Πέμπτη, 23 Ιουνίου 2016

Tibiofemoral Contact Forces in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Knee.

Purpose: To investigate differences in ACL reconstructed (ACLR) and healthy individuals in terms of the magnitude of the tibiofemoral contact forces, as well as the relative muscle and external load contributions to those contact forces, during walking, running and sidestepping gait tasks. Methods: A computational electromyography-driven neuromusculoskeletal model was used to estimate the muscle and tibiofemoral contact forces in those with combined semitendinosus and gracilis tendon autograft ACLR (n=104, 29.7+/-6.5 years, 78.1+/-14.4 kg) and healthy controls (n=60, 27.5+/-5.4 years, 67.8+/-14.0 kg) during walking (1.4+/-0.2 m.s-1), running (4.5+/-0.5 m.s-1) and sidestepping (3.7+/-0.6 m.s-1). Within the computational model, the semitendinosus of ACLR participants was adjusted to account for literature reported strength deficits and morphological changes subsequent to autograft harvesting. Results: ACLRs had smaller maximum total and medial tibiofemoral contact forces (~80% of control values, scaled to bodyweight) during the different gait tasks. Compared to controls, ACLRs were found to have a smaller maximum knee flexion moment, which explained the smaller tibiofemoral contact forces. Similarly, compared to controls, ACLRs had both a smaller maximum knee flexion angle and knee flexion excursion during running and sidestepping, which may have concentrated the articular contact forces to smaller areas within the tibiofemoral joint. Mean relative muscle and external load contributions to the tibiofemoral contact forces were not significantly different between ACLRs and controls. Conclusion: ACLRs had lower bodyweight-scaled tibiofemoral contact forces during walking, running and sidestepping, likely due to lower knee flexion moments and straighter knee during the different gait tasks. The relative contributions of muscles and external loads to the contact forces were equivalent between groups. (C) 2016 American College of Sports Medicine

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Intralesional Ethanol Injection in Lumbar Hemangioma Leading to Renal Failure: A Rare Complication.

No abstract available

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Acute Effects of Low-Load/High-Repetition Single-Limb Resistance Training in COPD.

Exercising small muscle groups at a time allows higher muscle specific workloads compared to whole body aerobic exercises in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether similar effects also occur with partitioning exercise during low load/high-repetition resistance exercises is uncertain. Purpose: To investigate the acute effects of partitioning exercise on exercise workload, exertional symptoms and quadriceps muscle fatigue during low load/high-repetition resistance exercises in people with COPD and healthy controls. Methods: We compared the acute physiological effects of single-limb (SL) versus two-limb (TL) execution of isokinetic knee-extension and of six low load/high-repetition elastic resistance exercises in 20 people with COPD (FEV1 = 38% predicted) and 15 healthy controls. Results: Among people with COPD, SL exercises resulted in higher exercise workloads during isokinetic knee-extension (17 +/- 31%, p

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Sevoflurane Postconditioning Reduces Apoptosis by Activating the JAK-STAT Pathway After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

Background: The antiapoptotic effects of sevoflurane postconditioning are responsible for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Phosphorylation of the Janus family tyrosine kinases (JAK) 2-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3 pathway is linked to antiapoptosis. Here, we determined whether the antiapoptotic effects of sevoflurane postconditioning are associated with activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: sham (n=5), control (10 min of ischemia, n=10), sevoflurane postconditioning (2 periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min, n=10), AG490 (a JAK2 selective inhibitor, intraperitoneal administration of 40 mg/kg before ischemia, n=10), and sevoflurane postconditioning plus AG490 group (n=10). The number of apoptotic cells as well as the expression of JAK2, phosphorylated JAK2 (P-JAK2), STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3 (P-STAT3), Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein), and Bax (proapoptotic protein) were evaluated 3 days after ischemia. Results: The apoptotic cell count was significantly lower in the sevoflurane postconditioning group than in the control, AG490, and sevoflurane postconditioning plus AG490 groups. JAK2 and STAT3 levels were comparable among all 5 groups. P-JAK2, P-STAT3, and Bcl-2 levels were higher and Bax levels were lower in the sevoflurane postconditioning group relative to the control, AG490, and sevoflurane postconditioning plus AG490 groups. Conclusions: Sevoflurane postconditioning reduced apoptosis by increasing P-JAK and P-STAT expression after transient global ischemia in rats, and AG490 reversed the beneficial antiapoptotic effects of sevoflurane postconditioning, suggesting that the JAK-STAT pathway may be involved in the antiapoptotic mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

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Urinary Retention Manifesting as Excessive Venous Ooze During Cranio-Vertebral Junction Surgery.

