## Σάββατο, 7 Απριλίου 2018

### Enriched expression of the ciliopathy gene Ick in cell proliferating regions of adult mice

Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Ryotaro Tsutsumi, Taro Chaya, Takahisa Furukawa
Cilia are essential for sensory and motile functions across species. In humans, ciliary dysfunction causes "ciliopathies", which show severe developmental abnormalities in various tissues. Several missense mutations in intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene lead to endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome or short rib-polydactyly syndrome, lethal recessive developmental ciliopathies. We and others previously reported that Ick-deficient mice exhibit neonatal lethality with developmental defects. Mechanistically, Ick regulates intraflagellar transport and cilia length at ciliary tips. Although Ick plays important roles during mammalian development, roles of Ick at the adult stage are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the Ick gene expression in adult mouse tissues. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ick is ubiquitously expressed, with enrichment in the retina, brain, lung, intestine, and reproductive system. In the adult brain, we found that Ick expression is enriched in the walls of the lateral ventricle, in the rostral migratory stream of the olfactory bulb, and in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus by in situ hybridization analysis. We also observed that Ick staining pattern is similar to pachytene spermatocyte to spermatid markers in the mature testis and to an intestinal stem cell marker in the adult small intestine. These results suggest that Ick is expressed in proliferating regions in the adult mouse brain, testis, and intestine.

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### Abstract

Recently, there has been a proliferation of published articles on the effect of plyometric jump training, including several review articles and meta-analyses. However, these types of research articles are generally of narrow scope. Furthermore, methodological limitations among studies (e.g., a lack of active/passive control groups) prevent the generalization of results, and these factors need to be addressed by researchers. On that basis, the aims of this scoping review were to (1) characterize the main elements of plyometric jump training studies (e.g., training protocols) and (2) provide future directions for research. From 648 potentially relevant articles, 242 were eligible for inclusion in this review. The main issues identified related to an insufficient number of studies conducted in females, youths, and individual sports (~ 24.0, ~ 37.0, and ~ 12.0% of overall studies, respectively); insufficient reporting of effect size values and training prescription (~ 34.0 and ~ 55.0% of overall studies, respectively); and studies missing an active/passive control group and randomization (~ 40.0 and ~ 20.0% of overall studies, respectively). Furthermore, plyometric jump training was often combined with other training methods and added to participants' daily training routines (~ 47.0 and ~ 39.0% of overall studies, respectively), thus distorting conclusions on its independent effects. Additionally, most studies lasted no longer than 7 weeks. In future, researchers are advised to conduct plyometric training studies of high methodological quality (e.g., randomized controlled trials). More research is needed in females, youth, and individual sports. Finally, the identification of specific dose-response relationships following plyometric training is needed to specifically tailor intervention programs, particularly in the long term.

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### Abstract

Deliberately training with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability to enhance endurance-training-induced metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle (i.e. the 'train low, compete high' paradigm) is a hot topic within sport nutrition. Train-low studies involve periodically training (e.g., 30–50% of training sessions) with reduced CHO availability, where train-low models include twice per day training, fasted training, post-exercise CHO restriction and 'sleep low, train low'. When compared with high CHO availability, data suggest that augmented cell signalling (73% of 11 studies), gene expression (75% of 12 studies) and training-induced increases in oxidative enzyme activity/protein content (78% of 9 studies) associated with 'train low' are especially apparent when training sessions are commenced within a specific range of muscle glycogen concentrations. Nonetheless, such muscle adaptations do not always translate to improved exercise performance (e.g. 37 and 63% of 11 studies show improvements or no change, respectively). Herein, we present our rationale for the glycogen threshold hypothesis, a window of muscle glycogen concentrations that simultaneously permits completion of required training workloads and activation of the molecular machinery regulating training adaptations. We also present the 'fuel for the work required' paradigm (representative of an amalgamation of train-low models) whereby CHO availability is adjusted in accordance with the demands of the upcoming training session(s). In order to strategically implement train-low sessions, our challenge now is to quantify the glycogen cost of habitual training sessions (so as to inform the attainment of any potential threshold) and ensure absolute training intensity is not compromised, while also creating a metabolic milieu conducive to facilitating the endurance phenotype.

