Τετάρτη, 14 Φεβρουαρίου 2018

The expression patterns of vestigial like family member 4 genes in zebrafish embryogenesis

Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Chang Xue, Hai Hong Wang, Jun Zhu, Jun Zhou
Transcriptional cofactor Vestigial-like 4 (VGLL4) was considered to take part in the early stage of development. Different from human, three paralogs of vgll4 were found in zebrafish, which were vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l. However, the expression patterns of the three paralogs during zebrafish development remains unknown. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression of zebrafish vgll4 paralogs during normal embryonic and larval development. Similar expression was shown in certain areas at similar stages for the three paralogs. Expression of vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l were all found in pectoral fins and otic vesicles during the early developmental stages. On the other hand, a few differences of the three paralogs expression were found in eyes, pharynx, pharyngeal arches and brain tissues. The expression of vgll4a was weak and ubiquitous, while vgll4b was obviously expressed in brain tissues and vgll4l was clearly restricted to each pair of pharyngeal pouches. What's more, vgll4b and vgll4l had unique expression at mature lateral line neuromasts and forerunner cells respectively. Despite the conservativeness of functional domains, the three paralogs of zebrafish vgll4 shared several similarities and displayed some distinctions in the expression patterns, indicating that they may still have different and exclusive functions, which need to be further explored.



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Allegro giusto: piccolo, bassoon, and clarinet set the tempo of vesicle pool replenishment

Abstract

Some afferent fibres in the auditory system can fire spikes spontaneously at tonic rates of up to 150 Hz without sound stimulation, while brief, sound-evoked bursts of spikes can reach frequencies of up to 1 kHz.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Power-to-Strength Ratio Influences Performance Enhancement with Contrast Training

AbstractPurposeThe effectiveness of contrast training (CST) for improving explosive exercise performance is modulated by various individual characteristics; however, further work is required to define these factors.MethodsSub-elite male Australian Football players [n = 22; age, 19 ± 2 y; body mass, 80.4 ± 9.4 kg; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) half squat, 172 ± 18 kg; mean ± SD] completed two experimental trials involving two sets of squat jumps (6 repetitions at 30% 1-RM) performed either alone (CTL condition) or after half squats (6 repetitions at 85% 1-RM; CST condition).ResultsSquat jump peak power was similar between CTL and CST during set 1 (mean change ±90% confidence interval, 2.8 ±2.0%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval, 0.13 ±0.09; P = 0.079) and set 2 (0.3 ±1.7%; ES, 0.01 ±0.08; P = 0.781). Peak power enhancement with CST was not related to maximal (1-RM half squat) strength (r2 = 0.001, P = 0.884), but was negatively correlated with both baseline peak power (r2 = 0.44, P

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Aerobic Training Improves Quality of Life in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

AbstractPurposeTo investigate the effects of a supervised aerobic exercise training intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic profile, and affective response in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).MethodsTwenty-seven overweight/obese inactive women with PCOS (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; aged from 18 to 34 years) were allocated into an exercise group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 13). Progressive aerobic exercise training was performed three times per week (~150 min/week) over 16 weeks. Cardiorespiratory fitness, HRQL, and cardiometabolic profile were evaluated before and after the intervention. Affective response (i.e., feeling of pleasure/displeasure) was evaluated during the exercise sessions.ResultsThe exercise group improved 21 ± 12% of cardiorespiratory fitness (p

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Improving Hip-Worn Accelerometer Estimates of Sitting Using Machine Learning Methods

