Κυριακή, 30 Ιουλίου 2017

Introduction to Myths & Methodologies series

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Myths and methodologies: Making sense of exercise mass and water balance

New Findings

  • What is the topic of this review?

    There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes.

  • What advances does it highlight?

    We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass − 0.20 g/kcal−1 = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass − 0.20 g kcal−1)/starting body mass] × 100.

Changes in body mass occur because of flux in liquids, solids and gases. This knowledge is crucial for understanding metabolism, health and human water needs. In exercise science, corrections to observed changes in body mass to estimate water balance are inconsistently applied and often misinterpreted, particularly after prolonged exercise. Although acute body mass losses in response to exercise can represent a close surrogate for body water losses, the discordance between mass and water balance equivalence becomes increasingly inaccurate as more and more energy is expended. The purpose of this paper is briefly to clarify the roles that respiratory water loss, gas exchange and metabolic water production play in the correction of body mass changes for fluid balance determinations during prolonged exercise. Computations do not include waters of association with glycogen because any movement of water among body water compartments contributes nothing to water or mass flux from the body. Estimates of sweat loss from changes in body mass should adjust for non-sweat losses when possible. We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying the study of exercise mass and water balance: ∆body mass − 0.20 g kcal−1 = ∆body water. This equation directly controls for the influence of energy expenditure on body mass balance and the approximate offsetting equivalence of respiratory water loss and metabolic water production on body water balance. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass − 0.20 g kcal−1)/starting body mass] × 100.

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Commentary on Myths and Methodologies: Making sense of exercise mass and water balance



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