Σάββατο, 5 Μαρτίου 2016

Patient with chronic renal failure undergoing surgery.

Purpose of review: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing health problem worldwide and is associated with a number of clinical challenges. In this paper, we review recent studies that deal with strategies for the management of patients with CKD undergoing surgery. Recent findings: Effective strategies for nephroprotection are crucial for the handling of patients with CKD in the perioperative setting to prevent complications and to avoid the progression of CKD. Due to the lack of perioperative studies with CKD patients there are only level 2 recommendations. First of all, this requires the identification of CKD patients through risk assessment and preoperative laboratory tests. In this regard, biomarkers, such as cystatin C may facilitate the detection of chronically impaired renal function. Secondly, particular attention should be paid to the maintenance of hemodynamic stability, including an adequate blood pressure and cardiac index and the preservation of intravascular volume. There is clear evidence that an unimpaired renal perfusion, guaranteed through hemodynamic stability, and an undisturbed fluid balance both reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and consequently the further deterioration of renal function. Thirdly, several studies demonstrate that tight glycemic control is associated with less renal impairment and better survival for patients with CKD. Lastly, the highest priority for the patient with CKD should be assigned to the prevention of AKI, which is an action of proven efficacy. Summary: Identification and risk stratification is crucial for the perioperative management of patients with CKD. To improve clinical outcomes, nonemergent procedures should be postponed, renal function optimized, nephrotoxic drugs avoided, and AKI prevented. Copyright (C) 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Amniotic fluid embolism: update and review.

Purpose of review: This article reviews our current understanding of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE), specifically the pathogenesis, treatment strategies, potential diagnostic tests and future therapeutic interventions for AFE. Recent findings: The incidence and case mortality of AFE varies widely because of heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and varying reporting mechanisms across the world. Amniotic fluid embolism is thought to be caused by abnormal activation of immunologic mechanisms following entry of fetal antigens into maternal circulation. Mast cell degranulation and complement activation may play a role in this anaphylactoid or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Development of serum biomarkers and immune-histochemical staining techniques to aid diagnosis and develop treatments are under development and evaluation. Treatment of AFE is supportive and directed at treating cardiovascular, pulmonary, and coagulation derangements. Treatment for coagulopathy (fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate/fibrinogen concentrate, and antifibrinolytics) should be initiated promptly. Recombinant factor VIIa may lead to increased mortality and should not routinely be used. C1 esterase inhibitors may be a potential therapeutic option. Summary: AFE is a devastating obstetric complication that requires early and aggressive intervention with optimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, as well as hemorrhage and coagulopathy management. Biomarkers offer promise to aid the diagnosis of AFE, and immunomodulation may provide future therapeutic interventions to treat this lethal condition. Copyright (C) 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Adverse events of postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia, a retrospective analysis of 7273 cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

BACKGROUND: Thoracic epidural analgesia is a well established technique for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal and thoracic surgery. Safety remains a major concern because of serious adverse events including epidural haematoma, abscess and permanent neurological deficit. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and the long-term outcome of serious adverse events associated with thoracic epidural analgesia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted at a single institution, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Data were collected over a 10-year period from 2003 until 2012. PATIENTS: Data from 7430 patients were prospectively entered into a standardised acute pain service database. A total of 7273 study participants met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analyses. The inclusion criteria involved surgical patients receiving a postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia catheter treatment for pain control. Exclusion criteria were defined as obstetric, non-surgical, non-epidural analgesia patients and epidural analgesia catheters that had not been placed by an anaesthesiologist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The database was queried for serious adverse events which were defined as spinal or epidural haemorrhage; spinal or epidural abscess; permanent neurological deficits; cardiac arrest; death and incomplete removal of the epidural analgesia catheter. Patients' charts were comprehensively reviewed in case of a major adverse event. Patients with an unclear outcome received a mailed questionnaire or were contacted by telephone to determine long-term sequelae. RESULTS: Seven serious adverse events were identified: epidural abscess [n = 1; incidence 1 : 7273 (0.014%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0 to 0.08%)], persistent neurological damage [n = 1; incidence 1 : 7273 (0.014%, 95% CI, 0 to 0.08%)], cardiac arrest [n = 1; incidence 1 : 7273 (0.014%, 95% CI, 0 to 0.08%)] and catheter breakage leaving a catheter fragment in situ [n = 4; incidence 1 : 1818 (0.055%, 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.14%)]. Apart from the one patient with persistent neurologic deficit, the patients with serious adverse events associated with thoracic epidural analgesia in our cohort suffered no long-term consequences. CONCLUSION: In our single-centre study of thoracic epidural analgesia, serious adverse events occurred in 0.1% cases (1 : 1000), whereas long-term outcome was compromised in 0.014% (1.4 : 10 000) which is similar to the serious adverse event rates and outcomes reported in the current literature. TRIAL REGISTRATION: n.a. (C) 2016 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Reply to: postoperative shoulder pain after laparoscopic hysterectomy with deep neuromuscular blockade and low-pressure pneumoperitoneum.

No abstract available

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Intraoperative hypotension is associated with myocardial damage in noncardiac surgery: An observational study.