No abstract available

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EVALUATION OF FEED RESOURCE AVAILABILITY FOR RUMINANT PRODUCTION IN NORTHERN GHANA

2016-06-23T22-50-33Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Solomon Pigangsoa Konlan, Augustine Abioye Ayantunde, Weseh Addah, Kwabla Herbert Dei.
Abstract Livestock production system in northern Ghana is constrained by many factors of which feed shortage in quantity and quality constitute a major challenge. An evaluation of ruminant feed availability to identify critical seasonal shortages and other related constraints affecting ruminant production among smallholder farmers was done in northern Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions). The data was collected by survey using focus group discussion and individual interviews with semi-structured questionnaire. Mean flock size per household was found significantly higher (P


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The slow component of pulmonary O2 uptake accompanies peripheral muscle fatigue during high intensity exercise

During constant-power output (PO) exercise above lactate threshold (LT), pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2p) features a developing slow component (VO2pSC). This progressive increase in O2 cost of exercise is suggested to be related to the effects of muscle fatigue development. We hypothesized that peripheral muscle fatigue, as assessed by contractile impairment, would be associated with the VO2pSC. Eleven healthy men were recruited to perform four constant-PO tests at an intensity corresponding to ~60 (very heavy, VH) where is 60% of the difference between LT and peak VO2p. The VH exercise was completed for each of 3, 8, 13, and 18min (i.e., VH3, VH8, VH13, VH18) with each preceded by 3min of 20W. Peripheral muscle fatigue was assessed via pre- vs post-exercise measurements of quadriceps torque in response to brief trains of electrical stimulation delivered at low (10Hz) and high (50Hz) frequencies. During exercise, breath-by-breath VO2p was measured by mass spectrometry and volume turbine. The magnitude of the VO2pSC increased (p<0.05) from 244±81mL·min-1 at VH3 to 520±119mL·min-1, 625±134mL·min-1, and 678±156mL·min-1 at VH8, VH13, and VH18, respectively. The ratio of the low-to-high frequency (10/50Hz) response was reduced (p<0.05) at VH3 (-12±9%) and further reduced (p<0.05) at VH8 (-25±11%), VH13 (-42±19%) and VH18 (-46±16%); mirroring the temporal pattern of VO2pSC development. The reduction in 10/50 Hz ratio was correlated (p<0.001, r=-0.65) with VO2pSC amplitude.The temporal and quantitative association of decrements in muscle torque production and the VO2pSC suggest a common physiological mechanism between skeletal muscle fatigue and the loss of muscle efficiency.



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RESISTANCE OR AEROBIC TRAINING DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AND IMPROVES CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC CONTROL AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HYPERTENSIVE MENOPAUSAL RATS

We investigated whether resistance training (RT) vs. aerobic training (AT) differentially impacts on arterial pressure and related mechanisms in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Female SHR were ovariectomized and assigned to one of the groups: sedentary, AT, or RT; sham sedentary SHR were used as control group. AT was performed on a treadmill, while RT was performed on a vertical ladder. Both exercise protocols were performed for 8 weeks, 5 days/week. Arterial pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, autonomic modulation, and cardiac oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, redox balance, NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzymes activities) were analyzed. Ovariectomy increased mean arterial pressure (~9 mmHg), sympathetic modulation (~40%) and oxidative stress in sedentary rats. Both RT and AT reduced mean arterial pressure (~20 and ~8 mmHg, respectively) and improved baroreflex sensitivity when compared to sedentary ovariectomized rats. However, RT-induced AP decrease was significantly less pronounced than AT. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased while antioxidant enzymes were increased in both trained groups vs. sedentaries. The reduced-gluthatione was higher after AT vs. other groups, while oxidized-gluthatione was lower after RT vs. AT. Moreover, sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations were highly correlated with cardiac oxidative stress parameters. Concluding, both RT and AT can decrease arterial pressure in a model of hypertension and menopause; although at different magnitudes, this decrease was related to attenuated autonomic dysfunction in association with cardiac oxidative stress improvement in both exercise protocols.



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New Opportunities for Authors

N/A



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Anti-apoptotic Effect of Exercise Training on Ovariectomized Rat Hearts

Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on cardiac Fas receptor-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in ovariectomized rats. Methods. Histopathological analysis, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into a sham-operated group (Sham), a bilaterally ovariectomized group (OVX), and a bilaterally ovariectomized rats underwent treadmill running exercise for 60 min / day, 5 sessions / week, for 10 weeks (OVX-EX). Results. The abnormal myocardial architecture, more cardiac fibrosis and cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in ovariectomized rats improved after exercise training. The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), Fas ligand (Fas-L), Fas receptors (Fas), Fas-associated death domain (FADD), activated caspase-8 and activated caspase-3 (Fas receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways), as well as t-Bid, Bad, Bak, Bax, cytosolic Cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways) were decreased in the OVX-EX group compared with the OVX group. Conclusions. Exercise training suppressed ovariectomy-induced cardiac Fas receptor-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in ovariectomized rat models. These findings might indicate a new therapeutic effect for exercise training to prevent cardiac apoptosis in menopausal or bilaterally oophorectomized women.



