Πέμπτη, 23 Αυγούστου 2018

e-learning: the anesthesiology media lab of Yale University School of Medicine. A review

No abstract available

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Correction to: The Proceedings of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Physiological Society of Japan, March 28–30, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan

In the original publication of the article, there are following misprints in the numbering of the planned symposia



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Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Childhood and Adolescence Affects Future Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

Abstract

Background

Although cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in childhood and adolescence may be linked to future cardiovascular health, there is currently limited evidence for a longitudinal association.

Objectives

To provide a systematic review on the prospective association between CRF in childhood and adolescence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at least 2 years later.

Methods

Using a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and SPORTDiscus, relevant articles were identified by the following criteria: generally healthy children and adolescents between 3 and 18 years of age with CRF assessed at baseline, and a follow-up period of ≥ 2 years. The outcome measures were CVD risk factors. We appraised quality of the included articles with STROBE and QUIPS checklists.

Results

After screening 7524 titles and abstracts, we included 38 articles, assessing 44,169 children and adolescents followed up for a median of 6 years. Eleven articles were of high quality. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodology, measurement of CRF, and outcomes, which hampered meta-analysis. In approximately half of the included articles higher CRF in childhood and adolescence was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fatness and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in later life. No associations between CRF in childhood and adolescence and future waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose homeostasis were observed.

Conclusion

Although about half of the included articles reported inverse associations between CRF in childhood and adolescence and future BMI, body fatness, and metabolic syndrome, evidence for other CVD risk factors was unconvincing. Many articles did not account for important confounding factors such as adiposity. Recommendations for future research include standardizing the measurement of CRF, i.e. by reporting VO2max, using standardized outcome assessments, and performing individual patient data meta-analyses.



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Match-Play and Performance Test Responses of Soccer Goalkeepers: A Review of Current Literature

Abstract

Goalkeepers are typically the last defensive line for soccer teams aiming to minimise goals being conceded, with match rules permitting ball handling within a specific area. Goalkeepers are also involved in initiating some offensive plays, and typically remain in close proximity to the goal line while covering ~ 50% of the match distances of outfield players; hence, the competitive and training demands of goalkeepers are unique to their specialised position. Indeed, isolated performance tests differentiate goalkeepers from outfield players in multiple variables. With a view to informing future research, this review summarised currently available literature reporting goalkeeper responses to: (1) match play (movement and skilled/technical demands) and (2) isolated performance assessments (strength, power, speed, aerobic capacity, joint range of motion). Literature searching and screening processes yielded 26 eligible records and highlighted that goalkeepers covered ~ 4–6 km on match day whilst spending ~ 98% of time at low-movement intensities. The most decisive moments are the 2–10 saves·match−1 performed, which often involve explosive actions (e.g. dives, jumps). Whilst no between-half performance decrements have been observed in professional goalkeepers, possible transient changes over shorter match epochs remain unclear. Isolated performance tests confirm divergent profiles between goalkeepers and outfield players (i.e. superior jump performance, reduced \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}\) 2max values, slower sprint times), and the training of soccer goalkeepers is typically completed separately from outfield positions with a focus primarily on technical or explosive drills performed within confined spaces. Additional work is needed to examine the physiological responses to goalkeeper-specific training and match activities to determine the efficacy of current preparatory strategies.



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Powerful moments: The rollercoaster of life in EMS

Making connections with the patients you treat and transport can allow you to feel the magic

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Powerful moments: The rollercoaster of life in EMS

Making connections with the patients you treat and transport can allow you to feel the magic

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Viable Triploid Honey Bees (Apis mellifera capensis) Are Reliably Produced in the Progeny of CO2 Narcotised Queens

