Τρίτη, 5 Ιουνίου 2018

Perioperative management of patients with cancer pain treated with opioids: a retrospective study

Abstract

Purpose

We retrospectively studied perioperative management of patients receiving opioid treatment for cancer pain to facilitate establishing a standard policy for our institute.

Methods

Subjects were patients who had been administered strong opioids for cancer pain and had undergone surgery with general anesthesia. We divided the patients into groups C and D. Group C was comprised of patients who had been administered their baseline opioids continuously during the perioperative period, and group D of those who had discontinued baseline opioid use during this period.

Results

We identified 70 evaluable patients, 36 in group C and 34 in group D. The intraoperative anesthesia courses were similar, being uneventful, in all cases. With respect to postoperative adverse effects within 24 h after awakening from anesthesia, severe adverse effects (additional administration of more than four analgesics and intense agitation) were significantly more frequent in group D than in group C (12 vs 1, respectively. p = 0.004). Univariate analysis revealed that baseline opioid discontinuation was the only factor associated with severe adverse effects [odds ratio 12.6, 95% confidence interval (1.49–105.8), p = 0.01].

Conclusion

Discontinuation of baseline opioid increased adverse effects in the early postoperative period, which were attributed to exacerbation of early postoperative pain.



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A Cyclin E Centered Genetic Network Contributes to Alcohol-Induced Variation in Drosophila Development

Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes a wide range of adverse physiological, behavioral and cognitive consequences. However, identifying allelic variants and genetic networks associated with variation in susceptibility to prenatal alcohol exposure is challenging in human populations, since time and frequency of exposure and effective dose cannot be determined quantitatively and phenotypic manifestations are diverse. Here, we harnessed the power of natural variation in the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to identify genes and genetic networks associated with variation in sensitivity to developmental alcohol exposure. We measured development time from egg to adult and viability of 201 DGRP lines reared on regular or ethanol- supplemented medium and identified polymorphisms associated with variation in susceptibility to developmental ethanol exposure. We also documented genotype-dependent variation in sensorimotor behavior after developmental exposure to ethanol using the startle response assay in a subset of 39 DGRP lines. Genes associated with development, including development of the nervous system, featured prominently among genes that harbored variants associated with differential sensitivity to developmental ethanol exposure. Many of them have human orthologs and mutational analyses and RNAi targeting functionally validated a high percentage of candidate genes. Analysis of genetic interaction networks identified Cyclin E (CycE) as a central, highly interconnected hub gene. Cyclin E encodes a protein kinase associated with cell cycle regulation and is prominently expressed in ovaries. Thus, exposure to ethanol during development of Drosophila melanogaster might serve as a genetic model for translational studies on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.



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ECT: a new look at an old friend

Purpose of review Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment option in psychiatry is advancing day by day. This review discusses new advancements in ECT with regards to anesthetic variables, stimulus, and response variables along with their impact on clinical outcomes. Recent findings Anesthetic variables influence clinical efficacy and patient tolerance of ECT. Although etomidate or a ketamine–propofol combination may be the first choice for many clinicians, the search for ideal induction agent continues. Dexmedetomidine, remifentanil, or ketamine may aid in augmentation of ECT; however, they are not recommended routinely. A systematic procedure for hyperventilation of the patient has been shown to have clinical repercussions. Optimizing anesthesia-ECT time interval (ASTI) has a significant impact on the success of the procedure. BIS monitoring alone cannot be relied upon for timing stimulus. High-dose brief pulse right unilateral ECT represents an acceptable first-line form of treatment, though there is currently no 'gold standard'. Other stimulus variations such as focal electrically administered seizure therapy, individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy, magnetic seizure therapy, left unilateral and left anterior right temporal electrode placements are explored to reduce memory effects. EEG ictal indices may be relied upon for seizure adequacy, and therefore may be used to both guide treatment and predict the outcome of the procedure. Summary Modern ECT is streamlined by augmentation with drugs, hyperventilation, optimizing anesthesia-ECT time interval, and various stimulus parameters guided by seizure adequacy markers. Correspondence to Pavan Kumar Kadiyala, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, ASR Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru, AP 534005, India. Tel: +919980731234; e-mail: drkadiyala2@gmail.com Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Do we really need an anesthesiologist for routine colonoscopy in American Society of Anesthesiologist 1 and 2 patients?