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Lifelong strength training mitigates the age-related decline in efferent drive

Recently we documented age-related attenuation of efferent drive to contracting skeletal muscle. It remains elusive if this indication of reduced muscle strength is present with lifelong strength training. For this purpose, we examined evoked potentials in the calf muscles of 11 (71±4years) strength trained master athletes (MA) contrasted to 10 (71±4years) sedentary (SO) and 11 (73±6years) recreationally active (AO) old subjects, as well as 9 (22±2years) young controls. As expected, MA had higher leg press maximal strength (MA: 185±32kg; AO: 128±15kg; SO: 106±11kg; young: 147±22kg, p<0.01) and rate of force development (MA: 5588±2488N•s-1; AO: 2156±1100N•s-1; SO: 2011±825N•s-1; young: 3663±1140N•s-1, p<0.05) than the other groups. MA also exhibited higher m.soleus normalized V-waves during MVC (Vsup/Msup: 0.28±0.15) than AO (0.13±0.06, p<0.01) and SO (0.11±0.05, p<0.01), yet lower than young (0.45±0.12, p<0.01). No differences were apparent between the old groups in H-reflex recorded at rest or during MVC (Hmax/Mmax; Hsup/Msup), and all were lower (p<0.01) than young. MA (34.4±2.1ms) had shorter (p<0.05) H-reflex latency compared to AO (36.4±3.7ms) and SO (37.3±3.2ms), but longer (p<0.01) than young (30.7±2.0ms). Using interpolated twitch analysis MA (89±7%) had similar plantar flexion voluntary activation as young (90±6%), and this was higher (p<0.05), or tended to be higher (p=0.06-0.09) than SO (83±10%) and AO (84±5%). These observations suggest that lifelong strength training has a protective effect against age-related attenuation of efferent drive. In contrast, no beneficial effect seems to derive from habitual recreational activity, indicating that strength training may be particularly beneficial for counteracting age-related loss of neuromuscular function.



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Neural signature of reward-modulated unconscious inhibitory control

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Publication date: Available online 23 June 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Liuting Diao, Senqing Qi, Mengsi Xu, Zhiai Li, Cody Ding, Antao Chen, Yan Zheng, Dong Yang
Consciously initiated cognitive control is generally determined by motivational incentives (e.g., monetary reward). Recent studies have revealed that human cognitive control processes can nevertheless operate without awareness. However, whether monetary reward can impinge on unconscious cognitive control remains unclear. To clarify this issue, a task consisting of several runs was designed to combine a modified version of the reward-priming paradigm with an unconscious version of the Go/No-Go task. At the beginning of each run, participants were exposed to a high- or low-value coin, followed by the modified Go/No-Go task. Participants could earn the coin only if they responded correctly to each trial of the run. Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that high-value rewards (vs. low-value rewards) induced a greater centro-parietal P3 component associated with conscious and unconscious inhibitory control. Moreover, the P3 amplitude correlated positively with the magnitude of reaction time slowing reflecting the intensity of activation of unconscious inhibitory control in the brain. These findings suggest that high-value reward may facilitate human higher-order inhibitory processes that are independent of conscious awareness, which provides insights into the brain processes that underpin motivational modulation of cognitive control.



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Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. from broiler and their antibiogram study in Sylhet, Bangladesh

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
Md. Jakirul Islam, A. T. M. Mahbub-E-Elahi, Tanvir Ahmed, Md. Kamrul Hasan.
The objectives of this study were to isolate the associated Salmonella spp. from cloacal swabs of broiler and their antibiogram studies. A total of 80 cloacal swabs comprising of 50 samples of apparently healthy broiler and 30 samples of diarrheic broiler were collected from different poultry farms at Sylhet, Bangladesh during January to June 2013. The samples were subjected for isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. through a series of conventional bacteriological studies like study of morphology, staining properties, and biochemical characteristics. In results, 48% (n= 24/50) swab samples of healthy broiler and 66.7% (n= 20/30) diarrheic broiler were found to be associated with Salmonella spp. Among the 44 positive Salmonella isolates 47.73% (n=21) were Salmonella pullorum, 36.36% (n=16) isolates were Salmonella gallinarum and the rest 15.91% (n=7) isolates were Salmonella typhimurium. Sensitivity test was conducted against 10 commonly used antibiotics, of which Penicillin-G, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, and Bacitracin were found to be resistant, and Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin, and Choloramphenicol showed considerably better sensitivity as compared to others. It is concluded that Salmonella spp. are present in broiler, and the bacteria can be clinically controlled by using Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin, and Choloramphenicol.