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### Abstract

Backward running (BR) is a form of locomotion that occurs in short bursts during many overground field and court sports. It has also traditionally been used in clinical settings as a method to rehabilitate lower body injuries. Comparisons between BR and forward running (FR) have led to the discovery that both may be generated by the same neural circuitry. Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions. These biomechanical differences have been critical in informing recent scientific explorations which have discovered that BR can be used as a method for reducing injury and improving a variety of physical attributes deemed advantageous to sports performance. This includes improved lower body strength and power, decreased injury prevalence and improvements in change of direction performance following BR training. The current findings from research help improve our understanding of BR biomechanics and provide evidence which supports BR as a useful method to improve athlete performance. However, further acute and longitudinal research is needed to better understand the utility of BR in athletic performance programs.

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### Background

Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion.

### Objective

To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes.

### Methods

Participants (n = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions. Each assessment included measures of self-reported concussion symptoms, motor control, brief and extended neurocognitive function, reaction time, oculomotor/oculovestibular function, and quality of life. Consistency between years 1 and 2 and 1 and 3 were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients or Kappa and effect sizes (Cohen's d). Clinical interpretation guidelines were also generated using confidence intervals to account for non-normally distributed data.

### Results

Reliability for the self-reported concussion symptoms, motor control, and brief and extended neurocognitive assessments from year 1 to 2 ranged from 0.30 to 0.72 while effect sizes ranged from 0.01 to 0.28 (i.e., small). The reliability for these same measures ranged from 0.34 to 0.66 for the year 1–3 interval with effect sizes ranging from 0.05 to 0.42 (i.e., small to less than medium). The year 1–2 reliability for the reaction time, oculomotor/oculovestibular function, and quality-of-life measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.74 with effect sizes from 0.01 to 0.38 (i.e., small to less than medium effects).

### Conclusions

This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for most common and emerging concussion assessment tools. Despite this finding, their use is still necessitated by the absence of a gold standard diagnostic measure, with the ultimate goal of developing more refined and sound tools for clinical use. Clinical interpretation guidelines are provided for the clinician to apply with a degree of certainty in application.

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### Correction to: The Effect of Natural or Simulated Altitude Training on High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance in Team-Sport Athletes: A Meta-Analysis

Page 10, Fig. 2: The filled circle labelled "3" was plotted inaccurately and should have been in the "harmful" section of the graph, as shown in the corrected version below:

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### Abstract

An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i.e., neuromuscular control deficits observed during gait after concussion under dual-task conditions. Two separate reviews were conducted consistent with both specified objectives. Studies published before 9 December, 2016 were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, and Academic Search Premier (EBSCOhost). Inclusion for the objective 1 search included dependent variables of quantitative measurements of musculoskeletal injury after concussion. Inclusion criteria for the objective 2 search included dependent variables pertaining to gait, dynamic balance control, and dual-task function. A total of 32 studies were included in the two reviews (objective 1 n = 10, objective 2 n = 22). According to a variety of study designs, athletes appear to have an increased risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury following a concussion. Furthermore, dual-task neuromuscular control deficits may continue to exist after patients report resolution of concussion symptoms, or perform normally on other clinical concussion tests. Therefore, musculoskeletal injury risk appears to increase following a concussion and persistent motor system and attentional deficits also seem to exist after a concussion. While not yet experimentally tested, these motor system and attentional deficits may contribute to the risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury upon returning to full athletic participation.

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### Background

Physical activity is widely perceived to be beneficial for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus and for controlling glycaemic levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, but evidence supporting a positive effect in the control of glycaemic levels in healthy people is rather weak. The aim of this review was to estimate the effect of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in non-diabetic populations, and to determine which type of physical activity has a greater influence on glycaemic control.

