Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.
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Τετάρτη, 21 Νοεμβρίου 2018
Sulfur-Functionalized Fullerene Nanoparticle as an Inhibitor and Eliminator Agent on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Expression of toxA Gene
Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.
Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.
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Experimental comparisons of passive and powered ankle-foot orthoses in individuals with limb reconstruction
Ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly prescribed to provide functional assistance for patients with lower limb injuries or weakness. Their passive mechanical elements can provide some energy return to improve...
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Suppressor Analysis Uncovers That MAPs and Microtubule Dynamics Balance with the Cut7/Kinesin-5 Motor for Mitotic Spindle Assembly in Schizosaccharomyces pombe
The Kinesin-5 motor Cut7 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe plays essential roles in spindle pole separation, leading to the assembly of bipolar spindle. In many organisms, simultaneous inactivation of Kinesin-14s neutralizes Kinesin-5 deficiency. To uncover the molecular network that counteracts Kinesin-5, we have conducted a genetic screening for suppressors that rescue the cut7-22 temperature sensitive mutation, and identified 10 loci. Next generation sequencing analysis reveals that causative mutations are mapped in genes encoding α-, β-tubulins and the microtubule plus-end tracking protein Mal3/EB1, in addition to the components of the Pkl1/Kinesin-14 complex. Moreover, the deletion of various genes required for microtubule nucleation/polymerization also suppresses the cut7 mutant. Intriguingly, Klp2/Kinesin-14 levels on the spindles are significantly increased in cut7 mutants, whereas these increases are negated by suppressors, which may explain the suppression by these mutations/deletions. Consistent with this notion, mild overproduction of Klp2 in these double mutant cells confers temperature sensitivity. Surprisingly, treatment with a microtubule-destabilizing drug not only suppresses cut7 temperature sensitivity but also rescues the lethality resulting from the deletion of cut7, though a single klp2 deletion per se cannot compensate for the loss of Cut7. We propose that microtubule assembly and/or dynamics antagonize Cut7 functions, and that the orchestration between these two factors is crucial for bipolar spindle assembly.
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Perturbations of Transcription and Gene Expression-Associated Processes Alter Distribution of Cell Size Values in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The question of what determines whether cells are big or small has been the focus of many studies because it is thought that such determinants underpin the coupling of cell growth with cell division. In contrast, what determines the overall pattern of how cell size is distributed within a population of wild type or mutant cells has received little attention. Knowing how cell size varies around a characteristic pattern could shed light on the processes that generate such a pattern and provide a criterion to identify its genetic basis. Here, we show that cell size values of wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells fit a gamma distribution, in haploid and diploid cells, and under different growth conditions. To identify genes that influence this pattern, we analyzed the cell size distributions of all single-gene deletion strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that yeast strains which deviate the most from the gamma distribution are enriched for those lacking gene products functioning in gene expression, especially those in transcription or transcription-linked processes. We also show that cell size is increased in mutants carrying altered activity substitutions in Rpo21p/Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Lastly, the size distribution of cells carrying extreme altered activity Pol II substitutions deviated from the expected gamma distribution. Our results are consistent with the idea that genetic defects in widely acting transcription factors or Pol II itself compromise both cell size homeostasis and how the size of individual cells is distributed in a population.
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New Drosophila Long-Term Memory Genes Revealed by Assessing Computational Function Prediction Methods
A major bottleneck to our understanding of the genetic and molecular foundation of life lies in the ability to assign function to a gene and, subsequently, a protein. Traditional molecular and genetic experiments can provide the most reliable forms of identification, but are generally low-throughput, making such discovery and assignment a daunting task. The bottleneck has led to an increasing role for computational approaches. The Critical Assessment of Functional Annotation (CAFA) effort seeks to measure the performance of computational methods. In CAFA3, we performed selected screens, including an effort focused on long-term memory. We used homology and previous CAFA predictions to identify 29 key Drosophila genes, which we tested via a long-term memory screen. We identify 11 novel genes that are involved in long-term memory formation and show a high level of connectivity with previously identified learning and memory genes. Our study provides first higher-order behavioral assay and organism screen used for CAFA assessments and revealed previously uncharacterized roles of multiple genes as possible regulators of neuronal plasticity at the boundary of information acquisition and memory formation.
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Improving post-operative patient reported benefits and satisfaction following spinal fusion with a single pre-operative education session.
Patient expectations have been demonstrated to influence recovery following spine surgery. Addressing patient expectations specifically in regards to pain and post-surgical healing is an important factor in improving recovery patterns. Pre-surgical education can potentially help manage patient expectations.
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Hemorrhage from Metastasis of a 5-mm Renal Cell Carcinoma Lesion to the Gallbladder Detected by Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasonography
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Patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB) usually present after developing symptoms; therefore, the temporal kinetics of viral markers during the incubation period have not been documented clearly. We describe an AHB infection before the onset of hepatitis, throughout the course of the disease and without anti-viral therapy. The patient initially visited our hospital for immunization against HBV and was found to be positive for viral markers: 0.0 IU/mL of anti-HBs, 0.06 S/CO of anti-HBc and 2.93 IU/mL of HBsAg. During the 14 days after his first visit, HBsAg, HBV DNA, HBe antigen and HBV core-related antigen, but not anti-HBc or anti-HBs, levels increased. On day 22, he developed acute hepatitis. The period of logarithmic viral replication was estimated to be 7.0 days. HBV genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated transmission from the patient's wife. Although sexual intercourse could not be ruled, another possible route of transmission was the unusual occurrence of kissing his wife when she had macroscopic bleeding after tooth brushing, 2 months before his positive HBsAg result; the day of the episode being consistent with the calculated HBV replication velocity. This study reveals the temporal kinetics of viral markers during the incubation period of AHB.