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The Characterization of Amylolytic Enzyme Present in Fermented Sweet Sap of Palmyrah

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
Arumugam Vengadaramana, Mehala Uthayasooriyan, Thananthika Sittampalam, Nirosha Razeek, Ranganathan Kapilan.
Amylase enzyme obtained from 12h of naturally fermented sweet sap of palmyrah. The amylase showed zero order kinetics for 10min. The optimum temperature for the activities of enzyme as 65oC and pH was 7.0. When the enzyme was pre-incubated at 65oC and at pH 7.0, it lost 62% of its initial activity at 60min. This enzyme showed activity with starch, lactose, maltose, pectin and sucrose. Amylase activity was strongly inhibited by 2mM of Hg2+ but 2 mM of Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ stimulated the enzyme activity at 65 oC and at pH 7.0. The enzyme in the presence of 2mM Mn2+, Cu2+ and Na+ separately, retained 79, 86 and 68 % of its initial activity respectively at 60 min, 65oC and pH 7.0.


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Ten different brewing methods of green tea: comparative antioxidant study

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
Naila Safdar, Amina Sarfaraz, Zehra Kazmi, Azra Yasmin.
In this study, three brands of green tea collected from different markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan were screened to identify best brewing method for green tea preparation and characterize their antioxidant potential. Brand A, brand B and non-branded green tea were examined for antioxidant potential by DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and reducing power method. Samples were prepared by ten different recipes used in different cultures. Distilled water and ethanol was used as solvent. Three brewing methods with highest, lowest and moderate antioxidant activities were identified and analyzed for phytochemical constituents such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, alkaloids and steroids. Cold cocktail showed highest antioxidant activity (85.9%), soft infusion showed moderate (70.6%) while hard infusion indicated lowest antioxidant potential (59.9%) amongst all the green tea brands tested. Phenolic compounds, tannins and proteins were found in all tea types with varying strength due to different brewing method. Alkaloids were not present in any type of green tea while steroids were found in brand A and B.


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Deciphering the phylogenetic relationships among rhizobia nodulating chickpea: A Review

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
Pooja Suneja, Surjit Singh Dudeja, Pushpa Dahiya.
Chickpea , the most important leguminous crop of arid regions of India. The rhizobia strains which nodulate chickpea exhibit genomic heterogeneity. The various molecular techniques such as DNA-DNA hybridization, RAPD-PCR, REP PCR, ERIC and BOX element or the finger printing of rhizobia genomes using ribosomal genes (16S, 23S or 16S-23S inter generic spacer - IGS), DAPD are regularly used to identify, differentiate and characterize rhizobia infecting chickpea. Though, the ribosomal RNA is conserved but it exhibits variability in some of the domains and this makes ribosomal gene sequence (16S and 23S DNA) an optimum choice for deducing phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship among chickpea rhizobia. But 16S r RNA sequence is not sufficient enough to distinguish the strains of one species. The additional genes like nod genes, nif genes, glutamine synthetase and other housekeeping genes have also been used in combination to 16S rRNA. This has led to proper taxonomy and systematics of the rhizobia group, with the description of new genera up to the level of species and sub species. The chickpea rhizobia have been grouped under genus Mesorhizobium with several species such as M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum, M amorphae, M. tianshanense, M.loti, M. huakuii, M.opportunistum and M.muleiense.


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Establishment of In vitro regeneration from petiole explants and assessment of clonal fidelity by ISSR markers in Luffa acutangula L.Roxb

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
Yashodhara Velivela, Muralikrishna Narra, Raghu Ellendula, Srinivas Kota, Sadanandam Abbagani.
An improved in vitro organogenesis was achieved from petiole explants of Luffa acutangula L.Roxb, a medicinally and economically important cucurbitaceous member. Morphogenetic response of petiole explants excised from in vitro grown plants has been studied with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. Higher percent of callus induction was occurred on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2mg/L BAP and 0.2mg/L NAA from the cut ends of petiole explants after 4 weeks of culture. Multiple shoots (8.28±0.85 shoots per explant) were induced after 2-3 weeks from the green compact callus upon on to MS medium with 30g/L sucrose, 2.0mg/L BAP along with 0.2mg/L IAA. The elongation of proliferated shoots was achieved on same medium supplemented additionally with 0.3 mg/L GA3. The elongated shoots (1cm) were rooted on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L IBA. Rooted plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse and subsequently established in soil with 85% survival rate. Clonal fidelity of in vitro raised plantlets was determined using ISSR marker technique. The results showed the similar banding pattern with different ISSR primers ranging from 250bp to 1000bp and indicated the absence of polymorphism in donar mother plant and as well in in vitro regenerated plants.