### Methods

We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases, from inception to May 2017, for experimental studies addressing the effect of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by HbA1c levels in non-diabetic populations. The DerSimonian and Laird method was used to compute pooled estimates of effect size (ES) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effect of physical activity on HbA1c levels was estimated in two ways: (1) physical activity intervention versus control; and (2) physical activity pre–post intervention. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed based on age of participants and different aspects of the intervention.

### Results

Fifteen published studies were included in the meta-analysis. In analyses comparing physical activity intervention and control, we found a decrease of HbA1c levels in favour of the intervention group (ES = 0.32; 95% CI 0.01–0.62) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 63.2%; p = 0.008). In the pre–post analysis, there was a decrease in HbA1c levels post physical activity intervention (ES = 0.17; 95% CI 0.01–0.33) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 25.8%; p = 0.164). Additionally, for physical activity intervention versus control, a decrease in HbA1c levels was observed in resistance exercise and in intervention length below 12 weeks. Furthermore, for pre–post effect analyses, a decrease in HbA1c levels was observed in the supervised physical activity programme, other type of exercises, intervention length below 12 weeks and exercise intervention week duration above 150 min subgroups.

### Conclusions

This systematic review and meta-analysis provides an overview of the evidence supporting physical activity as a suitable intervention for glycaemic control as measured by HbA1c levels in non-diabetic populations.

### Trial Registration

PROSPERO CRD42016050991.

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### Background

It has been suggested that pacing is a thermoregulatory behaviour. We investigated the effect of competition on pacing, performance and thermophysiological strain during exercise in the heat and the psychological factors mediating competition effects.

### Method

Eighteen males (maximum oxygen uptake [V O 2max] 3.69 [0.44] L min−1) undertook a preliminary 20-km cool (wet-bulb globe temperature [WBGT] 12 °C) cycling time trial (TT) and three experimental 20-km trials (balanced order): (i) cool TT (CoolSolo); (ii) hot (WBGT 26 °C) TT (HotSolo); (iii) hot head-to-head competition (HotH2H). During TTs, an avatar of the participant's performance was visible. During HotH2H, participants believed they were competing against another participant, but the competitor's avatar replicated their own preliminary (cool) TT.

### Results

TTs (min:sec [SD]) slowed with increased ambient temperature [CoolSolo 35:31 (2:11) versus HotSolo 36:10 (2:26); p = 0.011]. This effect was negated by competition; performances were not different between HotH2H [35:17 (1:52)] and CoolSolo (p = 0.160) and were quicker in HotH2H versus HotSolo (p = 0.001). End-exercise rectal temperature, mean body temperature and physiological strain index were (p < 0.05) higher in HotH2H than either solo condition. Despite faster performance and greater thermophysiological strain, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort and sensation, and perceptual strain index were not different between HotH2H and HotSolo. The difference in end-exercise rectal temperature between HotH2H and HotSolo was related to pre-exercise anticipatory heart rate response (r = 0.608, p = 0.010) and participants' propensity for deliberate risk-taking (B = 0.12, p < 0.001), whereas self-reported resilience predicted change in performance times between HotH2H versus HotSolo (B = − 9.40, p = 0.010).

### Conclusion

Competition changes the relationship between perceived and actual thermophysiological state, altering behavioural thermoregulation and increasing thermophysiological strain; this could increase heat-illness risk. Psychophysiological and psychological measures may identify susceptible individuals.

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### Abstract

Studies in sport and exercise medicine routinely use samples of highly trained individuals in order to understand what characterizes elite endurance performance, such as running economy and maximal oxygen uptake ( $${\rm V}{\rm O}_{\mathrm {2max}}$$ ). However, it is not well understood in the literature that using such samples most certainly leads to biased findings and accordingly potentially erroneous conclusions because of endogenous selection bias. In this paper, I review the current literature on running economy and $${\rm V}{\rm O}_{\mathrm {2max}}$$ , and discuss the literature in light of endogenous selection bias. I demonstrate that the results in a large part of the literature may be misleading, and provide some practical suggestions as to how future studies may alleviate endogenous selection bias.

