental designs exists.



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Randomized trial of vonoprazan- vs PPI-based third-line triple therapy with sitafloxacin for Helicobacter pylori

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Profile and value of FIB-4 in patients with dual chronic hepatitis C and B

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Peter H. Venables (1923–2017)

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Imaging of Hepatic Fibrosis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to discuss the current imaging techniques for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis (LF).

Recent Findings

Elastography-based techniques are the most widely used imaging methods for the evaluation of LF. Currently, MR elastography (MRE) is the most accurate non-invasive method for detection and staging of LF. Ultrasound-based vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) is the most widely used as it can be easily performed at the point of care but has technical limitations especially in the obese. Innovations and technical improvements continue to evolve in elastography for improving accuracy and avoiding misinterpretation from confounding factors. Other imaging methods including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), hepatocellular contrast-enhanced (HCE) MRI, T1 relaxometry, T1ρ imaging, textural analysis, liver surface nodularity, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and perfusion imaging are promising but need further evaluation and clinical validation.

Summary

MRE is the most accurate imaging technique for assessment of LF.



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Bowel Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injury

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To evaluate and report current evidence regarding the management of bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury. There is a paucity of high-quality large studies on which to base management advice.

Recent Findings

Recent research has focused on defining the nature of symptomatology of bowel dysfunction in SCI and describing the effects on quality of life and social interactions. Technical aspects of colonoscopy have received attention, and aspects of understanding the pathophysiology in relation to both neural and non-neural dysfunction have been studied. There has been refinement and expansion of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for bowel dysfunction in SCI.

Summary

Management of bowel dysfunction in SCI requires a comprehensive and individualized approach, encompassing lifestyle, toileting routine, stimulation, diet, medications, and surgery. Further high-quality research is required to inform best practice.



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Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children and Adults: What Is New in 2018?

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by severe vomiting episodes that alternate with symptom-free periods. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge and highlight most recent data on prevalence, diagnosis, management, and impact of CVS in children and adults.

Recent Findings

Originally thought to be a pediatric disorder, the past decade has witnessed a considerable increase in CVS diagnosed in adults. Despite improved recognition of CVS, without a delineated pathophysiology and specific biomarker, it remains classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Migraines and CVS share a common pathway based on several studies and response to migraine therapy. Recent work has begun to expand the list of comorbidities and identify plausible mechanisms and new therapeutic avenues.

Summary

This review seeks to highlight best practices and novel therapies for CVS based on expert consensus and review of available literature.



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