Κυριακή, 27 Αυγούστου 2017

Parent-child coregulation of parasympathetic processes varies by social context and risk for psychopathology

Abstract

The parasympathetic nervous system supports social interaction and varies in relation to psychopathology. However, we know little about parasympathetic processes from a dyadic framework, nor in early childhood when parent-child social interactions become more complex and child psychopathology first emerges. We hypothesized that higher risk for psychopathology (maternal psychopathology symptoms and child problem behavior) would be related to weaker concordance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) between mothers and children (M = 3½ years old; N = 47) and that these relations could vary by social contextual demands, comparing unstructured free play, semistructured cleanup, and structured teaching tasks. Multilevel coupled autoregressive models of RSA during parent-child interactions showed overall dynamic, positive concordance in mother-child RSA over time, but this concordance was weaker during the more structured teaching task. In contrast, higher maternal psychological aggression and child externalizing and internalizing problems were associated with weaker dyadic RSA concordance, which was weakest during unstructured free play. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were related to disrupted individual mother and child RSA but not to RSA concordance. Thus, risk for psychopathology was generally related to weaker dyadic mother-child RSA concordance in contexts with less complex structure or demands (free play, cleanup), as compared to the structured teaching task that showed weaker RSA concordance for all dyads. Implications for the meaning and utility of the construct of parent-child physiological coregulation are discussed.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wUvorP
via IFTTT

Flanker task with equiprobable congruent and incongruent conditions does not elicit the conflict N2

Abstract

In many published studies, various modifications of the flanker task have been used. Regardless of the flanker task version, the conflict N2 component has been consistently reported and interpreted as evidence for the resolution of conflict introduced by incongruent flankers. However, ERP studies that used the most basic flanker task (i.e., a version with equiprobable congruent and incongruent conditions in which only congruency between the target and flankers is manipulated) have not provided compelling evidence for the conflict N2 component. We report the results of a large-sample ERP study employing a basic flanker task that allowed us to revisit the mechanism underlying the resolution of conflict introduced by incongruent flankers. In the behavioral data, we observed the classic effect of congruency. In the ERP data, we found three conflict-sensitive components: (a) an early frontal component, presumably corresponding to P2, (b) P300 for congruent trials, followed by (c) P300 for incongruent trials. We did not find evidence for the conflict N2 component. Based on a review of literature, we propose that the conflict N2 component observed in a basic flanker task might be a frontal aspect of the P300 component. Given previous attempts to attribute the functional role of the ERP components, the absence of the conflict N2 in the basic flanker task suggests that response inhibition may not be crucial for the resolution of conflict induced by incongruent flankers. Instead, the P2 component appears to indicate that selective attention might play an important role in resolving the flanker conflict.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vuP4PD
via IFTTT

Clinical Care Specialist (Paramedic/EMT-CC) - Call9

Tap Into The Revolution: As a Call9 team member you will operate at the nexus of clinical excellence, engineering innovation and progressive enterprise amongst a culture that fosters ingenuity and education.Tapping into the unique profession of the Call9 Clinical Care Specialist you will be the face of the service, the hands of the physician, and the voice of the patient. On a daily basis you will ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wgEEnI
via IFTTT

Mitochondrial replacement techniques or therapies (MRTs) to improve embryo development and to prevent mitochondrial disease transmission

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Xiang-Hong Ou, Qing-Yuan Sun




from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iAxveH
via IFTTT