Παρασκευή, 8 Απριλίου 2016

Neural correlates of behavioral amplitude modulation sensitivity in the budgerigar midbrain

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a crucial feature of many communication signals, including speech. Whereas average discharge rates in the auditory midbrain correlate with behavioral AM sensitivity in rabbits, the neural bases of AM sensitivity in species with human-like behavioral acuity are unexplored. Here, we used parallel behavioral and neurophysiological experiments to explore the neural (midbrain) bases of AM perception in an avian speech mimic, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Behavioral AM sensitivity was quantified using operant conditioning procedures. Neural AM sensitivity was studied using chronically implanted microelectrodes in awake, unrestrained birds. Average discharge rates of multiunit recording sites in the budgerigar midbrain were insufficient to explain behavioral sensitivity to modulation frequencies <100 Hz for both tone- and noise-carrier stimuli, even with optimal pooling of information across recording sites. Neural envelope synchrony, in contrast, could explain behavioral performance for both carrier types across the full range of modulation frequencies studied (16–512 Hz). The results suggest that envelope synchrony in the budgerigar midbrain may underlie behavioral sensitivity to AM. Behavioral AM sensitivity based on synchrony in the budgerigar, which contrasts with rate-correlated behavioral performance in rabbits, raises the possibility that envelope synchrony, rather than average discharge rate, might also underlie AM perception in other species with sensitive AM detection abilities, including humans. These results highlight the importance of synchrony coding of envelope structure in the inferior colliculus. Furthermore, they underscore potential benefits of devices (e.g., midbrain implants) that evoke robust neural synchrony.



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Interleukin-1{beta} activates an Src family kinase to stimulate the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump in hippocampal neurons

The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) plays a major role in clearing Ca2+ from the neuronal cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ clearance rate affects neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and neurotransmission. Here, we examined the modulation of PMCA activity by PTKs in hippocampal neurons. PMCA-mediated Ca2+ clearance slowed in the presence of pyrazolopyrimidine 2, an inhibitor of Src family kinases (SFKs), and accelerated in the presence of C2-ceramide, an activator of PTKs. Ca2+ clearance kinetics were attenuated in cells expressing a dominant-negative Src mutant, suggesting that the pump is tonically stimulated by a PTK. Tonic stimulation was reduced in hippocampal neurons expressing short hairpin (sh)RNA directed to mRNA for Yes. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PMCA isoform 1 (PMCA1) removed tonic stimulation of Ca2+ clearance, indicating that the kinase stimulates PMCA1. IL-1β accelerated Ca2+ clearance in a manner blocked by an IL-1β receptor antagonist or by an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase, the enzyme that produces ceramide. Thus IL-1β activates an SFK to stimulate the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump, decreasing the duration of Ca2+ transients in hippocampal neurons.



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Neural spike-timing patterns vary with sound shape and periodicity in three auditory cortical fields

Mammals perceive a wide range of temporal cues in natural sounds, and the auditory cortex is essential for their detection and discrimination. The rat primary (A1), ventral (VAF), and caudal suprarhinal (cSRAF) auditory cortical fields have separate thalamocortical pathways that may support unique temporal cue sensitivities. To explore this, we record responses of single neurons in the three fields to variations in envelope shape and modulation frequency of periodic noise sequences. Spike rate, relative synchrony, and first-spike latency metrics have previously been used to quantify neural sensitivities to temporal sound cues; however, such metrics do not measure absolute spike timing of sustained responses to sound shape. To address this, in this study we quantify two forms of spike-timing precision, jitter, and reliability. In all three fields, we find that jitter decreases logarithmically with increase in the basis spline (B-spline) cutoff frequency used to shape the sound envelope. In contrast, reliability decreases logarithmically with increase in sound envelope modulation frequency. In A1, jitter and reliability vary independently, whereas in ventral cortical fields, jitter and reliability covary. Jitter time scales increase (A1 < VAF < cSRAF) and modulation frequency upper cutoffs decrease (A1 > VAF > cSRAF) with ventral progression from A1. These results suggest a transition from independent encoding of shape and periodicity sound cues on short time scales in A1 to a joint encoding of these same cues on longer time scales in ventral nonprimary cortices.