AbstractPurposeTo improve estimates of sitting time from hip worn accelerometers used in large cohort studies by employing machine learning methods developed on free living activPAL data.MethodsThirty breast cancer survivors concurrently wore a hip worn accelerometer and a thigh worn activPAL for 7 days. A random forest classifier, trained on the activPAL data, was employed to detect sitting, standing and sit-stand transitions in 5 second windows in the hip worn accelerometer. The classifier estimates were compared to the standard accelerometer cut point and significant differences across different bout lengths were investigated using mixed effect models.ResultsOverall, the algorithm predicted the postures with moderate accuracy (stepping 77%, standing 63%, sitting 67%, sit to stand 52% and stand to sit 51%). Daily level analyses indicated that errors in transition estimates were only occurring during sitting bouts of 2 minutes or less. The standard cut point was significantly different from the activPAL across all bout lengths, overestimating short bouts and underestimating long bouts.ConclusionsThis is among the first algorithms for sitting and standing for hip worn accelerometer data to be trained from entirely free living activPAL data. The new algorithm detected prolonged sitting which has been shown to be most detrimental to health. Further validation and training in larger cohorts is warranted.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Purpose To improve estimates of sitting time from hip worn accelerometers used in large cohort studies by employing machine learning methods developed on free living activPAL data. Methods Thirty breast cancer survivors concurrently wore a hip worn accelerometer and a thigh worn activPAL for 7 days. A random forest classifier, trained on the activPAL data, was employed to detect sitting, standing and sit-stand transitions in 5 second windows in the hip worn accelerometer. The classifier estimates were compared to the standard accelerometer cut point and significant differences across different bout lengths were investigated using mixed effect models. Results Overall, the algorithm predicted the postures with moderate accuracy (stepping 77%, standing 63%, sitting 67%, sit to stand 52% and stand to sit 51%). Daily level analyses indicated that errors in transition estimates were only occurring during sitting bouts of 2 minutes or less. The standard cut point was significantly different from the activPAL across all bout lengths, overestimating short bouts and underestimating long bouts. Conclusions This is among the first algorithms for sitting and standing for hip worn accelerometer data to be trained from entirely free living activPAL data. The new algorithm detected prolonged sitting which has been shown to be most detrimental to health. Further validation and training in larger cohorts is warranted. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Corresponding author: Jacqueline Kerr, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, 92093-0810, Tel: 858 534 9305. Email: jkerr@ucsd.edu There were no conflicts of interest reported by authors of this study. This study was funded by pilot funding from the University of California, San Diego, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health. The University of California, San Diego, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health was not involved in the study design, data collection, analysis or submission for publication. The analyses and conclusions presented here are those of the authors and do not reflect those of the funders. In addition, the results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by American College of Sports Medicine. Accepted for Publication: 5 January 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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Changes in Cycling and Incidence of Overweight and Obesity among Danish Men and Women

AbstractPurposeOverweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of several non-communicable diseases and is a growing public health issue. The primary purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. The secondary purpose was to investigate incidence of remission from overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits.MethodsWe analyzed 9014 men and 8661 women without chronic disease who between 1993 and 2003 completed two assessments approximately five years apart. At both assessments participants reported habitual cycling habits. Also, bodyweight and waist circumference was measured by a lab technician at baseline and self-assessed at second examination. We computed multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for development of and remission from abdominal and general overweight and obesity, according to five-year cycling habits.ResultsContinued cycling was associated with lower odds for incidence of abdominal (men:>102 cm, women:>88 cm) and incidence of general (BMI≥30 kg/m2) obesity; compared to no cycling, ORs (95% CIs) were 0.82 (0.74,0.91) and 0.74 (0.60,0.92) for abdominal and general obesity, respectively. Also, those who initiated cycling had lower odds for incidence of abdominal obesity; OR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.73,1.00) relative to no cycling. Although we found no evidence of remission from abdominal and general overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits, those who continued cycling had significantly larger decreases in waist circumference relative to non-cyclists (β-coefficient (95% CI): -0,95 cm (-1,56 cm,-0,33 cm).ConclusionContinued cycling compared to no cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal and general obesity. Also, late-in-life initiation of cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal obesity, relative to no cycling. Purpose Overweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of several non-communicable diseases and is a growing public health issue. The primary purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. The secondary purpose was to investigate incidence of remission from overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. Methods We analyzed 9014 men and 8661 women without chronic disease who between 1993 and 2003 completed two assessments approximately five years apart. At both assessments participants reported habitual cycling habits. Also, bodyweight and waist circumference was measured by a lab technician at baseline and self-assessed at second examination. We computed multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for development of and remission from abdominal and general overweight and obesity, according to five-year cycling habits. Results Continued cycling was associated with lower odds for incidence of abdominal (men:>102 cm, women:>88 cm) and incidence of general (BMI≥30 kg/m2) obesity; compared to no cycling, ORs (95% CIs) were 0.82 (0.74,0.91) and 0.74 (0.60,0.92) for abdominal and general obesity, respectively. Also, those who initiated cycling had lower odds for incidence of abdominal obesity; OR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.73,1.00) relative to no cycling. Although we found no evidence of remission from abdominal and general overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits, those who continued cycling had significantly larger decreases in waist circumference relative to non-cyclists (β-coefficient (95% CI): -0,95 cm (-1,56 cm,-0,33 cm). Conclusion Continued cycling compared to no cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal and general obesity. Also, late-in-life initiation of cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal obesity, relative to no cycling. Correspondance. Martin Gillies Rasmussen, Research unit for Exercise Epidemiology, Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark, e-mail: mgrasmussen@health.sdu.dk, phone: +4565504816 The Diet, Cancer and Health study was funded by the Danish Cancer Society. AG was supported by the Lundbeck Foundation (R151-2013-14641) and the Danish Council for Independent Research (DFF-4004-00111). The remaining authors received no funding for this work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. The authors declare that the results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Accepted for Publication: 3 February 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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Care Coordination: Empowering Families , a Promising Practice to Facilitate Medical Home Use Among Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs

