Κυριακή, 5 Αυγούστου 2018

The Relevance of Spastic Esophageal Disorders as a Diagnostic Category

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review addresses the similarities and differences between the spastic esophageal disorders, including jackhammer esophagus, distal esophageal spasm (DES), and type III (spastic) achalasia. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of each separate disorder are discussed herein, with an emphasis on overlapping and discordant features.

Recent Findings

The Chicago Classification is a hierarchical organizational scheme for esophageal motility disorders, currently in its third iteration, with direct impact on the definitions of these three disorders. Complementary diagnostic tools such as impedance planimetry and novel manometric parameters continue to evolve. The suite of potential treatments for these disorders is also expanding, with progressive interest in the role of peroral endoscopic myotomy alongside established pharmacologic and mechanical interventions.

Summary

Although jackhammer esophagus, distal esophageal spasm, and type III achalasia frequently overlap in terms of their clinical presentation and available management approaches, the divergences in their respective diagnostic criteria suggest that additional study may reveal additional mechanistic distinctions that lead in turn to further refinements in therapeutic decision-making.



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Small Bowel Lesions Mimicking Crohn’s Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Not all injuries of the terminal ileum are Crohn's disease. It is the purpose of this review to consider the differential diagnosis of other acute and chronic ileal lesions.

Recent Findings

The recognition of a granulomatous disease of the terminal ileum, distinct from tuberculosis, dates back over 85 years and perhaps much farther, but over the past decades, many other clinical pathologic entities have been described that are neither tuberculosis nor Crohn's eponymous regional enteritis. In recent years, the catalog of lesions mimicking Crohn's disease of the small bowel and proposals for differential diagnosis and treatment have expanded to include newly reported appendiceal pathology, primary cancers and lymphomas of the intestine, unexpected metastases from distant organs, unusual infections, vasculitides and other ischemic conditions, Behçet's disease, endometriosis, and drug reactions.

Summary

A diagnosis of Crohn's disease should not be a reflex action in the face of small bowel structural or inflammatory lesions without consideration of pathology in adjacent organs, primary and metastatic lesions of the small intestine, infections, vascular diseases, infiltrative diseases, drug injury, or other "idiopathic" conditions.



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EMT - Hayfield Community Ambulance

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