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Antimicrobial Activity Screening of Marine Bacteria Isolated from the Machilipatnam Sea Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
K. Bala Chandra, V. Umamaheswara Rao, Subhaswaraj Pattnaik, Siddhardha Busi.
Bacterial colonies were marooned by water samplings from Machilipatnam coasts,Andhra Pradesh in South India. The isolates were cultured and analyzed for antimicrobial action. Among the 40 isolating evidences, 10 isolates showed substantial antibacterial activity with more than 10 mm of zone of inhibition at least against one test organism. Those bacteria were analyzed based on their morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics. From all the isolates collected and studied only three strains showed the most outstanding results almost against all the test bacteria. These three isolates were marked as M20, M22 and M23 and the strains were found to be Alcaligens sp. (M20), Bacillus sp. (M22) and Bacillus sp. (M23) from the performed biochemical tests. The extracts of Alcaligens sp. (M20) showed the highest activity among the selected isolates with a zone of inhibition of 16mm at 150 µg/ml against Serratia marcescens. Meanwhile, it showed a zone of inhibition of 14 mm against E.coli and Shigella, whereas 12 mm against Salmonella paratyphi and Bacillus cereus.


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Growth, physiological and biochemical responses of Meliaceae species - Azadirachta indica and Melia dubia to elevated CO2 concentrations

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
S. Janani, P. Priyadharshini, R. S. C. Jayaraj, C. Buvaneswaran, Rekha R. Warrier.
Response of two important tropical tree species of Meliaceae (Azadirachta indica neem and Melia dubia - melia) to elevated levels of CO2 (600 and 900 ppm) under simulated temperature and moisture regimes in Automated Open Top Chambers was studied. Growth, biochemical changes, antioxidant property and gas exchange parameters were estimated. The results indicate that A. indica is expected to acclimatize under elevated CO2 concentrations whereas M. dubia was observed to be a species sensitive to elevated CO2 concentrations, affecting the photosynthetic machinery, stomatal conductance and transpiration and a subsequent decrease in carbohydrates, proteins, sugars, amino acids and phenolics. The short-term and long-term responses with respect to stomatal conductance and transpiration rates were higher in neem than melia. Thus, a positive response of neem to increased CO2 concentrations is a good indication for its future establishment in potentially changed climatic conditions. ions.


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Isolation and Identification of Chitinase Producing Native Fungi From Saltpan of Puthalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
George Aldous Jenin, Mariavincent Michael Babu, Manavalan Murugan, Thanigaimalai Murugan.
The objective of the present study is isolation and identification of native chitinolytic fungal strains from infected Artemia collected for salt pan of Puthalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. A total of 10 fungi (J1 to J10) were isolated from homogenized Artemia sample and screened for chitinase activity on chitin agar plates. In this study, 5 fungi (J1, J3, J4, J5, & J8) showed positive result of chitinase activity and 2 best strains (J1 & J5) were selected for further study. Fungi J1 and J5 were identified as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus respectively. Greater quality of the enzyme production was achieved with the above strains and the molecular weight of the chitinase was determined by SDS-PAGE it was found to be around 23 KDa. Finally, degradation property of enzyme was assayed with chitin shell waste powder and observed that, degradation activity was higher in shrimp shell powder followed by Prawn shell. The fungal strains such as A.niger and A. fumigatus have been identified as good chitinase producers.


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Enhanced fibrinolytic protease production by Serratia marcescens RSPB11 through Plackett-Burman and response surface methodological approaches

2016-06-23T17-38-00Z
Source: Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology
Paruchuru Lakshmi Bhargavi, Reddy Shetty Prakasham.
A well characterized alkaline metalloprotease enzyme called serralysin with fibrinolytic activity has been reported in the newly isolated Serratia marcescens RSPB11. In view of its potential application in thrombolytic therapy this study has been made for understanding the nutritional parameters requirement needed for production. Therefore, medium components required for the production of serralysin were optimized using a two step statistical approach. Fermentation variables were selected in accordance with the Plackett-Burman design and were further optimized via response surface methodological approach. A total of seven parameters viz., casein, dextrose, KH2PO4, MgSO4, NaCl, CaCl2 and inoculum have been considered for the optimization studies. The statistical model was constructed via central composite design (CCD) using five screened variables (casein, dextrose, KH2PO4, CaCl2 and inoculum size). An overall 51.8% increase in protease production was achieved in the optimized medium as compared with the unoptimized casein medium.With the application of statistical design methodology serralysin production increased significantly with optimized casein medium (23910 U/ml) when compared to yeast extract-peptone medium (5363 U/ml).