The haplodiploid system of sex determination of Hymenoptera acts as an exaptation for species to evolve novel forms of asexual reproduction including thelytoky (clonal offspring of the mother). During normal reproduction in Hymenoptera, three of the four products of meiosis that are present in newly-laid eggs are lost as polar bodies, while the remaining pronucleus either develops as a haploid male or fuses with a sperm nucleus to produce a diploid zygote. In contrast, in thelytokous reproduction, which is uncommon but taxonomically widespread, two of the four products of meiosis fuse, as if one acted as a sperm. Queenless workers of Apis mellifera capensis, a subspecies of honey bee from South Africa, routinely reproduce thelytokously. Unmated A. m. capensis queens can also be induced to lay thelytokously by narcosis with carbon dioxide, but mated queens are never thelytokous. We artificially inseminated A. m. capensis queens using CO2 narcosis. Up to 1/3 of offspring workers carried two maternal alleles and an allele of one father whereas no three-allele progeny were seen in control queens of the arrhenotokous (unfertilized eggs result in males) subspecies A. m. scutellata. Flow cytometry of three-allele individuals revealed that they were triploid and arose from the fertilization of a thelytokous fusion nucleus. We then reared six queens from a narcotized A. m. capensis queen and determined the ploidy of the offspring queens based on microsatellites. One of the five daughters was triploid. Following artificial insemination, this queen produced unfertilized thelytokous diploid eggs at high frequency, and unfertilized triploid eggs at much lower frequency. If fertilized, thelytokous diploid eggs were non-viable, even though triploidy in itself does not impede normal development. In contrast, when the rarer triploid eggs were fertilized, a proportion developed into viable tetraploids. Our study highlights the extraordinary developmental flexibility of haplo-diploid systems.



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Comparative Genomics Approaches Accurately Predict Deleterious Variants in Plants

Recent advances in genome resequencing have led to increased interest in prediction of the functional consequences of genetic variants. Variants at phylogenetically conserved sites are of particular interest, because they are more likely than variants at phylogenetically variable sites to have deleterious effects on fitness and contribute to phenotypic variation. Numerous comparative genomic approaches have been developed to predict deleterious variants, but the approaches are nearly always assessed based on their ability to identify known disease-causing mutations in humans. Determining the accuracy of deleterious variant predictions in nonhuman species is important to understanding evolution, domestication, and potentially to improving crop quality and yield. To examine our ability to predict deleterious variants in plants we generated a curated database of 2,910 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with known phenotypes. We evaluated seven approaches and found that while all performed well, their relative ranking differed from prior benchmarks in humans. We conclude that deleterious mutations can be reliably predicted in A. thaliana and likely other plant species, but that the relative performance of various approaches does not necessarily translate from one species to another.



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Ultrasonographic Evaluation for the Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Gastrocnemius Muscle Spasticity in Patients with Chronic Stroke

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been suggested as a useful treatment for spasticity in patients with stroke. To data, most studies used clinical or biomechanical assessments to determine the effects of treatment.

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Profiling the isokinetic muscle strength of athletes involved in sports characterized by constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity: a cross-sectional study

Constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity (FMHI) is a type of strength and general conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity in recent years. The very intense exercises performed with lower and upper limbs may create muscular asymmetry or imbalance between agonist and antagonist muscles, and therefore the characterization of isokinetic muscle strength, side-to-side difference and balance ratios for lower and upper limbs may contribute to a better understanding of the modality characteristics.

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Expanding Concepts of Youth Adversity: Relationships With a Positive Patient Health Questionnaire–2

Research suggests that diverse examples of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may link to health. This study examines relationships between conventional (abuse, neglect, household dysfunction) and expanded examples (bullying, safety perceptions) of ACEs and adolescent mental health among youth participating in a statewide school-based survey.

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Early Life Factors for Overweight Risk Among Infants of Hispanic Immigrant Mothers

This study examined postpartum depression, food insecurity, and underestimation of infant size as potential early life factors for overweight risk at 12 months among infants of Hispanic immigrant mothers.

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Implementing a Parent Education Program in the Special Care Nursery

Parents of preterm hospitalized infants, whose lengths of stay can range from a few days to several months, often experience emotional liability. Because the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) or Special Care Nursery (SCN) is a stressful and intimidating environment, prompt attention should be given to reducing parental stress and increasing parental confidence in preparation to care for their child post-discharge.

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Bell Ringers: Factors Related to Concussive Events in Children Playing Tackle Football

Sports-related concussion is a significant pediatric health risk, given the number of children involved in sports and the vulnerability of developing brains. Although most research has focused on high school/college athletes, these findings may not be applicable to younger athletes.