Abstract

Introduction This paper describes the care coordination training program and results of an evaluation from its pilot in seven states. Despite the importance of practice-based care coordination, only 42.3% of children with special health care needs (CYSHCN) met all needed components of care coordination as defined by the Maternal Child Health Bureau. Recognizing that children with medically complex conditions often have lower rates of achieving care coordination within a medical home, the Region 4 Midwest Genetics Collaborative worked with families to develop a training to empower families in care coordination. The Care Coordination: Empowering Families(CCEF) training provides families with the knowledge, tools, and resources to engage with health, education and family support systems. This article gives an overview of the training and comprehensive evaluation. Methods Participants were family caregivers of children with genetic conditions and other special health care needs recruited in one of seven pilot states. Evaluation data were collected from 190 participants prior to and immediately following the training. An additional follow-up assessment one full year post training was completed by 80 participants (a response rate of 42%). Results Families who attended the training report being the primary source of care coordination for their children and 83.7% see their role in their child's healthcare changing as a result of the training. The findings suggest that peer support and communication with providers increased as a result of the training over the course of the study. The data suggest that the training impacted how the family interacts with the child's doctor, including initiating conversations to prepare their child for transition to adult health care. Further, families report system-level improvements 1 year later compared to the pre-training assessment. Discussion CCEF training is a promising practice for facilitating medical home use among CYSHCN.



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Uptake and distribution of organo-iodine in deep-sea corals

Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Author(s): Nancy G. Prouty, E. Brendan Roark, Leslye M. Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico. Organo-iodine is the dominant iodine species in the black corals, demonstrating that binding of iodine to organic matter plays an important role in the transport and transfer of iodine to the deep-sea corals. The identification of growth bands captured in high-resolution scanning electron images (SEM) with synchronous peaks in iodine variability suggest that riverine delivery of terrestrial-derived organo-iodine is the most plausible explanation to account for annual periodicity in the deep-sea coral geochemistry. Whereas previous studies have suggested the presence of annual growth rings in deep-sea corals, this present study provides a mechanism to explain the formation of annual growth bands. Furthermore, deep-sea coral ages based on iodine peak counts agree well with those ages derived from radiocarbon (14C) measurements. These results hold promise for developing chronologies independent of 14C dating, which is an essential component in constraining reservoir ages and using radiocarbon as a tracer of ocean circulation. Furthermore, the presence of enriched 129I/127I ratios during the most recent period of skeleton growth is linked to nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s. The sensitivity of the coral skeleton to record changes in surface water 129I composition provides further evidence that iodine composition and isotope variability captured in proteinaceous deep-sea corals is a promising geochronometer as well as an emerging tracer for continental material flux.