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Correction of Mild Iodine Insufficiency Decreases Serum Thyroglobulin in Adults

Clinical Thyroidology Apr 2016, Vol. 28, No. 4: 118-120.


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Does Metformin Protect the Bone Marrow of Patients with Diabetes Treated with 131I for 
Thyroid Cancer?

Clinical Thyroidology Apr 2016, Vol. 28, No. 4: 121-123.


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Predicting Recurrence After Block and Replace Therapy for Graves’ Hyperthyroidism: The GREAT Way to Do It

Clinical Thyroidology Apr 2016, Vol. 28, No. 4: 110-113.


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THYROSIM Is an Online Tool for Estimating Serum TSH, T4, and T3

Clinical Thyroidology Apr 2016, Vol. 28, No. 4: 100-102.


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Patient Characteristics Influence the Nature and Importance of Antithyroid Drug Side Effects

Clinical Thyroidology Apr 2016, Vol. 28, No. 4: 106-109.


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Detection of Small Colony Variants Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Blood Isolates

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Proportions and Risk Factors of Developing Multidrug Resistance Among Patients with Tuberculosis in China: A Population-Based Case–Control Study

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Juvenile Probation Officer Self-Assessed Mental Health Competency as a Predictor of Case Management Practices

Abstract

Justice-involved youth endorse high rates of mental health problems. Juvenile probation is the most common disposition in the justice system and juvenile probation officers (JPOs) are crucial for connecting justice-involved youth with appropriate care. We examined the role of mental health competency on the use of self-report case management strategy types (deterrence, restorative justice, and treatment) by JPOs and whether jurisdiction-level differences were relevant. Results suggest that mental health competency predicted use of restorative justice and treatment strategies and all three strategy types varied at the county level. The role of mental health competency in use of treatment strategies is relevant to connecting justice-involved youth to mental health care. Furthermore, a substantial amount of the variance predicting the use of all three strategies was accounted for at the county level.



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AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits Kv1.5 channel currents in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and HEK 293 cells

Abstract

Progression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is thought to be due, in part, to suppression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (Archer et al. 2004; Michelakis et al. 2004) that is mediated by the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (Firth et al. 2009). We sought to determine the role in this process of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is intimately coupled to mitochondrial function due to its activation by LKB1-dependent phosphorylation in response to increases in the cellular AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios. Inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain using phenformin activated AMPK and inhibited Kv currents in pulmonary arterial myocytes, consistent with previously reported effects of mitochondrial inhibitors (Firth et al. 2008). Myocyte Kv currents were also markedly inhibited upon AMPK activation by A769662, AICAR and C13 and by intracellular dialysis from a patch-pipette of activated (thiophosphorylated) recombinant AMPK heterotrimers (α2β2γ1 or α1β1γ1). Hypoxia and inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduced AMPK-sensitive K+ currents, which were also blocked by the selective Kv1.5 blocker DPO-1 but unaffected by the presence of the BKCa channel blocker paxilline. Moreover, recombinant human Kv1.5 channels were phosphorylated by AMPK in cell-free assays, and K+ currents carried by Kv1.5 stably expressed in HEK 293 cells were inhibited by intracellular dialysis of AMPK heterotrimers and by A769662, the effects of which were blocked by compound C. We conclude that AMPK mediates Kv channel inhibition by hypoxia in pulmonary arterial myocytes, at least in part, through phosphorylation of Kv1.5 and/or an associated protein.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Hepatitis B virus genotypes and unique recombinants circulating among outpatients in selected hospitals in Kenya

International Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Efficacy and safety of prucalopride in chronic constipation: an integrated analysis of six randomized, controlled clinical trials

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

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Multicenter study of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction