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DFW Airport emergency room takes off with innovative communication platform

BOZEMAN, MT — The world's first fully-equipped airport emergency room opened recently at the Dallas Fort Worth International Airport. Using state-of-the-art communication platform, Pulsara, the ED will be able to quickly exchange patient information, estimated time of arrival, and other data with local EMS to get critical patients treated sooner. These medical care facility projects...

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Is Focused MRI Adequate for Treatment Decision-Making in Acute Traumatic Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures seen on Whole spine CT?

To assess whether a focused MRI limited to the region of known acute traumatic thoracic or lumbar fracture(s) would miss any clinically significant injuries that would change patient management.

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Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with thyroid function: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases. The relationship of NAFLD with thyroid function parameters and hypothyroidism remains controversial.

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Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system in cirrhosis: there’s room to try!



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Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with thyroid function: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases. The relationship of NAFLD with thyroid function parameters and hypothyroidism remains controversial.

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Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system in cirrhosis: there’s room to try!



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Oesophageal pemphigoid: a rare cause of dysphagia

Abstract

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune bullous disease which affects the skin and mucous membranes. Oesophageal involvement is rare and has previously been limited to case reports and case series. A recent large case series of 477 PV patients showed that 26/477 (5.4%) had symptomatic oesophageal involvement. We present the case of a 54-year-old Somalian lady with a 10-year history of cutaneous PV, currently in remission, who developed dysphagia and odynophagia and was subsequently found to have oesophageal PV involvement with multiple flaccid bullae which were positive for anti-DSG3 antibodies on in-direct immunofluorescence. She had her treatment switched from azathioprine to mycophenolate and prednisolone, leading to resolution of her symptoms.



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Parental Attitudes and Beliefs About Preschooler Preventive Oral Health Behaviors: Implications for Health Promotion

Abstract

Dental caries affects 60–90% of school-aged children, with non-Hispanic Black children among those disproportionately affected. This study seeks to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Black parents about preventive measures against caries for their preschool children (3–5 years). Parents of Black preschool children in Miami-Dade County (n = 192) completed an oral health survey measuring oral health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze attitudes, beliefs and favorable oral health behaviors. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental oral health attitudes and beliefs and their children's oral health behaviors. Most of the parents reported positive attitudes with regards to sugar snacking (81%), brushing child's teeth (88%), attitude to prevention (85%), and perceived seriousness of decay (91%). Parental oral health attitudes were independently associated with children's preventive oral health behaviors (p < 0.05). Parental education should be included in interventions geared towards improving children's oral health.



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Feasibility of exercise testing in patients who are critically ill: a prospective, observational multicenter study

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Juultje Sommers, Emily Klooster, Siebrand B. Zoethout, Huub LA. van den Oever, Frans Nollet, Robert Tepaske, Janneke Horn, Raoul HH. Engelbert, Marike van der Schaaf

ABSTRACT
Objective

To evaluate the feasibility and safety of exercise testing and to describe the physiological response to exercise of patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Design

A prospective observational multicenter study.

Setting

Two mixed medical-surgical ICUs.

Participants

Patients (N= 37; with no primary neurological disorders, 59% male; median age 50 years; ICU length of stay 14.5 days; APACHE IV 73.0) who had been mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours and were hemodynamically stable enough to perform physical exercise.

Interventions

A passive or active incremental exercise test, depending on muscle strength, on a bed-based cycle ergometer.

Main outcome measures

Feasibility and safety were evaluated based on protocol adherence and adverse events. Physiological responses to exercise quantified as changes in respiratory frequency (RF), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate.

Results

Thirty-seven patients of whom 18 were mechanically ventilated underwent the exercise test. The active incremental test was performed by 28, and the passive test by 9 participants. Thirty-three (89%) accomplished the test according to the protocol and one moderate severe adverse event (bradycardia; heart rate 44) occurred shortly after the test. Rf, VO2 , VCO2 and lactate increased significantly whereas RER did not change during the active incremental exercise test. No changes were observed during the passive exercise test.

Conclusions

It is safe and feasible to perform exercise testing on a bed-based cycle ergometer in patients who are critically ill and a physiological response could be measured. Future research should investigate the clinical value of exercise testing in daily ICU practice and whether exercise capacity and its limiting factors could be determined by incremental exercise testing.