Purpose of review In an era where healthcare costs are being heavily scrutinized, every expenditure is reviewed for medical necessity. Multiple national gastroenterology societies have issued statements regarding whether an anesthesiologist is necessary for routine colonoscopies in American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) 1 and 2 patients. Recent findings A large percentage of patients are undergoing screening colonoscopy without any sedation at all, which would not require an independent practitioner to administer medications. Advances in technique and technology are making colonoscopies less stimulating. Advantages to administering sedation, including propofol, have been seen even when not administered under the direction of an anesthesiologist and complications seem to be rare. The additional cost of having monitored anesthesia care appears to be a driving factor in whether a patient receives it or not. Summary A large multiinstitutional randomized control trial would be necessary to rule out potential confounders and to determine whether there is a safety benefit or detriment to having anesthesiologist-directed care in the setting of routine colonoscopies in ASA 1 and 2 patients. Further discussion would be necessary regarding what the monetary value of that effect is if a small difference were to be detected. Correspondence to Jeffrey D. White, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, PO Box 100254, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Tel: +1 352 273 6575; e-mail: jwhite@anest.ufl.edu Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Association between non-variceal spontaneous portosystemic shunt and outcomes after TIPS in cirrhosis

Whether pre-existing nonvariceal spontaneous portosystemic shunts (SPSSs) in cirrhotic patients affect outcomes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and whether they need to be closed remains unclear.

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Incidence of HCV infection amongst HIV positive men who had sex with men and prevalence data from patients followed at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of Modena, Italy

Men who had sex with men (MSM) living with HIV are at higher risk of developing sexual transmitted diseases. This study reports two years incidence rate and prevalence of HCV in a cohort of HIV positive MSM.

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Narrative Medicine in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and a rehabilitation project based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)

Objective To systematize the disability condition related to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and Narrative Medicine approach as a common tool to identify a patient's functional problems. Once identified, this can be used as the basis for an individual rehabilitation project. Design An observational study on patients residing in a central region of Italy with a diagnosis of ALS. The narrative approach involved listening to the patients' stories while guiding them with a semi-structured questionnaire of 19 ICF items taken from the WHO-DAS II. A score from 0-4 for capacity (C) and performance (P) was adopted to evaluate each patient's functioning in their daily living activities. Results The ICF questionnaire was able to discriminate among responders (p

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Objective Predictors of 'Early Tolerance' to Ventral Intermediate Nucleus of Thalamus Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor Patients

Essential tremor (ET), is the most common cause of adult onset tremors. The diagnosis is made clinically on the basis of chronic, disabling action tremors. The phenotype is variable and heterogeneous; some patients experience a gradual increase in severity and disability over the years, others developed generalized tremors, including legs, head, and voice; and some individuals evolve into a pancerebellar syndrome that includes limb dysmetria and gait ataxia. In accordance with the varied clinical presentation, the tremor may be generated by different pathophysiologic mechanisms, with important therapeutic and prognostic implications(Louis et al.

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Magnetoencephalography and Ictal SPECT in Patients with Failed Epilepsy Surgery

Approximately 30% of patients with intractable focal epilepsy still have recurring seizures after the first resective surgery (Spencer and Huh, 2008). In these patients, re-evaluation for a potential reoperation can be a worthwhile attempt. Previous studies reported reoperation rates to be between 35.9% and 65.2% in patients with unfavorable outcome after initial surgery; seizure-free rate vary considerably among studies and ranged from 9.5 to 57.1%, and was estimated at 36.6% across all the studies (Surges and Elger, 2013).

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Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Chronic Pain From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists

Background Over the past 2 decades, the use of intravenous ketamine infusions as a treatment for chronic pain has increased dramatically, with wide variation in patient selection, dosing, and monitoring. This has led to a chorus of calls from various sources for the development of consensus guidelines. Methods In November 2016, the charge for developing consensus guidelines was approved by the boards of directors of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and, shortly thereafter, the American Academy of Pain Medicine. In late 2017, the completed document was sent to the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committees on Pain Medicine and Standards and Practice Parameters, after which additional modifications were made. Panel members were selected by the committee chair and both boards of directors based on their expertise in evaluating clinical trials, past research experience, and clinical experience in developing protocols and treating patients with ketamine. Questions were developed and refined by the committee, and the groups responsible for addressing each question consisted of modules composed of 3 to 5 panel members in addition to the committee chair. Once a preliminary consensus was achieved, sections were sent to the entire panel, and further revisions were made. In addition to consensus guidelines, a comprehensive narrative review was performed, which formed part of the basis for guidelines. Results Guidelines were prepared for the following areas: indications; contraindications; whether there was evidence for a dose-response relationship, or a minimum or therapeutic dose range; whether oral ketamine or another N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist was a reasonable treatment option as a follow-up to infusions; preinfusion testing requirements; settings and personnel necessary to administer and monitor treatment; the use of preemptive and rescue medications to address adverse effects; and what constitutes a positive treatment response. The group was able to reach consensus on all questions. Conclusions Evidence supports the use of ketamine for chronic pain, but the level of evidence varies by condition and dose range. Most studies evaluating the efficacy of ketamine were small and uncontrolled and were either unblinded or ineffectively blinded. Adverse effects were few and the rate of serious adverse effects was similar to placebo in most studies, with higher dosages and more frequent infusions associated with greater risks. Larger studies, evaluating a wider variety of conditions, are needed to better quantify efficacy, improve patient selection, refine the therapeutic dose range, determine the effectiveness of nonintravenous ketamine alternatives, and develop a greater understanding of the long-term risks of repeated treatments. Accepted for publication March 17, 2018. Address correspondence to: Steven P. Cohen, MD, 550 N Broadway, Suite 301 Baltimore, MD 21029 (e-mail: scohen40@jhmi.edu). Accepted for publication March 17, 2018. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the US Department of the Army or the Department of Defense. Because this document has neither been presented to nor approved by either the American Society of Anesthesiologists Board of Directors or House of Delegates, it is not an official or approved statement or policy of the Society. Variances from the recommendations contained in the document may be acceptable based on the judgment of the responsible anesthesiologist. S.P.C. is funded in part by a Congressional Grant from the Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (SAP grant 111726), which also paid for Open Access publication. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.rapm.org). Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Acute Pain Management From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists