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### Background

Analysis of lower limb exercises is traditionally completed with four distinct methods: (1) 3D motion capture; (2) depth-camera-based systems; (3) visual analysis from a qualified exercise professional; and (4) self-assessment. Each method is associated with a number of limitations.

### Objective

The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise and evaluate studies which have investigated the capacity for inertial measurement unit (IMU) technologies to assess movement quality in lower limb exercises.

### Data Sources

A systematic review of studies identified through the databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus was conducted.

### Study Eligibility Criteria

Articles written in English and published in the last 10 years which investigated an IMU system for the analysis of repetition-based targeted lower limb exercises were included.

### Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods

The quality of included studies was measured using an adapted version of the STROBE assessment criteria for cross-sectional studies. The studies were categorised into three groupings: exercise detection, movement classification or measurement validation. Each study was then qualitatively summarised.

### Results

From the 2452 articles that were identified with the search strategies, 47 papers are included in this review. Twenty-six of the 47 included studies were deemed as being of high quality.

### Conclusions

Wearable inertial sensor systems for analysing lower limb exercises is a rapidly growing field of research. Research over the past 10 years has predominantly focused on validating measurements that the systems produce and classifying users' exercise quality. There have been very few user evaluation studies and no clinical trials in this field to date.

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### Background

Current recommendations on resistance training (RT) frequency for gains in muscular strength are based on extrapolations from limited evidence on the topic, and thus their practical applicability remains questionable.

### Objective

To elucidate this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that compared muscular strength outcomes with different RT frequencies.

### Methods

To carry out this review, English-language literature searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases were conducted. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. The meta-analysis models were generated with RT frequencies classified as a categorical variable as either 1, 2, 3, or 4+ times/week, or, if there were insufficient data in subgroup analyses, the training frequencies were categorized as 1, 2, or 3 times/week. Subgroup analyses were performed for potential moderators, including (1) training volume; (2) exercise selection for the 1 repetition maximum (RM) test (for both multi-joint and single-joint exercises); (3) upper and lower body strength gains; (4) training to muscular failure (for studies involving and not involving training to muscular failure); (5) age (for both middle-aged/older adults and young adults); and (6) sex (for men and for women). The methodological quality of studies was appraised using the modified Downs and Black checklist.

### Results

A total of 22 studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria. The average score on the Downs and Black checklist was 18 (range 13–22 points). Four studies were classified as being of good methodological quality, while the rest were classified as being of moderate methodological quality. Results of the meta-analysis showed a significant effect (p = 0.003) of RT frequency on muscular strength gains. Effect sizes increased in magnitude from 0.74, 0.82, 0.93, and 1.08 for training 1, 2, 3, and 4+ times per week, respectively. A subgroup analysis of volume-equated studies showed no significant effect (p = 0.421) of RT frequency on muscular strength gains. The subgroup analysis for exercise selection for the 1RM test suggested a significant effect of RT frequency on multi-joint (p < 0.001), but not single-joint, 1RM test results (p = 0.324). The subgroup analysis for upper and lower body showed a significant effect of frequency (p = 0.004) for upper body, but not lower body, strength gains (p = 0.070). In the subgroup analysis for studies in which the training was and was not carried out to muscular failure, no significant effect of RT frequency was found. The subgroup analysis for the age groups suggested a significant effect of training frequency among young adults (p = 0.024), but not among middle-aged and older adults (p = 0.093). Finally, the subgroup analysis for sex indicated a significant effect of RT frequency on strength gains in women (p = 0.030), but not men (p = 0.190).