World Journal of Gastroenterology

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Preconception care reduces relapse of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Determination of the electrical conductivity of human liver metastases: impact on therapy planning in the radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors

Acta Radiologica

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Future of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in the United States forecast through 2030

Journal of Clinical Oncology

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Correlation of interferon-gamma and interleukin-28b levels in patients with chronic hepatitis c viral infection with or without schistosoma mansoni coinfection

International Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Double filtration plasmapheresis in treatment of patients with co-infection of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis

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S-adenosyl-L-methionine modifies antioxidant-enzymes, glutathione-biosynthesis and methionine adenosyltransferases-1/2 in hepatitis C virus-expressing cells

World Journal of Gastroenterology

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Long-term pain relief with optimized medical including antioxidants and step-up interventional therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Anti-stromal treatment together with chemotherapy targets multiple signalling pathways in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

The Journal of Pathology

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Family history is an independent risk factor for the progression of gastric atrophy among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

United European Gastroenterology Journal

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Influence of food and lifestyle on the risk of developing Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Internal Medicine Journal

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IgG4+ B-cell receptor clones distinguish IgG4-related disease from primary sclerosing cholangitis and biliary/pancreatic malignancies

Hepatology

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Evaluation of multiple methods for the detection of gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenem-resistant organisms from rectal swabs

Journal of Clinical Microbiology

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Coadministration of ezetimibe with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin could improve early virological response in chronic hepatitis C obese Egyptian patients

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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Phosphatase and tensin homolog is a differential diagnostic marker between nonalcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease

World Journal of Gastroenterology

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Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, insulin resistance and liver specific ectopic fat storage in overweight to obese subjects

Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases

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Hepatitis A outbreak associated with unsafe drinking water in a medical college students hostel, New Delhi, India, 2014

International Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Lipid disorder and intrahepatic renin-angiotensin system activation synergistically contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Liver International

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Heterogeneous Regulation of Brain Blood Flow during Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise.

Purpose: The present study was designed to explore to what extent low intensity resistance exercise- induced acute hypertension influences intracranial cerebral perfusion. Methods: Twelve healthy participants performed one-legged static knee extension exercise at 30 % maximal voluntary contraction for 2 min. Blood flow to the internal and external carotid arteries (ICA/ECA) were evaluated by duplex ultrasonography. Results: ICA blood flow increased and reached a plateau before stabilizing 60 sec into exercise despite continued increases in cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. ICA conductance significantly decreased by -14.4 +/-13.8 % at the end of exercise (P

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Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?.

We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose: To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods: Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results: EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36+/-0.58 and 6.50+/-1.73 kcal[dot operator]min-1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, p

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Objective Assessment of Strength Training Exercises using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer.

The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends that all adults perform muscle-strengthening exercises to work all of the major muscle groups of the body on at least two days per week, in addition to aerobic activity. Studies using objective methods of monitoring physical activity have focused primarily on the assessment of aerobic activity. To date, a method for assessing resistance training (RT) exercises has not been developed using a wrist worn activity monitor. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a wrist-worn, tri-axial accelerometer-based activity monitor for classifying upper- and lower-body dumbbell RT exercises. Methods: Sixty participants performed 10 repetitions each of 12 different upper and lower body dynamic dumbbell exercises. Algorithms for classifying the exercises were developed using two different methods: support vector machine (SVM) and cosine similarity. Confusion matrices were developed for each method and inter-method reliability were assessed using Cohen's kappa. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the predicted repetitions, identified from the largest acceleration peaks, with the actual repetitions. Results: The results indicated that SVM and cosine similarity accurately classified the 12 different RT exercises 78% and 85% of the time, respectively. Both methods struggled to correctly differentiate bench press vs shoulder press and squat vs walking lunges. Repetition estimates were not significantly different for 8 of the 12 exercises. For the four exercises that were significantly different, the differences amounts to less than 10%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that RT exercises can be accurately classified using a single activity monitor worn on the wrist. (C) 2016 American College of Sports Medicine

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Effects of Supplemental Energy on Protein Balance during 4-d Arctic Military Training.