Background Ketamine infusions have been used for decades to treat acute pain, but a recent surge in usage has made the infusions a mainstay of treatment in emergency departments, in the perioperative period in individuals with refractory pain, and in opioid-tolerant patients. The widespread variability in patient selection, treatment parameters, and monitoring indicates a need for the creation of consensus guidelines. Methods The development of acute pain ketamine guidelines grew as a corollary from the genesis of chronic pain ketamine guidelines. The charge for the development of acute pain ketamine guidelines was provided by the Boards of Directors of both the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and the American Academy of Pain Medicine, who approved the document along with the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committees on Pain Medicine and Standards and Practice Parameters. The committee chair developed questions based on input from the committee during conference calls, which the committee then refined. Groups of 3 to 5 panel members and the committee chair were responsible for answering individual questions. After preliminary consensus was achieved, the entire committee made further revisions via e-mail and conference calls. Results Consensus guidelines were prepared in the following areas: indications, contraindications for acute pain and whether they differ from those for chronic pain, the evidence for the use of ketamine as an adjunct to opioid-based therapy, the evidence supporting patient-controlled ketamine analgesia, the use of nonparenteral forms of ketamine, and the subanesthetic dosage range and whether the evidence supports those dosages for acute pain. The group was able to reach consensus on the answers to all questions. Conclusions Evidence supports the use of ketamine for acute pain in a variety of contexts, including as a stand-alone treatment, as an adjunct to opioids, and, to a lesser extent, as an intranasal formulation. Contraindications for acute pain are similar to those for chronic pain, partly based on the observation that the dosage ranges are similar. Larger studies evaluating different acute pain conditions are needed to enhance patient selection, determine the effectiveness of nonparenteral ketamine alternatives, define optimal treatment parameters, and develop protocols optimizing safety and access to care. Accepted for publication March 7, 2018. Address correspondence to: Steven P. Cohen, MD, 550 N Broadway, Suite 301, Baltimore, MD 21029 (e-mail: scohen40@jhmi.edu). S.P.C. is funded in part by a Congressional grant from the Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (SAP grant 111726). The authors declare no conflict of interest. The opinions or assertions contained herein are those of the authors, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Academy of Pain Medicine and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense. Because this document has neither been presented to nor approved by either the ASA Board of Directors or House of Delegates, it is not an official or approved statement or policy of the Society. Variances from the recommendations contained in the document may be acceptable based on the judgment of the responsible anesthesiologist. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Objective Predictors of 'Early Tolerance' to Ventral Intermediate Nucleus of Thalamus Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor Patients

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Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Shabbir Hussain Merchant, Sheng-Han Kuo, Yu Qiping, Linda Winfield, Guy McKhann, Sameer Sheth, Seth L. Pullman, Blair Ford
ObjectiveTo identify pre-operative clinical and computerized spiral analysis characteristics that may help ascertain which patients with Essential Tremor (ET) will exhibit 'early tolerance' to ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus (Vim) deep brain stimulation (DBS).MethodsIdentification of comparative characteristics of defined cases of 'early tolerance' versus patients with sustained satisfactory response treated with Vim DBS surgery for medically-refractory ET, based on retrospective chart review by a clinician blinded to the findings of computerized spiral analysis.ResultsStatistically significant differences in two spiral analysis indices, SWVI and DoS, were found in the dominant upper limbs of patients who developed 'early tolerance', whereas the clinical characteristics were not significantly different.ConclusionObjective measurements of upper limb kinematics using graphonomic tests like spiral analysis should be considered in the pre-operative evaluation for DBS, especially in the setting of moderate-severe predominantly action and proximal postural tremors.SignificanceOurs is the first investigation looking into the pre-operative clinical and objective physiologic characteristics of the patients who develop 'early tolerance' to Vim DBS for the treatment of essential tremor. The study has significant implications for pre-operative evaluation and potential surgical target selection for the treatment of tremors.