### Conclusions

The results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest a significant effect of RT frequency as higher training frequencies are translated into greater muscular strength gains. However, these effects seem to be primarily driven by training volume because when the volume is equated, there was no significant effect of RT frequency on muscular strength gains. Thus, from a practical standpoint, greater training frequencies can be used for additional RT volume, which is then likely to result in greater muscular strength gains. However, it remains unclear whether RT frequency on its own has significant effects on strength gain. It seems that higher RT frequencies result in greater gains in muscular strength on multi-joint exercises in the upper body and in women, and, finally, in contrast to older adults, young individuals seem to respond more positively to greater RT frequencies. More evidence among resistance-trained individuals is needed as most of the current studies were performed in untrained participants.

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### Advanced Robotic Therapy Integrated Centers (ARTIC): an international collaboration facilitating the application of rehabilitation technologies

The application of rehabilitation robots has grown during the last decade. While meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of robotic interventions for some patient groups, the evidence is less in others. We...

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### Abstract

Post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is used extensively in exercise training as a means to minimise fatigue and expedite recovery between sessions. However, debate exists around its merit in long-term training regimens. While an improvement in recovery following a single session of exercise may improve subsequent training quality and stimulus, reports have emerged suggesting CWI may attenuate long-term adaptations to exercise training. Recent developments in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle have provided potential mechanistic insight into the effects of CWI on training adaptations. Preliminary evidence suggests that CWI may blunt resistance signalling pathways following a single exercise session, as well as attenuate key long-term resistance training adaptations such as strength and muscle mass. Conversely, CWI may augment endurance signalling pathways and the expression of genes key to mitochondrial biogenesis following a single endurance exercise session, but have little to no effect on the content of proteins key to mitochondrial biogenesis following long-term endurance training. This review explores current evidence regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms by which CWI may alter cellular signalling and the long-term adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle.

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### Abstract

The root plays an important role during plant development and growth, i.e., the plant body maintenance, nutrient storage, absorption of water, oxygen and nutrient from the soil, and storage of water and carbohydrates, etc. The objective of this study was attempted to determine root-specific genes at the initial developmental stages of maize by using network-based transcriptome analysis. The raw data obtained using RNA-seq were filtered for quality control of the reads with the FASTQC tool, and the filtered reads were pre-proceed using the TRIMMOMATIC tool. The enriched BINs of the DEGs were detected using PageMan analysis with the ORA_FISHER statistical test, and genes were assigned to metabolic pathways by using the MapMan tool, which was also used for detecting transcription factors (TFs). For reconstruction of the co-expression network, we used the algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks (ARACNE) in the R package, and then the reconstructed co-expression network was visualized using the Cytoscape tool. RNA-seq. was performed using maize shoots and roots at different developmental stages of root emergence (6–10 days after planting, VE) and 1 week after plant emergence (V2). A total of 1286 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in both tissues. Many DEGs involved in metabolic pathways exhibited altered mRNA levels between VE and V2. In addition, we observed gene expression changes for 113 transcription factors and found five enriched cis-regulatory elements in the 1-kb upstream regions of both DEGs. The network-based transcriptome analysis showed two modules as co-expressed gene clusters differentially expressed between the shoots and roots during plant development. The DEGs of one module exhibited gene expressional coherence in the maize root tips, suggesting that their functional relationships are associated with the initial developmental stage of the maize root. Finally, we confirmed reliable mRNA levels of the hub genes in the potential sub-network related to initial root development at the different developmental stages of VE, V2, and 2 weeks after plant emergence.