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Detecting the leakage source of a reservoir using isotopes

Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Author(s): Peng Yi, Jing Yang, Yongdong Wang, Vincent de Paul Mugwanezal, Li Chen, Ala Aldahan
A good monitoring method is vital for understanding the sources of a water reservoir leakage and planning for effective restoring. Here we present a combination of several tracers (222Rn, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, anions and temperature) for identification of water leakage sources in the Pushihe pumped storage power station which is in the Liaoning province, China. The results show an average 222Rn activity of 6843 Bq/m3 in the leakage water, 3034 Bq/m3 in the reservoir water, and 41,759 Bq/m3 in the groundwater. Considering that 222Rn activity in surface water is typically less than 5000 Bq/m3, the low level average 222Rn activity in the leakage water suggests the reservoir water as the main source of water. Results of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes show comparable ranges and values in the reservoir and the leakage water samples. However, important contribution of the groundwater (up to 36%) was present in some samples from the bottom and upper parts of the underground powerhouse, while the leakage water from some other parts indicate the reservoir water as the dominant source. The isotopic finding suggests that the reservoir water is the main source of the leakage water which is confirmed by the analysis of anions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) in the water samples. The combination of these tracer methods for studying dam water leakage improves the accuracy of identifying the source of leaks and provide a scientific reference for engineering solutions to ensure the dam safety.



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A B3GALT6 variant in patient originally described as Al-Gazali syndrome and implicating the ER quality control in the mechanism of some β3GalT6-pathy mutations

ABSTRACT

Al-Gazali syndrome encompasses several clinical features including prenatal growth retardation, large joints contractures with camptodactyly, bilateral talipes equinovarus, small mouth, anterior segment anomalies of the eyes, and early lethality. Recently, a baby with features very similar to Al-Gazali syndrome was found to have compound heterozygous variants in B3GALT6. This gene encodes Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 6 (β3GalT6), an essential component of the glycosaminoglycan synthesis pathway. Pathogenic variants in B3GALT6 have also been shown to cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type (spEDS-B3GALT6) and spondylo-epimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type I (SEMD-JL1). In 2017 a new international classification of EDS included these 2 conditions together with the child reported to have features similar to Al-Gazali syndrome under spondylodysplastic EDS (spEDS). We report a disease-causing variant c.618C>G, p.(Cys206Trp) in one patient originally described as Al-Gazali syndrome and reported in 1999. We evaluated the involvement of the Endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD), in the pathogenesis of thirteen B3GALT6 variants. Retention in ER was evident in six of them while the c.618C>G, p.(Cys206Trp) and the other six variants trafficked normally. Our findings confirm the involvement of B3GALT6 in the pathogenesis of Al-Gazali syndrome and suggest that Al-Gazali syndrome represents the severe end of the spectrum of the phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in this gene.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

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Pediatric anesthesia after the anaesthesia practice in children observational trial study: who should do it?

Purpose of review This review highlights the requirements for harmonization of training, certification and continuous professional development and discusses the implications for anesthesia management of children in Europe. Recent findings A large prospective cohort study, Anaesthesia PRactice In Children Observational Trial (APRICOT), revealed a high incidence of perioperative severe critical events and a large variability of anesthesia practice across 33 European countries. Relevantly, quality improvement programs have been implemented in North America, which precisely define the requirements to manage anesthesia care for children. These programs, with the introduction of an incident-reporting system at local and national levels, could contribute to the improvement of anesthesia care for children in Europe. Summary The main factors that likely contributed to the APRICOT study results are discussed with the goal of defining clear requirement guidelines for anesthetizing children. Emphasis is placed on the importance of an incident-reporting system that can be used for both competency-based curriculum for postgraduate training as well as for continuous professional development. Variability in training as well as in available resources, equipment and facilities limit the generalization of some of the APRICOT results. Finally, the impact on case outcome of the total number of pediatric cases attended by the anesthesiologist should be taken into consideration along with the level of expertise of the anesthesiologist for complex pediatric anesthesia cases. Correspondence to Walid Habre, MD, PhD, Pediatric Anesthesia Unit and Unit for Anesthesiological Investigations, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Intensive Care, University Hospitals of Geneva and University of Geneva, 6 rue Willy Donzé, 1206 Geneva, Switzerland. E-mail: walid.habre@unige.ch Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Preoperative fasting guidelines in pediatric anesthesia: are we ready for a change?