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Using genetic data to strengthen causal inference in observational research

Using genetic data to strengthen causal inference in observational research

Using genetic data to strengthen causal inference in observational research, Published online: 05 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0020-3

Various types of observational studies can provide statistical associations between factors, such as between an environmental exposure and a disease state. This Review discusses the various genetics-focused statistical methodologies that can move beyond mere associations to identify (or refute) various mechanisms of causality, with implications for responsibly managing risk factors in health care and the behavioural and social sciences.

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Rehabilitation robots for the treatment of sensorimotor deficits: a neurophysiological perspective

The past decades have seen rapid and vast developments of robots for the rehabilitation of sensorimotor deficits after damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Many of these innovations were technology-driv...

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Experience in colon sparing surgery in North America: advanced endoscopic approaches for complex colorectal lesions

Abstract

Background

Need for colon sparing interventions for premalignant lesions not amenable to conventional endoscopic excision has stimulated interest in advanced endoscopic approaches. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience with these techniques.

Methods

A retrospective review was conducted of a prospectively collected database of all patients referred between 2011 and 2015 for colorectal resection of benign appearing deemed endoscopically unresectable by conventional endoscopic techniques. Patients were counseled for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) with possible combined endoscopic–laparoscopic surgery (CELS) or alternatively colorectal resection if unable to resect endoscopically or suspicion for cancer. Lesion characteristic, resection rate, complications, and outcomes were evaluated.

Results

110 patients were analyzed [mean age 64 years, female gender 55 (50%), median body mass index 29.4 kg/m2]. Indications for interventions were large polyp median endoscopic size 3 cm (range 1.5–6.5) and/or difficult location [cecum (34.9%), ascending colon (22.7%), transverse colon (14.5%), hepatic flexure (11.8%), descending colon (6.3%), sigmoid colon (3.6%), rectum (3.6%), and splenic flexure (2.6%)]. Lesion morphology was sessile (N = 98, 93%) and pedunculated (N = 12, 7%). Successful endoscopic resection rate was 88.2% (N = 97): ESD in 69 patients and CELS in 28 patients. Complication rate was 11.8% (13/110) [delayed bleeding (N = 4), perforation (N = 3), organ-space surgical site infection (SSI) (N = 2), superficial SSI (N = 1), and postoperative ileus (N = 3)]. Out of 110 patients, 13 patients (11.8%) required colectomy for technical failure (7 patients) or carcinoma (6 patients). During a median follow-up of 16 months (range 6–41 months), 2 patients had adenoma recurrence.

Conclusions

Advanced endoscopic surgery appears to be a safe and effective alternative to colectomy for patients with complex premalignant lesions deemed unresectable with conventional endoscopic techniques.



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Variation in laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery across England: a 5-year review

Abstract

Background

Laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (LARS) remains central to the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease but the scale and variation in provision in England is unknown. The aims of this study were firstly to examine the processes and outcomes of anti-reflux surgery in England and compare them to national guidelines and secondly to explore potential variations in practice nationally and establish peer benchmarks.

Methods

All adult patients who underwent LARSin England during the Financial years FY 2011/2012–FY 2016/2017 were identified in the Surgeon's Workload Outcomes and Research Database (SWORD), which is based on the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data warehouse. Outcomes included activity volume, day-case rate, short-stay rate, 2- and 30-day readmission rates and 30-day re-operation rates. Funnel plots were used to identify national variation in practice.

Results

In total, 12,086 patients underwent LARS in England during the study period. The operation rate decreased slightly over the study period from 5.2 to 4.6 per 100,000 people. Most outcomes were in line with national guidelines including the conversion rate (0.76%), 30-day re-operation rate (1.43%) and 2- and 30-day readmission rates (1.65 and 8.54%, respectively). The day-case rate was low but increased from 7.4 to 15.1% during the 5-year period. Significant variation was found, particularly in terms of hospital volume, and day-case, short-stay and conversion rates.

Conclusion

Although overall outcomes are comparable to studies from other countries, there is significant variation in anti-reflux surgery activity and outcomes in England. We recommend that units use these data to drive local quality improvement efforts.



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Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy with reconstruction of the mesentericoportal vein with the parietal peritoneum and the falciform ligament

Abstract

Background

With the improvement of the surgical technique of Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD), indications will be extended to patients with vascular invasion. With LPD, vascular grafts for reconstruction are more frequently needed because adequate mobilization is not always done and vascular grafts can safely facilitate reconstruction. We describe our experience of reconstruction with the falciform ligament.