Soldiers often experience negative energy balance during military operations that diminish whole-body protein retention, even when dietary protein is consumed within recommended levels (1.5-2.0 g[BULLET OPERATOR]kg-1[BULLET OPERATOR]d-1). Purpose: Determine if providing supplemental nutrition spares whole-body protein by attenuating the level of negative energy balance induced by military training, and to assess whether protein balance is differentially influenced by macronutrient source. Methods: Soldiers participating in 4-d arctic military training (AMT, 51 km ski march) randomized to receive 3 combat rations (CON; n = 18); 3 combat rations plus 4, 20g, 250 kcal protein-based bars (PRO; n = 28); or 3 combat rations plus 4, 48g, 250 kcal carbohydrate-based bars daily (CHO; n = 27). Energy expenditure (D2 18O) and energy intake were measured daily. Nitrogen balance (NBAL) and protein turnover were determined at baseline (BL) and day 3 of AMT using 24 h urine and [15N]-glycine. Results: Protein and carbohydrate intake were highest (P

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Lifelong Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Midlife.

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) associates with cardiovascular autonomic function but the relationship with lifelong PA is unclear. We hypothesized that lifelong PA would associate with cardiovascular autonomic function in mid-life. Methods: At the age of 46, the subjects of the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations where vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD) and cross-spectral baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were analysed from 3-min recordings of ECG and blood pressure in seated and standing positions. Three lifelong PA trajectory groups (active, semi-active and inactive) were formed according to their self-reported frequencies of participation in PA at the ages of 14, 31 and 46. Finally, 1,283 men and 1,779 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes had complete data on lifelong PA, covariates and rMSSD, and 662 men and 807 women for BRS. Results: In both sexes and measurement conditions, the active (p

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Resistance Training with Instability for Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of resistance training (RT) and RT with instability (RTI) on the timed up and go test (TUG), on-medication Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor subscale score (UPDRS-III), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) score, and muscle strength in the leg-press exercise (one repetition maximum [1RM]) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Thirty-nine patients with moderate to severe PD were randomly assigned to a non-exercising control group (C), RT group, and RTI group. The RT and RTI groups performed progressive resistance training twice a week for 12 weeks. However, only the RTI group used high motor complexity exercises (i.e., progressive resistance training with unstable devices), for example, half-squat exercise on the BOSU(R) device. The primary outcome was mobility (TUG). Secondary outcomes were on-medication motor signs (UPDRS-III), cognitive impairment (MoCA), quality of life (PDQ-39), and muscle strength (1RM). Results: There were no differences between RTI and RT groups for any of the outcomes at post-training (P>0.05). However, there were differences between RTI and C groups in the TUG, MoCa, and muscle strength values at post-training (P

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Quadriceps Strength Predicts Self-reported Function Post ACL Reconstruction.

Introduction/Purpose: Quadriceps strength is a useful clinical predictor of self-reported function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, it remains unknown if quadriceps strength normalized to body mass (QBM) or quadriceps strength limb symmetry index (QLSI) is the best predictor of self-reported function in individuals with ACLR. We sought to determine if QBM and QLSI are able to predict individuals with ACLR who self-report high function (>= 90% on the International Knee Documentation Committee Index [IKDC]). METHODS: Ninety-six individuals with a history of a primary unilateral ACLR were recruited for a multi-site cross-sectional descriptive laboratory experiment. Bilateral isometric quadriceps strength was collected at 90[degrees] of knee flexion to calculate QBM and QLSI (ratio of ACLR limb to the contralateral limb). Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated using Receiver-Operator Characteristic curve analyses to determine the capacity of QBM and QLSI to predict individuals with high self-reported function on the IKDC. RESULTS: QBM displayed high accuracy (AUC= 0.76, 95%CI 0.66-0.86) for identifying participants with an IKDC >= 90%. A QBM cutoff score of 3.10 Nm/kg was found to maximize sensitivity (0.61) and specificity (0.84), and displayed 8.15 (3.09-21.55) times higher odds of reporting high function. QLSI displayed a moderate accuracy (AUC= 0.62,0.50-0.73) for identifying participants with an IKDC >= 90%. A QLSI cutoff score of 96.5% maximized sensitivity (0.55) and specificity (0.70), and represented 2.78 (1.16-6.64) times higher odds reporting high function. CONCLUSION: QBM is a stronger predictor of high self-reported function compared to QLSI in individuals with ACLR. Rehabilitation guidelines may benefit from incorporating the use of QBM measurements for the purpose of predicting participants that may maintain high self-reported function. (C) 2016 American College of Sports Medicine