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### Qualitative postural control differences in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease vs. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy with dynamic-on-static platform tilt

Publication date: June 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 6
Author(s): Stefan Kammermeier, Kathrin Maierbeck, Lucia Dietrich, Annika Plate, Stefan Lorenzl, Arun Singh, Kai Bötzel, Christoph Maurer
ObjectivesWe aimed to assess whether postural abnormalities in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) are qualitatively different by analysing spontaneous and reactive postural control.MethodsWe assessed postural control upon platform tilts in 17 PSP, 11 IPD patients and 18 healthy control subjects using a systems analysis approach.ResultsSpontaneous sway abnormalities in PSP resembled those of IPD patients. Spontaneous sway was smaller, slower and contained lower frequencies in both PSP and IPD as compared to healthy subjects. The amount of angular body excursions as a function of platform angular excursions (GAIN) in PSP was qualitatively different from both IPD and healthy subjects (GAIN cut-off value: 2.9, sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 72%). This effect was pronounced at the upper body level and at low as well as high frequencies. In contrast, IPD patients' stimulus-related body excursions were smaller compared to healthy subjects. Using a systems analysis approach, we were able to allocate these different postural strategies to differences in the use of sensory information as well as to different error correction efforts.ConclusionsWhile both PSP and IPD patients show abnormal postural control, the underlying pathology seems to be different.SignificanceThe identification of disease-specific postural abnormalities shown here may be helpful for diagnostic as well as therapeutic discriminations of PSP vs. IPD.

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### Comprehensive Acute Pain Management in the Perioperative Surgical Home

Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics
Author(s): John-Paul J. Pozek, Martin De Ruyter, Talal W. Khan

### Teaser

The careful coordination of care throughout the perioperative continuum offered by the perioperative surgical home (PSH) is important in the treatment of postoperative pain. Physician anesthesiologists have expertise in acute pain management, pharmacology, and regional and neuraxial anesthetic techniques, making them ideal leaders for managing perioperative analgesia within the PSH. Severe postoperative pain is one of many patient- and surgery-specific factors in the development of chronic postsurgical pain. Delivering adequate perioperative analgesia is important to avoid this development, to decrease perioperative morbidity, and to improve patient satisfaction.

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### Quality and the Health System

Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics
Author(s): Monaliza Gaw, Frank Rosina, Thomas Diller

### Teaser

Since the publication of "To Err is Human" in 1999, substantial efforts have been made within the health care industry to improve quality and patient safety. Although improvements have been made, recent estimates continue to indicate the need for a marked change in approach. In this article, the authors discuss the concepts and characteristics of high reliability organizations, safety culture, and clinical microsystems. The health care delivery system must move beyond current quality and patient safety approaches and fully engage in these new concepts to transform health care system performance.

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### Introduction

Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), saliva flow rate and plasma cortisol concentrations have been shown to be influenced by exercise, particularly the intensity exercise is performed at, and circadian variation. The autonomic nervous system partly regulates salivary secretion, but it is not yet known whether cortisol also explains some variation in salivary parameters.

### Methods

Twelve moderately trained male individuals ( $$\dot {V}_2}$$ peak legs: 46.2 ± 6.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials in the morning: arm cranking exercise at 60% $$\dot {V}_2}$$ peak arms; moderate cycling at 60% $$\dot {V}_2}$$ peak legs; and easy cycling at 60% $$\dot {V}_2}$$ peak arms. Timed saliva samples and blood samples for plasma cortisol concentration determination were obtained before, post, 2 h post, and 4 h post-exercise. Saliva was collected in an additional resting trial at the same time points.

### Results

At each time point for each exercise trial, negative correlations between cortisol and saliva flow rate (explaining 25 ± 17% of the variance, R2 = 0.002–0.46) and positive correlations between cortisol and sIgA concentration (explaining 8 ± 8% of the variance R2 = 0.002–0.24) were found. Saliva flow rate increased over time, whereas sIgA concentration and cortisol decreased over time for all trials (P < 0.05), there was no effect of time for sIgA secretion rate (P = 0.16).

### Conclusion

These results show a relationship between cortisol and saliva flow rate, which directly impacts on the concentration of salivary analytes. This study further confirms circadian variations in salivary parameters which must be acknowledged when standardising salivary data collection.

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