Methods

Venous reconstruction is performed after removal of the specimen. The falciform ligament is rapidly harvested within the same surgical field and for any size and used for lateral reconstruction of the mesentericoportal vein. Therapeutic anticoagulation is not needed and venous patency was assessed by postoperative CT scan. Since April 2011 and among the 93 patients who underwent LPD, four patients had this procedure.

Results

The mean age was 73 years old (69–77) and 3 were women. Indications for resection were pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 3) and IPMN in severe dysplasia (n = 1) and the mean patch size of 13 mm (10–30). The mean operative time was 397 min (330–480); vascular clamping lasted 54 min (45–60), and mean blood loss was 437 ml (150–1000) and one was transfused. Resection was R0 in patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 3). The postoperative course was uneventful in 3 patients and one patient was re-operated for bile leak and partial venous thrombosis and redo venous reconstruction was done. Complete venous patency was demonstrated in patients (n = 2) who still alive 1 year after resection.

Conclusion

Venous resection will be more frequently done with LPD and vascular grafts more frequently needed. Compared to other available vascular grafts (autogenous, synthetic, cadaveric and bovine pericardium, etc), the parietal peritoneum had the advantages of being rapidly available, easy to harvest by the laparoscopic approach, not expensive, no need for anticoagulation and at lower risk of infection.



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Diagnostic utility of staging abdominal computerized tomography and repeat endoscopy in detecting localization errors at initial endoscopy in colorectal cancer

Abstract

Background

Colonoscopy has a reported localization error rate as high as 21% in detecting colorectal neoplasms. Preoperative repeat endoscopy has been shown to be protective against localization errors. There is a paucity of literature assessing the utility of staging computerized tomography (CT) and repeat endoscopy as diagnostic tools for detecting localization errors following initial endoscopy. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic characteristics of staging CT and repeat endoscopy in correcting localization errors at initial endoscopy.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large tertiary academic center between January 2006 and August 2014. All patients undergoing surgical resection for CRC were identified. Group comparisons were conducted between (1) patients that underwent only staging CT (staging CT group), and (2) patients that underwent staging CT and repeat endoscopy (repeat endoscopy group). The primary outcome was localization error correction rate for errors at initial endoscopy.

Results

594 patients were identified, 196 (33.0%) in the repeat endoscopy group, and 398 (77.0%) patients in the staging CT group. Error rates for each modality were as follows: initial endoscopy 8.8% (95% CI 6.5–11.0), staging CT 9.3% (95% CI 6.5–11.0), and repeat endoscopy 2.6% (95% CI 0.3–4.7); p < 0.01. Repeat endoscopy was superior to staging CT in correcting localization errors for left-sided / rectal lesions (81.2% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.01), right-sided lesions (80.0% vs. 54.5%; p = 0.21), and overall lesions (80.8% vs. 42.3%; p < 0.01). Repeat endoscopy compared to staging CT demonstrated relative risk reduction of 66.7% (95% CI 22–86%), absolute risk reduction of 38.5% (95% CI 14.2–62.8%), and odds ratio of 0.18 (95% CI 0.05–0.61) for correcting errors at initial endoscopy.

Conclusions

Repeat endoscopy in colorectal cancer is superior to staging CT as a diagnostic tool for correcting localization-based errors at initial endoscopy.



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Correction to: Comparison between submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection and video-assisted thoracoscopic enucleation for esophageal submucosal tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer: a randomized controlled trial

Abstract

In the original article, there are two errors in Table 3: 1. There were 8 patients undergoing VATE suffer from moderate fever, not 9. 2. In the fourth line of outcomes, saying "pneumothorax, moderate fever and moderate fever," "moderate fever" was repeated.



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Design and implementation of an electromagnetic ultrasound-based navigation technique for laparoscopic ablation of liver tumors

Abstract

Background

Efficient laparoscopic ablation of liver tumors relies on precise tumor visualization and accurate positioning of ablation probes. This study evaluates positional accuracy and procedural efficiency of a dynamic navigation technique based on electromagnetic-tracked laparoscopic ultrasound (ELUS) for laparoscopic ablation of liver tumors.

Methods

The proposed navigation approach combines intraoperative 2D ELUS-based planning for navigated positioning of ablation probes, with immediate 3D ELUS-based validation of intrahepatic probe position. The environmental influence on electromagnetic-tracking stability was evaluated in the operation room. Accuracy of navigated ablation probe positioning assessed as the target-positioning error (TPE), and procedural efficiency defined as time efforts for target definition/navigated targeting and number of probe repositionings, were evaluated in a laparoscopic model and compared with conventional laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) guidance.