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Empathic Responses to Affective Film Clips Following Brain Injury and the Association with Emotion Recognition Accuracy

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Dawn Neumann, Barbra Zupan

Abstract
Objective

To compare empathic responses to affective film clips in participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Healthy controls (HCs), and examine associations with affect recognition.

Design

Cross sectional study using a quasi-experimental design.

Setting

Multi-site study conducted at a post-acute rehabilitation facility in the USA and a University in Canada.

Participants

A convenience sample of 60 adults with moderate to severe TBI and 60 HCs, frequency matched for age and sex. Average time post-injury was 14 years (range: .5-37)

Main Outcome Measures

Participants were shown affective film clips and asked to report how the main character in the clip felt and how they personally felt in response to the clip. Empathic responses were operationalized as participants feeling the same emotion they identified the character to be feeling.

Results

Participants with TBI had lower emotion recognition scores (p=.007) and fewer empathic responses than HCs (67% vs. 79%; p<.001). Participants with TBI accurately identified and empathically responded to characters' emotions less frequently (65%) than HCs (78%). Participants with TBI had poorer recognition scores and fewer empathic responses to sad and fearful clips compared to HCs. Affect recognition was associated with empathic responses in both groups (p<.001). When participants with TBI accurately recognized characters' emotions, they had an empathic response 71% of the time, which was more than double their empathic responses for incorrectly identified emotions.

Conclusions

Participants with TBI were less likely to recognize and respond empathically to others' expressions of sadness and fear, which has implications for interpersonal interactions and relationships. This is the first study in the TBI population to demonstrate a direct association between an affect stimulus and an empathic response.



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A MCREXS modelling approach for the simulation of a radiological dispersal device

Publication date: December 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192

Author(s): Lucian Ivan, David Hummel, Luke Lebel

Abstract

Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a radiological dispersal device (RDD) attack requires knowledge of how the radiological materials will be spread through the air surrounding the site of the detonation. Two essential parts of the accurate prediction of the behaviour of this dispersion are a characterization of the initial cloud size, directly after the blast, and detailed modelling of the behaviour of different size particulates. Capturing the transport of contaminants from the initial blast wave is integral to achieving accurate predictions, especially for regions where the blast dynamics dominates, but performing such calculations over a wide range of particle sizes and spatial scales is computationally challenging. Formulation of efficient computational techniques for such advanced models is required to provide predictive tools useful to first responders and emergency planners. In this work, a Multi-Cloud Radiological EXplosive Source (MCREXS) modelling approach for RDD is investigated. This approach combines a stochastic, particle-based, mechanistic model with a standard atmospheric dispersion model. The former is used to characterize the distribution of radioactive material near the source of the explosion, where the blast wind effects are important, while the latter is used to model the transport of the contaminant in the environment over large areas. The particle transport in the near-field of the explosion site is computed based on a Lagrangian description of the particle phase and a reconstructed-Eulerian field for the carrier phase. The information inferred from this physics-based model is then used as a starting point for a subsequent standard Gaussian puff model to calculate the dispersion of the radioactive contaminant. The predictive capabilities of the MCREXS model are assessed against the 2012 DRDC Suffield full-scale RDD experiments. The results demonstrate improved predictions relative to those performed using only a Gaussian puff calculation from an empirical initial cloud distribution.



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Adhesion molecules and pancreatitis

Abstract

Acute and chronic pancreatitises are gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, the incidence of which is increasing worldwide. Most (~ 80%) acute pancreatitis (AP) patients have mild disease, and about 20% have severe disease, which causes multiple organ failure and has a high mortality rate. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of normal pancreatic parenchyma, which leads to loss of exocrine and endocrine tissues. Patients with CP also have a higher incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Although a number of factors are associated with the development and progression of AP and CP, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Adhesion molecules play important roles in cell migration, proliferation, and signal transduction, as well as in development and tissue repair. Loosening of cell–cell adhesion between pancreatic acinar cells and/or endothelial cells increases solute permeability, resulting in interstitial edema, which promotes inflammatory cell migration and disrupts tissue structure. Oxidative stress, which is one of the important pathogenesis of pancreatitis, leads to upregulation of adhesion molecules. Soluble adhesion molecules are reportedly involved in AP. In this review, we focus on the roles of tight junctions (occludin, tricellulin, claudin, junctional adhesion molecule, and zonula occludin), adherens junctions (E-cadherin and p120-, α-, and β-catenin), and other adhesion molecules (selectin and intercellular adhesion molecules) in the progression of AP and CP. Maintaining the normal function of adhesion molecules and preventing their abnormal activation maintain the structure of the pancreas and prevent the development of pancreatitis.