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Use of computer-assisted drug therapy outside the operating room.

Purpose of review: The number of procedures performed in the out-of-operating room setting under sedation has increased many fold in recent years. Sedation techniques aim to achieve rapid patient turnover through the use of short-acting drugs with minimal residual side-effects (mainly propofol and opioids). Even for common procedures, the practice of sedation delivery varies widely among providers. Computer-based sedation models have the potential to assist sedation providers and offer a more consistent and safer sedation experience for patients. Recent findings: Target-controlled infusions using propofol and other short-acting opioids for sedation have shown promising results in terms of increasing patient safety and allowing for more rapid wake-up times. Target-controlled infusion systems with real-time patient monitoring can titrate drug doses automatically to maintain optimal depth of sedation. The best recent example of this is the propofol-based Sedasys sedation system. Sedasys redefined individualized sedation by the addition of an automated clinical parameter that monitors depth of sedation. However, because of poor adoption and cost issues, it has been recently withdrawn by the manufacturer. Summary: Present automated drug delivery systems can assist in the provision of sedation for out-of-operating room procedures but cannot substitute for anesthesia providers. Use of the available technology has the potential to improve patient outcomes, decrease provider workload, and have a long-term economic impact on anesthesia care delivery outside of the operating room. Copyright (C) 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Practical considerations in the development of a nonoperating room anesthesia practice.

Purpose of review: More than 25% of the procedures necessitating an anesthesia provider's involvement are performed outside the operating room. As a result, it is imperative that the expansion of anesthesia services to any new nonoperating room anesthesia (NORA) location takes into account the challenges and safety considerations associated with such a transformation. Recent findings: Although the adverse events encountered in the NORA suite are similar to those met in the operating room, the frequency and implications are different. In addition, many adverse events are site specific. Hypoxemia events, including cardiac arrest continue to dominate all areas of NORA practice. Challenges posed by new minimally invasive procedures continue to grow. Electronic documentation is rapidly expanding into the NORA suite, which brings both advantages and challenges. Summary: Involvement of anesthesia providers at the development stage and an understanding of the administrative and clinical challenges are essential elements in the building of a NORA practice. Copyright (C) 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Education and training for nonanesthesia providers performing deep sedation.

Purpose of review: There has been a significant increase in the number and types of procedures performed outside of the operating room with nonanesthesia providers administering sedation. This review describes current recommendations for training nonanesthesiologists involved in administering deep sedation, summarizes best practices and highlights select patient outcomes. Recent findings: There are numerous guidelines and standards related to the administration of deep sedation. However, there are no universally accepted guidelines regarding the necessary educational and skill competencies needed for nonanesthesiologists to provide deep sedation. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has published a position statement and guidelines on these educational requirements, yet the extent to which these are adhered to remains unknown. As evidence-based guidelines continue to evolve, more research is needed to describe how current practices affect patient outcomes. Summary: The American Society of Anesthesiologists publishes recommendations regarding the essential educational components for nonanesthesiologist providers who administer deep sedation. The available data support the need for formal educational programmes to prevent adverse events associated with deep sedation. Competencies should include preprocedural evaluation, understanding sedation levels, airway management, documentation, emergency life support skills, teamwork and quality improvement. Copyright (C) 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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