Results

The operation-room environment showed interferences < 1 mm on the EM-tracking system. A total of 60 targeting attempts were conducted by three surgeons, with ten targeting attempts using ELUS and ten using conventional LUS each. Median TPE and time for targeting using ELUS and LUS were 4.2 mm (IQR 2.9–5.3 mm) versus 6 mm (IQR 4.7–7.5 mm), and 39 s (IQR 24–47 s) versus 76 s (IQR 47–121 s), respectively (p < 0.01 each). With ELUS, median time for target definition was 48.5 s, with 0 ablation probe repositionings compared to 17 when using LUS. The navigation technique was rated with a mean score of 85.5 on a Standard Usability Scale.

Conclusions

The proposed ELUS-based navigation approach allows for accurate and efficient targeting of liver tumors in a laparoscopic model. Focusing on a dynamic and tumor-targeted navigation technique relying on intraoperative imaging, this avoids potential inaccuracies due to organ deformation and yields a user-friendly technique for efficient laparoscopic ablation of liver tumors.



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Self-dilation for therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures: towards a systematic approach

Abstract

Background

Patients with therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures (TRBES) suffer from chronic dysphagia and generally require repeated endoscopic dilations. For selected patients, esophageal self-dilation may improve patient's autonomy and reduce the number of endoscopic dilations. We evaluated the clinical course and outcomes of patients who started esophageal self-dilation at our institution.

Methods

This study was a retrospective case series of patients with TRBES who started esophageal self-dilation between 2012 and 2016 at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam. To learn self-dilation using Savary-Gilliard bougie dilators, patients visited the outpatient clinic on a weekly basis where they were trained by a dedicated nurse. Endoscopic dilation was continued until patients were able to perform self-bougienage adequately. The primary outcome was the number of endoscopic dilation procedures before and after initiation of self-dilation. Secondary outcomes were technical success, final bougie size, dysphagia scores, and adverse events.

Results

Seventeen patients started with esophageal self-dilation mainly because of therapy-resistant post-surgical (41%) and caustic (35%) strictures. The technical success rate of learning self-bougienage was 94% (16/17). The median number of endoscopic dilation procedures dropped from 17 [interquartile range (IQR) 11–27] procedures during a median period of 9 (IQR 6–36) months to 1.5 (IQR 0–3) procedures after the start of self-dilation (p < 0.001). The median follow-up after initiation of self-dilation was 17.6 (IQR 11.5–33.3) months. The final bougie size achieved with self-bougienage had a median diameter of 14 (IQR 13–15) mm. All patients could tolerate solid foods (Ogilvie dysphagia score ≤ 1), making the clinical success rate 94% (16/17). One patient (6%) developed a single episode of hematemesis related to self-bougienage.

Conclusions

In this small case series, esophageal self-dilation was found to be successful 94% of patients when conducted under strict guidance. All patients performing self-bougienage achieved a stable situation where they could tolerate solid foods without the need for endoscopic dilation.



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Multimodal radiofrequency ablation versus laparoscopic hepatic resection for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma within Milan criteria in severely cirrhotic patients: long-term favorable outcomes over 10 years

Abstract

Background

Less invasiveness is an important consideration for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in patients with severe cirrhosis.

Methods

Between April 2000 and September 2016, 100 patients with liver damage B underwent multimodal radiofrequency ablation (RFA; n = 62) or laparoscopic hepatic resection (Lap-HR; n = 38) for primary HCC as defined by the Milan criteria. We compared the operative outcomes and patients' survival between the two groups.

Results

The RFA group showed worse liver functions as indicated by indocyanine green retention rate (32.9 vs. 22.4%; p < 0.0001) and serum albumin value (3.3 vs. 3.6 g/dl; p = 0.0029). As expected, RFA was less invasive, as indicated by the differences in operation time (166 vs. 288 min.; p < 0.0001) and blood loss (8 vs. 377 g; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the morbidity rate between the two groups; however, the duration of hospital stay of the RFA group was significantly shorter (7 vs. 11 days; p = 0.0002). There were no significant between-group differences regarding overall or disease-free survival.

Conclusion

Multimodal RFA for HCC in patients with severe cirrhosis is associated with less invasiveness and shorter hospital stays, with no compromise in the patients' survival. In patients with severe cirrhosis, it may be time to consider changing the standard treatment for primary HCC within the Milan criteria to multimodal RFA.



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Using genetic data to strengthen causal inference in observational research



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Effect of circulatory system response to motor control in one-sided contractions

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect one-sided skeletal muscle contraction has on the circulatory system, spinal α-motoneuron excitability, and somatosensory-system-evoked potential.

Method

Nine healthy males maintained tension at 10, 20, and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction in static gripping in right hand. Heart rate, ln high frequency (HF), blood pressure (BP), F-wave, and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) were recorded during gripping task. BP, F-wave and SEP were recorded from left hand (contralateral side from contracting side).