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Where is the love? A double-blind, randomized study of the effects of intranasal oxytocin on stress regulation and aggression

Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Chelsea Romney, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Greg J. Norman, Andrew Moore, Julianne Holt-Lunstad

Abstract

Previous studies reveal that oxytocin (OT) encourages prosocial behavior in humans; however, animal studies and recent work in humans suggest that OT may also play a role in aggressive behavior and feelings. The present study investigated these competing predictions in the context of a competitive task among 85 healthy human participants (males and females). Using a randomized double-blind design, participants were assigned to an experimental (intranasal OT) or control (intranasal placebo) group. Hostility (Aggression Questionnaire) was measured at home (T1) and in the lab after intranasal administration (T2). Behavioral aggression was assessed post-intranasal administration. There was a significant difference between the OT and the placebo group on hostility scores (p = 0.03) and a significant time by group interaction for behavioral aggression (p < 0.05). Self-reported hostility was significantly higher at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.001) among participants in the oxytocin group while no significant change was found in hostility among the placebo group. Behavioral aggression was slightly higher in the OT group (compared to the placebo group) directly after OT administration, however, the opposite relationship was found as the study period progressed. Both hostility and behavioral aggression findings were consistent across gender.



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Reward and feedback processing: State of the field, best practices, and future directions

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Dan Foti, Anna Weinberg



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Reactivation of intraabdominal tuberculous lymphadenopathy after drug-eluting beads transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma

Abstract

Owing to effective treatments and sanitary improvements, the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has decreased. However, approximately one-quarter of the world's population is thought to have LTBI, and the reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) sometimes occurs in immunocompromised hosts. A 54-year-old man presented with a fever. The patient had past histories of alcoholic and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). He was treated with drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) for HCC three times, beginning 10 months before his current visit. A computed tomography scan showed enlarged intraabdominal lymph nodes with calcification, and the interferon-gamma release assay for TB infection was positive. The patient was diagnosed with tuberculous reactivation. Anti-TB therapy was administered to the patient, after which we restarted TACE and the TB infection remains controlled. In this case, we presumed that DEB-TACE is associated with the reactivation of TB infection and that anthracycline increases the risk of reactivating TB infection. In summary, we experienced a case of TB reactivation during the clinical course of a patient with HCC who was treated with DEB-TACE. When patients with HCC are treated with TACE, their symptoms, laboratory data, and imaging results should be monitored when latent TB infections are suspected.



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Expression pattern of delta-like 1 homolog in developing sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells

Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018

Source: Gene Expression Patterns

Author(s): Tehani El Faitwri, Katrin Huber

Abstract

Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family and an atypical notch ligand that is widely expressed during early mammalian development with putative functions in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. During later stages of development, DLK1 is downregulated and becomes increasingly restricted to specific cell types, including several types of endocrine cells. DLK1 has been linked to various tumors and associated with tumor stem cell features. Sympathoadrenal precursors are neural crest derived cells that give rise to either sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system or the endocrine chromaffin cells located in the adrenal medulla or extraadrenal positions. As these cells are the putative cellular origin of neuroblastoma, one of the most common malignant tumors in early childhood, their molecular characterization is of high clinical importance. In this study we have examined the precise spatiotemporal expression of DLK1 in developing sympathoadrenal cells. We show that DLK1 mRNA is highly expressed in early sympathetic neuron progenitors and that its expression depends on the presence of Phox2B. DLK1 expression becomes quickly restricted to a small subpopulation of cells in sympathetic ganglia, while virtually all chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla and the Organ of Zuckerkandl still express high levels of DLK1 at late gestational stages.