Purpose of review Study after study shows that prolonged fasting before anesthesia is common in children. Pediatric anesthesiologists around the world are concerned that the current guidelines may be part of the problem. This review focuses on what can be done about it. Recent findings We discuss new insights into the physiology of gastric emptying of different categories of food and drink. The evidence for negative effects of prolonged fasting occurring in spite of implementation of the current guidelines is examined. We also critically appraise the concept of a strict association between fasting time and the risk of aspiration and discuss recent studies in which children have been allowed clear fluids less than 2 h before anesthesia induction. Summary Accumulating evidence indicates that changes of the current guidelines for preoperative fasting should be considered for children undergoing elective procedures. Video abstract http://ift.tt/2srw2MV Correspondence to Peter Frykholm, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Tel: +46 708454969; e-mail: Peter.Frykholm@surgsci.uu.se Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://ift.tt/1qR4umk). Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Identification and characterization of a novel goose-type and chicken-type lysozyme genes in Chinese rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus ) with potent antimicrobial activity

Abstract

Lysozymes act as important innate immunity molecule against various pathogen infections. In the present study, a new c-type and g-type lysozymes were isolated from rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The deduced amino acid sequence of c-type lysozyme contained 145 residues and possessed conserved catalytic residues (Glu53 and Asp72). The deduced g-type lysozyme contained 185 residues and possessed three conserved catalytic residues (Glu73, Asp86 and Asp97). qPCR analysis revealed that GrlysG and GrlysC were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. GrlysG was most abundant in kidney and liver, while GrlysC was predominantly expressed in liver. The transcripts of GrlysG and GrlysC genes could be significantly up-regulated after Aeromonas hydrophila and poly I:C infection in the kidney and liver. The recombinant GrlysG and GrlysC proteins were successfully produced and purified. The optimal pH and temperature for rGrlysG and rGrlysC protein lytic activities was determined to be 6.5 and 32 °C, respectively. From the minimal inhibitory concentration test, the rGrlysG and rGrlysC exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at different concentrations. In conclusion, the present study indicated that c-type and g-type lysozymes participated the innate immune response to A. hydrophila and virus infections in fish.



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Knowledge, Attitudes and Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake Among an Immigrant and Refugee Catch-Up Group in a Western Canadian Province

Abstract

Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent cervical cancer in developed countries. Lower uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among new immigrants and refugees has been documented, although exploration of underlying reasons remains an understudied area. Semi-structured interviews with eleven immigrant women (ages 18–26 years) were conducted to understand their knowledge, attitudes and barriers regarding HPV vaccination in a western Canadian province. Participants had limited knowledge about HPV and the vaccine. Most women perceived that their risk of HPV was low, however expressed willingness to receive the vaccine if it were recommended by their physician. Greater efforts are needed to increase knowledge about HPV among immigrant and refugee women and support for physicians to discuss and offer vaccination to this underserved population.



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The role of STIM proteins in neutrophil functions

Abstract

STIM proteins regulate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in innate and adaptive immune cells and participate to the Ca2+ signals that control the functions of neutrophils, the first line of host defence against bacterial and fungal infections. Loss of function experiments in animal and cellular models indicate that both STIM1 and STIM2 regulate neutrophil functions, but the complexity of the SOCE machinery and the versatility of neutrophils complicate the evaluation of the results. This review aims to summarize the latest progress in the field with a special attention to the details of the experimental designs. Future study design should aim to improve the standardization of experimental procedures and to provide a more holistic understanding of the role of STIM proteins in neutrophils function.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Biphasic voltage-dependent inactivation of human NaV1.3, 1.6 and 1.7 Na+ channels expressed in rodent insulin-secreting cells