Result and conclusion

There were significant main effects of contractions strength on heart rate (0%: 68.2 ± 6.8 bpm, 10%: 67.6 ± 7.4 bpm, 20%: 69.7 ± 8.5 bpm, 30%: 73.7 ± 9.3 bpm, F3.24=9.18, P < 0.01), systolic BP (0%: 127.7 ± 15 mmHg, 10%: 136.2 ± 13.5 mmHg, 20%: 136.2 ± 13.5 mmHg, 30%: 140.0 ± 17.1 mmHg, F3.24=23.93, P < 0.01), diastolic BP (0%: 69.3 ± 8.5 mmHg, 10%: 76.9 ± 11.1 mmHg, 20%: 79.9 ± 12.5 mmHg, 30%: 86.2 ± 14 mmHg, F3.24=17.09, P < 0.01), and F-wave appearance rate (0%: 29.7 ± 15.6%, 10%: 39.3 ± 20.5%, 20%: 47.5 ± 22.9%, 30%: 55.2 ± 21.8%, F3.24=14.04, P < 0.01). For the ln HF (0%: 5.9 ± 0.6, 10%: 6.3 ± 0.9, 20%: 6.3 ± 1.3, 30%: 6.0 ± 1.0, F3.24=2.43, P = 0.08), F-wave latency (0%: 29.6 ± 1.7 ms, 10%: 26.9 ± 2.1 ms, 20%: 26.5 ± 3.6 ms, 30%: 26.9 ± 2.3 ms, F3.24=0.11, P = 0.96), F-wave amplitude (0%: 2.0 ± 0.9%, 10%: 2.2 ± 0.9%, 20%: 2.3 ± 0.7%, 30%: 2.8 ± 1.1%, F3.24=2.80, P = 0.06), and N20 amplitude (0%: 3.9 ± 1.7 µV, 10%: 3.7 ± 1.7 µV, 20%: 3.9 ± 1.7 µV, 30%: 3.9 ± 1.8 µV, F3.24=0.61, P = 0.62), between the conditions. We conclude that regulation of the circulatory system and motor system has a limited effect on sensory input.



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The rice genome revolution: from an ancient grain to Green Super Rice

The rice genome revolution: from an ancient grain to Green Super Rice

The rice genome revolution: from an ancient grain to Green Super Rice, Published online: 05 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0024-z

Genomic technologies are helping researchers to understand the natural genetic variation that exists in wild and cultivated rice populations. Harnessing this genetic variation will be key to developing Green Super Rice varieties with high yield and low environmental costs.

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Socioeconomic Status and the Physical and Mental Health of Arab and Chaldean Americans in Michigan

Abstract

Research that explains health of Arab and Chaldean Americans relative to the health of non-Arab White Americans is limited but steadily increasing. This study considers whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical and mental health. Data come from a state representative sample of Arab and Chaldean Americans—the 2013 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey and the 2013 Michigan Arab/Chaldean Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (N = 12,837 adults with 536 Arab/Chaldean Americans). Structural equation models examine whether socioeconomic status, operationalized as educational attainment, moderates the relationship between Arab/Chaldean identity and health, and whether physical activity, access to healthcare, and depression mediate the relationship between educational attainment and health. Results indicate that while Arab/Chaldean Americans have poor health relative to non-Arab White Americans, these differences are largely explained by educational differences. Depression, access to healthcare, and physical activity mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and health of Arab/Chaldean Americans.



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Understanding innate preferences of wild bee species: responses to wavelength-dependent selective excitation of blue and green photoreceptor types

Abstract

Bees have a trichromatic vision with ultraviolet, blue, and green photoreceptors in their compound eyes. While the three photoreceptor types comprise the 'color space' at the perceptual level, preferential excitation of one or two of the photoreceptor types has been shown to play an important role in innate color preferences of bumble bees. Bees have been shown to exhibit strong attraction to fluorescence emission exclusively in the blue spectral region. It is not known if emission exclusively in the green spectral region produces similar attraction. Here, we examined responses of wild bees to traps designed to selectively stimulate either the blue or the green photoreceptor using sunlight-induced fluorescence in the 420–480 or 510–540 nm region, respectively. Additionally, we probed how subtle changes in the spectral characteristics of the traps affect the bee captures once a highly selective excitation of the blue photoreceptor is achieved. It was established that selective excitation of the green photoreceptor type was not attractive, in contrast to that of the blue photoreceptor type. However, once a highly selective excitation of the blue photoreceptor type (at ~ 400–480 nm) was achieved, the wild bees favored strong excitation at 430–480 nm over that in the 400–420 nm region.