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SIRT3 gene expression but not subcellular localization is altered in response to fasting and exercise in human skeletal muscle

The present study examined SIRT3 expression and mitochondrial localization in response to acute exercise and short-term fasting in human skeletal muscle. Experiment 1 involved 8 healthy men (age, 21.4 ± 2.8 years; VO2peak, 47.1 ± 11.8 ml min−1 kg−1) who performed a single bout of exercise at ∼55% of peak aerobic work rate for 1 h. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest (Rest), immediately after exercise (EX-0), and 3 h post-exercise (EX-3). Experiment 2 involved 10 healthy men (age, 22.0 ± 1.5 years; VO2peak, 47.2 ± 6.7 ml min−1 kg−1) who underwent a 48-hour fast, with muscle biopsies collected 1 h postprandial (Fed) and following 48 h of fasting (Fast). Mitochondrial respiration was measured using high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibre bundles to assess substrate oxidation. Whole body fat oxidation increased after both exercise (Rest: 0.96 ± 0.32, Exercise: 5.66 ± 1.97, P < 0.001) and fasting (Fed: 0.87 ± 0.51, Fast: 1.30 ± 0.37 kcal min−1, P < 0.05). SIRT3 gene expression decreased (P < 0.05) following both exercise (−8%) and fasting (−19%); however SIRT3 whole muscle protein content was unaltered following fasting. No changes were observed in SIRT3 mitochondrial localization following either exercise or fasting. Fasting also decreased the Vmax of glutamate (80 ± 43 vs. 50 ± 21 pmol sec−1 mg−1 dry wt, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that SIRT3 does not appear to be regulated by changes in mitochondrial localization at the time points measured in the current study in response to cellular energy stress in human skeletal muscle.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Psychosis Following an Increase in Intrathecal Baclofen

Baclofen is a commonly used medication to treat spasticity in neurologic disorders. In the traumatic brain injury population, the intrathecal administration of baclofen is often preferred over oral administration due to cognitive side effects. Here we report on a case of a psychotic episode following an increase in intrathecal baclofen in a young man with a history of a traumatic brain injury (TBI). While intrathecal baclofen is commonly used and generally well tolerated, this case highlights an important potential effect of intrathecal baclofen, rarely reported in the literature.

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OnabotulinumtoxinA injection for post-stroke upper-limb spasticity: Guidance for early injectors from a Delphi panel process

OnabotulinumtoxinA reduces muscle hypertonia associated with post-stroke spasticity (PSS). PSS manifests as several common postures.

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Exercise Benefits for Chronic Low Back Pain in Overweight and Obese Individuals

Overweight and obese individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP) struggle with the combined physical challenges of physical activity and pain interference during daily life; perceived disability increases, pain symptoms worsen, and performance of functional tasks and quality of life (QOL) decline. Consistent participation in exercise programs positively affects several factors including musculoskeletal pain, perceptions of disability due to pain, functional ability, QOL, and body composition. It is not yet clear, however, what differential effects occur among different easily accessible exercise modalities in the overweight-obese population with chronic LBP.

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Localization of the Lateral Retinacular Nerve for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nerve Block for Lateral Knee Pain: A Cadaveric Study

The lateral retincular nerve (LRN) is a branch of the superior lateral genicular nerve (SLGN) and is believed to contribute to anterolateral knee pain. However, the precise anatomical pathway of the LRN has not been demonstrated as it relates to the performance of targeted nerve block procedures.

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Early Rehabilitation in the Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units for Patients With and Without Mechanical Ventilation: An Interprofessional Performance Improvement Project

Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation and the role of physical and occupational therapy. This Performance Improvement Project (PIP) project examined early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on ICU patients with and without mechanical ventilation. In addition, Speech-Language Pathology rehabilitation was added to the early mobilization program.

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Comparison of the cross sectional area of longus colli muscle between patients with cervical radicular pain and healthy controls

Previous studies have shown atrophy of paravertebral lumbar muscles in patients with lumbar radicular pain, and proposed rehabilitative approaches based on these findings. However, changes of cervical paravertebral muscles in patients with cervical radicular pain are still unknown.

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Cost-effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy, supervised exercise, and home exercise for older adults with chronic neck pain.

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Chronic neck pain is a prevalent and disabling condition among older adults. Despite the large burden of neck pain, little is known regarding the cost-effectiveness of commonly used treatments.