Abstract

Pancreatic β-cells are equipped with voltage-gated Na+ channels that undergo biphasic voltage-dependent steady-state inactivation. A small Na+ current component (10–15%) inactivates over physiological membrane potentials and contributes to action potential firing. However, the major Na+ channel component is completely inactivated at −90 to −80 mV and is therefore inactive in the β-cell. It has been proposed that the biphasic inactivation reflects the contribution of different NaV α-subunits. We tested this possibility by expression of TTX-resistant variants of the NaV subunits found in β-cells (NaV1.3, NaV1.6 and NaV1.7) in insulin-secreting Ins1 cells and in non-β-cells (including HEK and CHO cells). We found that all NaV subunits inactivated at 20–30 mV more negative membrane potentials in Ins1 cells than in HEK or CHO cells. The more negative inactivation in Ins1 cells does not involve a diffusible intracellular factor because the difference between Ins1 and CHO persisted after excision of the membrane. NaV1.7 inactivated at 15-­20 mV more negative membrane potentials than NaV1.3 and NaV1.6 in Ins1 cells but this small difference is insufficient to solely explain the biphasic inactivation in Ins1 cells. In Ins1 cells, but never in the other cell types, widely different components of NaV inactivation (separated by 30 mV) were also observed following expression of a single type of NaV α-subunit. The more positive component exhibited a voltage-dependence of inactivation similar to that found in HEK/CHO cells. We propose that biphasic NaV inactivation in insulin-secreting cells reflects insertion of channels in membrane domains that differ with regard to lipid and/or membrane protein composition.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Unintended Consequences of Evidence-Based Treatment Policy Reform: Is Implementation the Goal or the Strategy for Higher Quality Care?

Abstract

This study examined patterns of evidence-based treatment (EBT) delivery following a county-wide EBT reform initiative. Data were gathered from 60 youth and their 21 providers, who were instructed to deliver therapy as they normally would under the EBT initiative. Results showed limited applicability of county-supported EBTs to this service sample, and that most youth did not receive traditional delivery of EBTs. Findings suggest that it may be unrealistic to expect providers to deliver EBTs with fidelity with all clients, and that EBT implementation may be best thought of as a strategy for improving mental health services rather than a goal.



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Genomics: Next regeneration sequencing for reference genomes

Genomics: Next regeneration sequencing for reference genomes

Genomics: Next regeneration sequencing for reference genomes, Published online: 14 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrg.2018.5

Genomics: Next regeneration sequencing for reference genomes

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Heritable contributions versus genetic architecture

Heritable contributions versus genetic architecture

Heritable contributions versus genetic architecture, Published online: 14 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrg.2018.7

Heritable contributions versus genetic architecture

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Using partitioned heritability methods to explore genetic architecture

Using partitioned heritability methods to explore genetic architecture

Using partitioned heritability methods to explore genetic architecture, Published online: 14 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrg.2018.6

Using partitioned heritability methods to explore genetic architecture

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The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Home Emotional Environment Among Low-Income Mothers of Young Children

Abstract

Objectives Household stressors, such as food insecurity, contribute to the home emotional environment and negatively affect child development. Little research on this topic has been conducted among very young children. This study aimed to examine the relationship between food insecurity and the home emotional environment, as well the extent to which the relationship may be mediated by maternal symptoms of depression. Frequency of praise, affection, and discipline of young children by mothers were examined as markers of the home emotional environment. Methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional study of mothers of children under the age of five (N = 4231). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between level of food security and frequency of praise and discipline of children. Mediation analysis using the KHB method was conducted to test whether maternal mental health mediated the relationship between food insecurity and each outcome. Results Low and very low food security were significantly associated with higher odds of disciplining children with high frequency. Controlling for all covariates, frequency of praise was not significantly associated with level of household food insecurity. Differences in praise and discipline frequency were found by language of interview, maternal education, and employment. Conclusions for Practice Parent–child interactions, specifically related to discipline, are related to food insecurity. Further research should consider cultural patterns and mechanisms behind the relationship between food insecurity and the home environment. Household stressors begin affecting children at young ages, and early intervention is essential to prevent further negative sequelae as children grow older.