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Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018
Source: Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Sarah E. Emerson, Benjamin K. Grebber, Morgan McNelllis, Ambrose R. Orr, Paula B. Deming, Alicia M. Ebert
Protein kinase A (PKA), also known as cAMP dependent protein kinase, is an essential component of many signaling pathways, many of which regulate key developmental processes. Inactive PKA is a tetrameric holoenzyme, comprised of two catalytic (PRKAC), and two regulatory subunits. Upon cAMP binding, the catalytic subunits are released and thereby activated. There are multiple isoforms of PKA catalytic subunits, but their individual roles are not well understood. In order to begin studying their roles in zebrafish development, it is first necessary to identify the spatial and temporal expression profiles for each prkac subunit. Here we evaluate the expression profiles for the four zebrafish prkacs: prkacαa, αb, βa, and βb, at key developmental time points: 24, 48 and 72 h post fertilization. We show that zebrafish prkacs are expressed throughout the developing nervous system, each showing unique expression patterns. This body of work will inform future functional studies into the roles of PKA during development.
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Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Hsieh-Chun Hsieh
To evaluate a personal computer (PC) gaming platform as a means of improving postural balance in stroke patients.
A total of 54 stroke patients were enrolled and randomly divided into experimental and control groups.
The experimental group underwent 12 weeks of rehabilitation involving playing PC games with the proposed gaming platform, whereas the control group played PC games with a computer mouse in the standing position.
The experimental PC gaming platform allowed trunk movements in 3 directions, including lateral, downward, or upward reaching.
Main Outcome Measures
Balance control was assessed before and after the intervention with the Midot Posture Scale Analyzer (a pressure platform), by measuring the center of pressure during quiet stance. The Berg Balance Scale, Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, and timed up and go tests were used to evaluate functional balance.
Analysis of covariance was used to assess how the PC games improve balance abilities. There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the results of sway kinematics and functional balance tests. The experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group.
This new gaming platform with adaptive PC games could be a useful therapy to stroke rehabilitation in patients with postural imbalance.
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Longitudinal trends in renal function in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving oral antiviral treatment
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is paradoxically maintained in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease despite low HDL cholesterol
Journal of Lipid Research
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Preoperative predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients presenting with acute calculous cholecystitis
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Ultrasound-guided 5-in-1 injection: trigger point injections and nerve hydrodissections for non-specific upper back pain
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Complement component 4 variations may influence psychopathology risk in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
CYP21A2 defects result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired adrenal steroidogenesis. CYP21A2 lies within the major histocompatibility complex in an area of the genome highly susceptible to genetic variation. Alterations in the neighboring complement component 4 isotypes C4A and C4B have been associated with psychiatric and autoimmune disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate C4A and C4B in patients with CAH in relation to CYP21A2 genotype and psychiatric and autoimmune comorbidity. We determined the copy numbers of C4A and C4B in 145 patients with CAH (median age: 15.5 years, IQR: 16.8) and 108 carrier relatives (median age: 41.5 years, IQR: 12.0) and evaluated serum C4 concentrations. Comorbidity was determined by medical record review. Only 30% of subjects had the expected two copies each of the two C4 genes. C4B copy number determined total C4 copy number and serum C4 concentration, negatively correlated with carriership of a 30-kb deletion (P < 10− 5), and positively correlated with carriership of p.V281L (P < 10− 5). High C4A copy number (≥ 3) was associated with increased risk of having an externalizing psychiatric condition (relative risk: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.03–6.89, P = 0.04). No association was found between C4 copy number and autoimmune disease. Mutation-specific C4 structural variations commonly occur in patients with CAH and may have important clinical consequences, including increased risk of psychiatric morbidity.
Trial registration NCT00250159 (November 7, 2005).
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Honey bee workers generate low-frequency vibrations that are reliable indicators of their activity level
In social insects, the tuning of activity levels among different worker task groups, which constitutes a fundamental basis of colony organization, relies on the exchange of reliable information on the activity level of individuals. The underlying stimuli, however, have remained largely unexplored so far. In the present study, we describe low-frequency thoracic vibrations generated by honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) within the colony, whose velocity amplitudes and main frequency components significantly increased with the level of an individual's activity. The characteristics of these vibrations segregated three main activity level-groups: foragers, active hive bees, and inactive hive bees. Nectar foragers, moreover, modulated their low-frequency vibrations during trophallactic food unloading to nestmates according to the quality of the collected food. Owing to their clear association with the activity level of an individual and their potential perceptibility during direct contacts, these low-frequency thoracic vibrations are candidate stimuli for providing unambiguous local information on the motivational status of honey bee workers.
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