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Analysis of the FGFR spatiotemporal expression pattern within the chicken scleral ossicle system

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018

Source: Gene Expression Patterns

Author(s): Shruti Kumar, Tamara A. Franz-Odendaal

Abstract

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) play several important roles during organ morphogenesis and act as multi-functional growth factors that bind to their membrane bound receptors (FGFRs) and activate further downstream signalling pathways. Several studies have investigated the function and expression of FGF/FGFRs in endochondral bone development, however, we know little about their role in the development of neural crest derived intramembranous bones. Here, we investigate the expression of 'b' and c' isoforms of FGFRs 1–3 during the development of the scleral ossicles, a ring of neural crest derived intramembranous bones in the chicken eye. These bones are induced by conjunctival papillae. We identified the expression of both 'b' and 'c' isoforms of FGFRs1-3 during phase 1 of ossicle development when conjunctival papillae development takes place. In contrast, during phase 2, when skeletal condensations are induced in the mesenchyme, all isoforms were downregulated. This data shows for the first time the presence of FGFRs in the chicken sclera, thus implicating FGFs as a signalling pathway potentially involved in scleral ossicle development.



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Non-HDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio is a better predictor of new-onset non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than non-HDL-cholesterol: A cohort study

Lipids in Health and Disease

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Efficacy and safety of infliximab tolerance induction in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases who experienced acute infusion reactions

Digestive Diseases

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Acculturation, Inflammation, and Self-rated Health in Mexican American Immigrants

Abstract

This cross-sectional study examined the bio-behavioral pathways that may account for poorer self-rated health (SRH) among Mexican American immigrants compared to non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. The association between acculturation and SRH among Mexican American immigrants was also examined. The 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey enrolled 592 Mexican American immigrants and 2391 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites. Predictor variables included Mexican American ethnicity and a validated Acculturation Index comprised of language spoken at home, interview language, and proportion of life residing in the U.S. The mediator variables were depressive symptoms and log10 transformed C-reactive protein. Compared to U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites, Mexican American immigrants reported poorer SRH. Mexican American immigrant status was also indirectly associated with worse SRH via greater C- reactive protein. Among Mexican American immigrants, greater acculturation was associated with better SRH. Poorer SRH among Mexican American immigrants may be partially attributable to greater inflammation. However, Mexican American immigrants with higher levels of acculturation report better SRH.



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Failure to generate baseline muscle motor evoked potentials during spine surgery: Risk factors and association with the postoperative outcomes

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Jun-Soon Kim, Myoung-jin Jang, Seung-Jae Hyun, Ki-Jeong Kim, Tae-Ahn Jahng, Hyun-Jib Kim, Sung-Min Kim, Kyung Seok Park

Abstract
Objective

To identify factors associated with the failure to generate baseline muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) during spinal surgery, and to determine the association between baseline mMEP generation and postoperative outcomes.

Methods

A total of 345 patients who underwent spine surgery with intraoperative mMEP monitoring were included, and we retrospectively reviewed their demographic/clinical parameters, and mMEP recording results according to lesion locations.

Results

Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative Medical Research Council grade of the weakest muscle <3 was significantly associated with failure of baseline mMEP generation in both cervical and thoracic lesions. In addition, high intramedullary T2 signal intensity on spine MRI for cervical lesions and male sex for thoracic lesions were also significantly associated with baseline mMEP generation failure. Moreover, the failure of baseline mMEP generation was a significantly associated factor for poor functional outcome in patients with thoracic lesions.

Conclusion

Sex, radiological abnormality, and preoperative functional status were associated with baseline mMEP generation failure during spine surgery with different patterns according to lesion location. Moreover, baseline mMEP generation failure in thoracic lesion could be associated with risk of postoperative deficits.

Significance

The risk of baseline mMEP recording failure could be evaluated based on preoperative clinical parameters.



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Airway increase after open bite closure with temporary anchorage devices for intrusion of the upper posteriors: Evidence from 2D cephalometric measurements and 3D magnetic resonance imaging

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Controlling tip of nasotracheal tube under video laryngoscopy.

http:--production.springer.de-OnlineReso Related Articles

Controlling tip of nasotracheal tube under video laryngoscopy.