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First-time systematic post-operative clinical assessment of a minimally-invasive approach for lumbar ventrolateral vertebroplasty in the large animal model sheep

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Large animal models are highly recommended for meaningful pre-clinical studies, including the optimization of cement augmentation for vertebral body defects by vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty.

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Irrigation endoscopic assisted percutaneous pars repair: technical note

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Spondylolysis is a common source of low back pain in children and adolescents. Despite the benign natural history of the pathology, however it should be noted that as a part of the conservative management many young individuals are forced to discontinue their routine sport activities. In cases resistant to conservative management, direct repair of a pars defect is considered a safe and effective option in young adults with preserved discs. Recently, some reports of minimally invasive pars repair have been described, aiming at preservation of the paraspinal muscles and improvement of the postoperative course.

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A new cervical artificial disc prosthesis based on physiologic curvature of endplate: a finite element analysis

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To build a new cervical artificial disc C3-C7 segment prosthesis, and perform a biomechanical comparison between the new prosthesis and the Prestige LP prosthesis using a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model.

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Firefighter/EMT - City of St. Petersburg

ST. PETERSBURG FIRE AND RESCUE 400 M. L. KING JR. STREET SOUTH ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA 33701 Updated: June 22, 2016 Job Classification: Firefighter/EMT Required Certifications: Currently Certified as a State of Florida Firefighter II Currently Certified as a State of Florida EMT If the applicant does not currently hold the two above requirements, the applicant will not be considered for hiring as a ...

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Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms for phenytoin

2016-06-23T09-23-22Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Sowmya Chinnaiyan, Bhuvana Krishnaswamy, Sarala Narayana, Rajashekar Talari Srinivas.
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by fever, skin eruptions, hematologic abnormalities, and systemic involvement frequently reported with anticonvulsants, allopurinol, nevirapine, and sulfasalazine. We report a case of DRESS syndrome in a patient with neurocysticercosis receiving phenytoin. A 60-year-old male patient was diagnosed with seizures due to neurocysticercosis and was prescribed phenytoin. 2 weeks after therapy, the patient had fever, burning micturition, decreased appetite, and generalized weakness for which he was treated symptomatically by a local practitioner. 2 days later, fever had recurred with generalized cutaneous hyperemia which was treated with antimicrobials in a local hospital, as it did not resolve patient was referred to our hospital. The findings on examination were icterus, periorbital edema, oral mucositis, facial puffiness, and generalized maculopapular rashes. Eosinophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and liver enzymes were elevated, abdominal scan revealed hepatomegaly and cystitis. It was diagnosed as DRESS and phenytoin were discontinued. He was treated with corticosteroids. There was a clinical improvement, and liver function test was normal after a month. DRESS is a Type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction which manifests after 2-4 weeks of treatment with an offending agent. This report indicates that the occurrence of DRESS has a higher preponderance in patients receiving phenytoin for seizures due to neurocysticercosis.


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Prescription analysis of both H1 and H2 antihistamines among in-patients of dermatology department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in a coastal town of South India

2016-06-23T09-23-22Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Bhanu Prakash Kolasani, C. M. Divyashanthi, Prasanand Sasidharan, Sri Venkateswaran Kothandapany.
Background: Antihistamines are one of the commonly used drugs for treating dermatological disorders. Periodic evaluation of prescribing patterns can increase the therapeutic efficacy, decrease adverse effects, and provide feedback to prescribers. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of both H1 and H2 antihistamines in in-patients of dermatology department in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Dermatology of Vinayaka Missions Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal. A total of 291 prescriptions belonging to in-patients of dermatology department were scrutinized during the study period. Patients age, sex, and pattern of skin diseases reported and trends in antihistaminic drug usage as monotherapy or as combinations were analyzed. Most common adverse effects of the prescribed antihistamines were graded, and data were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Out of the total 291 prescriptions screened, 213 (73.2%) contained at least one antihistaminic drug. The majority of patients were in the age group of 41-50 years (26.83%) followed by 31-40 years (22.36%). Psoriasis, eczema, and allergic contact dermatitis were the top three disorders for which antihistamines were prescribed. Overall second-generation H1 antihistamines were prescribed more commonly than their first-generation counterparts. The most commonly prescribed antihistamine as monotherapy was cetirizine (59.62%) and combination was pheniramine + cetirizine (16.43%). H2 blockers were prescribed to 91 patients (42.7%), ranitidine being the one and only H2 blocker prescribed. Conclusion: Secondgeneration antihistamines were more commonly prescribed compared to first-generation drugs. Cetirizine was the most commonly prescribed antihistamine, and pheniramine + cetirizine was the most prescribed combination. A substantial number of patients were prescribed H2 blockers also which indicates the higher proportion of resistant dermatological conditions.