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Rejoinder to Kret and Straffon

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Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Sergio Jarillo, Alan Fridlund, Carlos Crivelli, Jose-Miguel Fernández-Dols, James A. Russell




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Monitoring Quality Across Home Visiting Models: A Field Test of Michigan’s Home Visiting Quality Assurance System

Abstract

Introduction In order to achieve the positive outcomes with parents and children demonstrated by many home visiting models, home visiting services must be well implemented. The Michigan Home Visiting Initiative developed a tool and procedure for monitoring implementation quality across models referred to as Michigan's Home Visiting Quality Assurance System (MHVQAS). This study field tested the MHVQAS. This article focuses on one of the study's evaluation questions: Can the MHVQAS be applied across models? Methods Eight local implementing agencies (LIAs) from four home visiting models (Healthy Families America, Early Head Start-Home Based, Parents as Teachers, Maternal Infant Health Program) and five reviewers participated in the study by completing site visits, tracking their time and costs, and completing surveys about the process. LIAs also submitted their most recent review by their model developer. The researchers conducted participant observation of the review process. Results Ratings on the MHVQAS were not significantly different between models. There were some differences in interrater reliability and perceived reliability between models. There were no significant differences between models in perceived validity, satisfaction with the review process, or cost to participate. Observational data suggested that cross-model applicability could be improved by assisting sites in relating the requirements of the tool to the specifics of their model. Discussion The MHVQAS shows promise as a tool and process to monitor implementation quality of home visiting services across models. The results of the study will be used to make improvements before the MHVQAS is used in practice.



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Patient-Centered Medical Home and Receipt of Part C Early Intervention Among Young CSHCN and Developmental Disabilities Versus Delays: NS-CSHCN 2009–2010

Abstract

Objective To determine, among a sample of young CSHCN with developmental conditions, (1) characteristics associated with receipt of both patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and Part C early intervention, (2) the association between each PCMH criterion and receipt of Part C generally, and (3) for CSHCN with disabilities versus delays. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2009/10 National Survey of CSHCN. Sample included CSHCN (n = 755) birth to 3 years with a developmental disability or delay that affected their function. Adjusted ordinal regression analysis examined characteristics associated with receiving both PCMH and Part C. Stratified adjusted logistic regression examined the association between PCMH criteria and Part C, by disabilities versus delays. Results 19% of our sample received both PCMH and Part C. Black, non-Hispanic children had lower odds [OR 0.44, 95% CI (0.20, 0.97)] and CSHCN with more severe developmental conditions had higher odds [OR 2.13, 95% CI (1.22, 3.17)] of receiving both services. CSHCN with a PCMH were no more likely to be receiving Part C than those without a PCMH [OR 0.85, 95% CI (0.49, 1.49)]. Receiving any one of the PCMH criterion was not associated with receiving Part C, with one exception. Among CSHCN with delays, effective care coordination was associated with lower odds of Part C [OR 0.46, 95% CI (0.21, 0.97)]. Conclusion Concurrent PCMH and Part C access was low for young CSHCN with developmental conditions affecting their function. Given the overlapping mandates for PCMH and Part C, integrated efforts are warranted to identify if lack of concurrent services in fact reflects unmet service needs.



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The rice genome revolution: from an ancient grain to Green Super Rice



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Left ventricular function and mechanics following prolonged endurance exercise: an update and meta-analysis with insights from novel techniques

Abstract

Background

The cardiac consequences of undertaking endurance exercise are the topic of recent debate. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on a growing body of literature, focusing on left ventricular (LV) function following prolonged endurance exercise over 2 h in duration which have employed novel techniques, including myocardial speckle tracking, to provide a more comprehensive global and regional assessment of LV mechanics.

Methods

Prospective studies were filtered independently following a pre-set criteria, resulting in the inclusion of 27 studies in the analyses. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to determine the weighted mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of LV functional and mechanical data from pre-to-post-exercise. Narrative commentary was also provided where volume of available evidence precluded meta-analysis.

Results

A significant overall reduction in LV longitudinal strain (Ɛ) n = 22 (− 18 ± 1 to − 17 ± 1%; effect size (d) − 9: − 1 to − 0.5%), strain rate n = 10 (SR; d − 0.9: − 0.1.3 to − 0.5 l/s) and twist n = 5 (11.9 ± 2.2 to 8.7 ± 2.2°, d − 1: − 1.6 to − 0.3°) was observed following strenuous endurance exercise (range 120–1740 min) (P < 0.01). A smaller number of studies (n = 4) also reported a non-significant reduction in global circumferential and radial Ɛ (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

The meta-analysis and narrative commentary demonstrated that a reduction in LV function and mechanics is evident following prolonged endurance exercise. The mechanism(s) responsible for these changes are complex and likely multi-factorial in nature and may be linked to right and left ventricular interaction.



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