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Corrigendum to “Ultrasound in polyneuropathies – Is size or structure all that matters?” [Clin. Neurophysiol. 128 (2017) 2519–2520]

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): A. Kerasnoudis, K. Pitarokoili, M.-S. Yoon




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Functional cortical source connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic alpha rhythms shows similar abnormalities in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

Publication date: April 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 4
Author(s): Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Laura Bonanni, Raffaella Franciotti, Marco Onofrj, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Heinrich Garn, Lucia Fraioli, Michela Pievani, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Erol Başar, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, John Paul Taylor, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Laura Vacca, Giovanni B. Frisoni, Fabrizio Stocchi
ObjectiveThis study tested the hypothesis that markers of functional cortical source connectivity of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms may be abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's (ADMCI) and Parkinson's (PDMCI) diseases compared to healthy elderly subjects (Nold).MethodsrsEEG data had been collected in ADMCI, PDMCI, and Nold subjects (N = 75 for any group). eLORETA freeware estimated functional lagged linear connectivity (LLC) from rsEEG cortical sources. Area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve indexed the accuracy in the classification of Nold and MCI individuals.ResultsPosterior interhemispheric and widespread intrahemispheric alpha LLC solutions were abnormally lower in both MCI groups compared to the Nold group. At the individual level, AUROC curves of LLC solutions in posterior alpha sources exhibited moderate accuracies (0.70–0.72) in the discrimination of Nold vs. ADMCI-PDMCI individuals. No differences in the LLC solutions were found between the two MCI groups.ConclusionsThese findings unveil similar abnormalities in functional cortical connectivity estimated in widespread alpha sources in ADMCI and PDMCI. This was true at both group and individual levels.SignificanceThe similar abnormality of alpha source connectivity in ADMCI and PDMCI subjects might reflect common cholinergic impairment.



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Randomized EEG functional brain networks in major depressive disorders with greater resilience and lower rich-club coefficient

Publication date: April 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 4
Author(s): Minghui Zhang, Haiyan Zhou, Liqing Liu, Lei Feng, Jie Yang, Gang Wang, Ning Zhong
ObjectiveSome studies have shown that the functional electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) networks in those with major depressive disorders (MDDs) have an abnormal random topology. In this study we aimed to further investigate the characteristics of the randomized functional brain networks in MDDs by examining resting-state scalp-EEG data.MethodsBased on the methods of independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretic analysis, the abnormalities in the power spectral density (PSD) functional brain networks were compared between 13 MDDs and 13 matched healthy controls (HCs). Nonparametric permutation tests were performed to explore the between-group differences in multiple network metrics. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to measure the linear relationships between the clinical symptom and network metrics.ResultsCompared with the HCs, the MDDs showed significant randomization of global network metrics, characterized by greater global efficiency, but lower clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and local efficiency. This randomization was also reflected in the less heterogeneous and less fat-tailed degree distributions in the MDDs. More importantly, the randomized brain networks in MDDs had greater network resilience to both random failure and targeted attack, which might be a protective mechanism to avoid fast deterioration of the integrity of MDDs' brain networks under pathological attack. In addition, the randomized brain networks in MDDs had a lower level of rich-club coefficient, suggesting that the density of connections among rich-club hubs became sparser. Furthermore, some of the network metrics explored in this study were significantly associated with the severity of depression in all participants.ConclusionsA replicable randomization of the brain network is found in MDDs. The randomization is further characterized by more homogeneous degree distribution, greater resilience and lower rich-club coefficient, reflecting the reconfiguration of the brain network caused by the reduction of hub nodes in MDD.SignificanceOur results may provide new biomarkers of brain network organization in MDD.



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Editorial Board

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3





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Contents

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3





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Do you define the limits of normalcy from looking at the patient or the healthy subject?