J Anesth. 2016 10;30(5):917

Authors: Jin HY, Xue FS, Yang GZ

PMID: 27455989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Specialized mechanoreceptor systems in rodent glabrous skin

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Inhibition of GluN2A NMDA receptors ameliorates synaptic plasticity deficits in the Fmr1−/y mouse model

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Biomarkers of Physiological Responses to Periods of Intensified, Non-Resistance-Based Exercise Training in Well-Trained Male Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Background

Intensified training is important for inducing adaptations to improve athletic performance, but detrimental performance effects can occur if prescribed inappropriately. Monitoring biomarker responses to training may inform changes in training load to optimize performance.

Objective

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify biomarkers associated with altered exercise performance following intensified training.

Methods

Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and SPORTDiscus were searched up until September 2017. Included articles were peer reviewed and reported on biomarkers collected at rest in well-trained male athletes before and after periods of intensified training.

Results

The full text of 161 articles was reviewed, with 59 included (708 participants) and 42 (550 participants) meta-analysed. In total, 118 biomarkers were evaluated, with most being cellular communication and immunity markers (n = 54). Studies most frequently measured cortisol (n = 34), creatine kinase (n = 25) and testosterone (n = 20). Many studies reported decreased immune cell counts following intensified training, irrespective of performance. Moreover, reduced performance was associated with a decrease in neutrophils (d = − 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) − 1.07 to − 0.07) and glutamine (d = − 0.37; 95% CI − 0.43 to − 0.31) and an increase in urea concentration (d = 0.80; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.30). In contrast, increased performance was associated with an increased testosterone:cortisol ratio (d = 0.89; 95% CI 0.54 to 1.24). All remaining biomarkers showed no consistent patterns of change with performance.

Conclusions

Many biomarkers were altered with intensified training but not in a manner related to changes in exercise performance. Neutrophils, glutamine, urea and the testosterone:cortisol ratio exhibited some evidence of directional changes that corresponded with performance changes therefore indicating potential to track performance. Additional investigations of the potential for these markers to track altered performance are warranted.



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APOA5 Variants are Associated with Decreased Adiponectin Levels and Increased Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Low HDL‐cholesterol Levels

Clinical Genetics, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Early and late dot‐probe attentional bias to mild and high threat pictures: Relations with EEG theta/beta ratio, self‐reported trait attentional control, and trait anxiety

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Increased stressor‐evoked cardiovascular reactivity is associated with reduced amygdala and hippocampus volume

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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When 2 × 4 is meaningful: the N400 and P300 reveal operand format effects in multiplication verification

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Syndemic Factors and Resiliency Among Latina Immigrant Indirect Sex Workers in an Emergent Immigrant City

Abstract

Female sex workers (FSW) constitute a highly vulnerable population challenged by numerous co-existing, or syndemic, risk factors. FSW also display resilience to these, and some evidence suggests that resilience may be associated with protective factors that improve health outcomes. We conducted in-depth interviews with indirect sex workers (n = 11) and their clients (n = 18). Interviews were coded utilizing an iterative, modified constant comparison method to identify emergent themes. We identified five syndemic risk factors (difficulty finding work due to undocumented status, shame and mental health hardship, lack of social support, alcohol use, and violence) and five resilient factors (rationalizing sex work, identifying as a "decent" woman, fulfilling immigrant goals, reducing alcohol consumption, and creating rules to reduce risk of violence and HIV/STIs). Understanding the syndemic risk factors and resiliency developed by FSW is important to develop tailored, strength-based interventions for HIV/STIs and other risks.



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Barriers to Enacting Childhood Sun Safety Behavior: Findings from Focus Group Interviews Among Hispanic Parents in Miami

Abstract

Hispanics are generally diagnosed at more advanced stages of melanoma than non-Hispanic Whites, leading to lower survival rates. As skin cancer incidence is attributable to lifetime exposure to ultraviolet light, encouraging the performance of sun safety behaviors in childhood is an important strategy to address this divide. Problematically, we know little about the barriers to sun safety among Hispanic youth, especially among the Hispanics living in South Florida. To address this gap, we conducted focus groups among parents of Hispanic children aged 4–10 to understand the unique barriers to sun protection among this audience. Results revealed four categories of barriers: child-based barriers, external barriers, parental enactment barriers, and parental proper adherence barriers. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for future intervention research among this audience.



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