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Efficacy and safety of tirofiban as an adjunctive therapy in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

2016-06-23T09-23-22Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Sanjay Sharma, Seema Gupta, Sanjeev Bhat, Zahid Gillani, Dinesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar.
Background: The introduction of stents and the use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, either alone or in combination with reduced-dose fibrinolytic therapy, has allowed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to be performed more safely and synergistically following pharmacologic reperfusion therapy. Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tirofiban as an adjunct to angioplasty/stenting in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 156 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) presenting within 12 h of symptoms were randomly allocated to primary PCI alone or primary PCI along with tirofiban. Clinical characteristics, angiographic findings (including thrombolysis in MI [TIMI] flow rate), and ST-segment resolution were compared post-procedurally; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including death, reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization) were compared at 30 days clinical follow-up. Results: Post-procedurally, TIMI Grade 3 reflow was significantly different between two groups (P = 0.01) and was associated with better in-hospital outcomes in tirofiban group compared with control group. Greater resolution of ST-elevation was achieved in patients given tirofiban than in non-tirofiban group, and the results were highly significant. Statistically significant improvement in LVEF was also observed in tirofiban group. There was the non-significant difference in MACE and bleeding complications between two groups. Conclusion: Adjunctive tirofiban therapy for patients with acute STEMI, who underwent primary PCI, seems to be safe and effective treatment modality to achieve improved reperfusion, better LVEF, and clinical outcome at 30 days follow-up.


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To compare the efficacy of trimetazidine and diltiazem in chronic stable angina

2016-06-23T09-23-22Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Sharanjit Kaur, Sami Manzoor, Banta Singh, Harinder Jot Singh, Seema Rai, Diksha Kumari.
Background: Trimetazidine, a cytoprotective agent, is better anti-ischemic drug than conventional agents without causing any change in heart rate and blood pressure. Aims and Objectives: To compare the efficacy of trimetazidine with diltiazem in chronic stable angina. Materials and Methods: Thirty diagnosed cases of chronic stable angina were subjected to TMT I with total effort duration and time to precipitate angina being the end point. Patients were given 60 mg of trimetazidine for 8 weeks, in addition to their conventional treatment and subjected to another TMT II with the same end points. After a washout period of 2 weeks, the same patients were put on diltiazem 60 mg TDS for 8 weeks again with another third TMT III to evaluate the results. Results: The mean age of all patients was 57.70 ± 8.44. The mean increase in effort duration between TMT II (7.50 ± 1.52) and I (6.21 ± 1.65 min) was 1.29 min which was statistically significant (P 0.05 not significant). The increase in time to ST-segment depression between TMT I and II was 1.35 min. (P 0.005). Conclusions: The patients with stable angina had a better clinical improvement after treatment with trimetazidine, without any adverse effects.


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Alterations in Serum Electrolytes in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

2016-06-23T08-00-51Z
Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
Usha Adiga, Malawadi BN.
Electrolyte disturbances are often reported in type 2 diabetics and known to originate due to multiple etiologies.It is less researched area in Indian settings which calls for a study on this topic.Objective of the study was to compare the electrolyte levels in type 2 diabetes patients with that of nondiabetic controls as well as to find the correlation of electrolytes with renal disorder of diabetes mellitus. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out in a medical college teaching hospital with 50 type 2 diabetics and 46 non-diabetic controls. Data was obtained from our clinical biochemistry laboratory attached to the 400 bedded teaching hospital. Roche electrolyte analyzer was used to measure serum electrolytes. It works on the principle of ion selective electrodes. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using MDRD formula and it is taken as the diagnostic tool for renal disorder of diabetes mellitus. Significant lowering of sodium and chloride levels were observed in diabetics compared to controls ( p=0.0096 and p=0.0236 respectively). Potassium, even though slightly elevated in patients, statistically wasnt significant. Calcium didn't differ between both the groups. We found electrolytes in normal reference interval even though we found lowered sodium and chloride levels in patients. But this is an alarming sign to be aware of electrolyte derangements in diabetics and be ready with the treatment options to avoid fatalities associated with electrolyte derangements.


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Comparative study of Eugenia jambolana seed and pulp for antidiabetic action on alloxan induced diabetic rats

2016-06-23T07-02-07Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Farhana Rahman, Seema Baishnab.
Background: Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or jamun is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhoea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess chemopreventive, radioprotective and antineoplastic properties. The aim of the present study is to compare the action of extract of Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) seed with pulp on blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Methods: The extracts (100 mg/kg/d) were administered orally for four weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose was estimated every week for four consecutive weeks. Results: The test drugs that is Eugenia jambolana seed showed more significant (p


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