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): Martin Ballegaard




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Sleep patterns open the window into disorders of consciousness

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): B. Kotchoubey, Y.G. Pavlov




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Axonal excitability changes and acute symptoms of oxaliplatin treatment: In vivo evidence for slowed sodium channel inactivation

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): Rikke Heide, Hugh Bostock, Lise Ventzel, Peter Grafe, Joseph Bergmans, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Nanna B. Finnerup, Hatice Tankisi
ObjectiveNeurotoxicity is the most frequent dose-limiting side effect of the anti-cancer agent oxaliplatin, but the mechanisms are not well understood. This study used nerve excitability testing to investigate the pathophysiology of the acute neurotoxicity.MethodsQuestionnaires, quantitative sensory tests, nerve conduction studies and nerve excitability testing were undertaken in 12 patients with high-risk colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant oxaliplatin and in 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Examinations were performed twice for patients: once within 3 days after oxaliplatin treatment (post-infusion examination) and once shortly before the following treatment (recovery examination).ResultsThe most frequent post-infusion symptoms were tingling paresthesias and cold allodynia. The most prominent nerve excitability change was decreased superexcitability of motor axons which correlated with the average intensity of abnormal sensations (Spearman Rho = 0.80, p < .01). The motor nerve excitability changes were well modeled by a slowing of sodium channel inactivation, and were proportional to dose/m2 with a half-life of about 10d.ConclusionsOxaliplatin induces reversible slowing of sodium channel inactivation in motor axons, and these changes are closely related to the reversible cold allodynia. However, further studies are required due to small sample size in this study.SignificanceNerve excitability data provide an index of sodium channel dysfunction: an objective biomarker of acute oxaliplatin neurotoxicity.



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Oxaliplatin and neuropathy: A role for sodium channels

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): Susanna B. Park, Matthew C. Kiernan




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Changes in the electrocorticogram after implantation of intracranial electrodes in humans: The implant effect

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): Felice T. Sun, Sharanya Arcot Desai, Thomas K. Tcheng, Martha J. Morrell
ObjectiveSubacute and long-term electrocorticographic (ECoG) changes in ambulatory patients with depth and cortical strip electrodes were evaluated in order to determine the length of the implant effect.MethodsECoG records were assessed in patients with medically intractable epilepsy who had depth and/or strip leads implanted in order to be treated with brain-responsive stimulation. Changes in total spectral power, band-limited spectral power, and spike rate were assessed.Results121 patients participating in trials of the RNS® System had a total of 93994 ECoG records analyzed. Significant changes in total spectral power occurred from the first to second months after implantation, involving 55% of all ECoG channels (68% of strip and 47% of depth lead channels). Significant, but less pronounced, changes continued over the 2nd to 5th post-implant months, after which total power became more stable. Similar patterns of changes were observed within frequency bands and spike rate.ConclusionsECoG spectral power and spike rates are not stable in the first 5 months after implantation, presumably due to neurophysiological and electrode-tissue interface changes.SignificanceECoG data collected in the first 5 months after implantation of intracranial electrodes may not be fully representative of chronic cortical electrophysiology.



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Reply to “Movement-related neural processing in people with congenital mirror movements beyond the (cortical) surface”

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): E.A. Franz, Y. Fu




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Sleep patterns associated with the severity of impairment in a large cohort of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 3
Author(s): Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Elisa Visani, Ferruccio Panzica, Davide Sattin, Anna Bersano, Anna Nigri, Stefania Ferraro, Eugenio Parati, Matilde Leonardi, Silvana Franceschetti
ObjectiveWe assessed sleep patterns in 85 patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC) in order to reveal any relationship with the degree of the impairment.MethodsNocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was scored in patients classified as being in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state (UWS/VS; n = 49) or a minimally conscious state (MCS; n = 36) in accordance with the rules of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The PSG data in the two diagnostic groups were compared, and the PSG parameters associated with the degree of impairment were analysed.ResultsIn 19/49 UWS/VS patients, signal attenuation was the only EEG pattern detectable in sleep. Non-REM 2 (NREM2) and slow-wave sleep (SWS) (but not REM) stages were more frequent in the MCS patients. The presence of SWS was the most appropriate factor for classifying patients as UWS/VS or MCS, and the duration of SWS was the main factor that significantly correlated with revised Coma Recovery Scale scores.ConclusionThe presence of NREM sleep (namely SWS) reflects better preservation of the circuitry and structures needed to sustain this stage of sleep in DOC patients.SignificancePSG is a simple and effective technique, and sleep patterns may reflect the degree of impairment in chronic DOC patients.



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