BACKGROUND: Perioperative myocardial damage and infarction (MI) is associated with increased mortality and other postoperative complications. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of perioperative myocardial damage in patients undergoing major elective noncardiac surgery, to elucidate any association with postoperative MI and mortality and to estimate the impact of preoperative risk factors and intraoperative hypotension. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, from October 2012 to May 2013. PATIENTS: In this single-centre study, all adult patients undergoing major elective noncardiac surgery who were scheduled for an overnight admission to the postoperative unit were included. Patients undergoing phaeochromocytoma surgery were excluded. Preoperative risk factors (co-morbidities), intraoperative events (hypotension defined as a 50% decrease in SBP relative to each patient's baseline and lasting >5 min) and postoperative data were collected from medical records. Levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were measured on postoperative day 1. Myocardial damage was defined as an increase in the hs-cTnT value above 14 ng l-1. A cardiologist reviewed all cases of MI occurring within 30 days after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Myocardial damage, MI and mortality within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Of the final cohort of 300 patients, 90 (30%) had myocardial damage on postoperative day 1 and 15 (5%) developed postoperative MI within 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that an intraoperative reduction in SBP more than 50% from baseline lasting more than 5 min was an independent predictor of postoperative hs-cTnT elevation (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 11.1). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of 300 patients undergoing major elective noncardiac surgery, there was a high incidence of myocardial damage and an association between an intraoperative reduction in SBP more than 50% from baseline lasting more than 5 min and myocardial damage. (C) 2016 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Satisfaction and safety using dexmedetomidine or propofol sedation during endoscopic oesophageal procedures: A randomised controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine possesses anxiolytic and hypnotic properties without respiratory side-effects, making it theoretically an ideal sedative agent for endoscopic procedures. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare satisfaction and safety among outpatients receiving sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol for endoscopic oesophageal procedures. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: Endoscopic intervention suite at the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged at least 18 years, and American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status 1 to 3. INTERVENTION: Total 63 patients were randomised to receive either dexmedetomidine (D) or propofol (P). Pain was treated with alfentanil in both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were patients' and endoscopists' satisfaction levels measured by validated questionnaires (1 = very dissatisfied; 7 = highly satisfied). A secondary outcome was safety, determined by blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation during and after the procedure, and respiratory rate and noninvasive cardiac output during the procedure. RESULTS: Satisfaction of patients [median (IQR); group D, 5.0 (3.75 to 5.75) vs. group P, 6.25 (5.3 to 6.5)] and satisfaction of gastroenterologists [group D, 5.0 (4.4 to 5.8) vs. group P, 6.0 (5.4 to 6.0)] were lower in group D (both P

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Recurrence of stillbirth and second trimester pregnancy loss

The 3,003 women referred to the Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program following a stillbirth or second trimester fetal death reported a total of 4,563 previous pregnancies including 180 previous second or third trimester losses for a total precurrence rate of 3.95%. The 142 women with a history of at least one previous stillbirth and/or late miscarriage differed significantly from the entire cohort with respect to timing and cause of their losses. Women experiencing multiple losses frequently had both second trimester miscarriages and stillbirths >20 weeks but did not have an increased risk of first trimester miscarriage. Recurrences were more likely to be in the second trimester (52% vs. 37%) and to have a maternal (20% vs. 11%) or placental (27% vs. 19%) cause. While fetal causes overall were less common in the group with recurrence (18% vs. 27%), the difference was due mainly to fewer common aneuploidies and other low recurrence risk conditions. Not only known recessive conditions but also "idiopathic hydrops" and multiple congenital anomalies not fitting a known syndrome were more frequent than expected, suggesting that these groups should be investigated for underlying genetic causes that might have been overlooked. Women with second trimester losses and/or a maternal or placental cause of death face significantly higher empiric risks (7–8% vs. 4% for the entire cohort) and should be counseled accordingly. Study of recurrent fetal loss can help identify high risk women who may benefit from treatment and preventive strategies in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



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Embedding Physical Activity in the Heart of the NHS: The Need for a Whole-System Approach

Abstract

Solutions to the global challenge of physical inactivity have tended to focus on interventions at an individual level, when evidence shows that wider factors, including the social and physical environment, play a major part in influencing health-related behaviour. A multidisciplinary perspective is needed to rewrite the research agenda on physical activity if population-level public health benefits are to be demonstrated. This article explores the questions that this raises regarding the particular role that the UK National Health Service (NHS) plays in the system. The National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine in Sheffield is put forward as a case study to discuss some of the ways in which health systems can work in collaboration with other partners to develop environments and systems that promote active lives for patients and staff.



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Nuclear receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Matthew C. Cave, Heather B. Clair, Josiah E. Hardesty, K. Cameron Falkner, Wenke Feng, Barbara J. Clark, Jennifer Sidey, Hongxue Shi, Bashar A. Aqel, Craig J. McClain, Russell A. Prough
Nuclear receptors are transcription factors which sense changing environmental or hormonal signals and effect transcriptional changes to regulate core life functions including growth, development, and reproduction. To support this function, following ligand-activation by xenobiotics, members of subfamily 1 nuclear receptors (NR1) may heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to regulate transcription of genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Several of these receptors including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), the pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR), the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the liver X receptor (LXR) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are key regulators of the gut:liver:adipose axis and serve to coordinate metabolic responses across organ systems between the fed and fasting states. Nonalcoholic fatty disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and may progress to cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with inappropriate nuclear receptor function and perturbations along the gut:liver:adipose axis including obesity, increased intestinal permeability with systemic inflammation, abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Environmental chemicals may compound the problem by directly interacting with nuclear receptors leading to metabolic confusion and the inability to differentiate fed from fasting conditions. This review focuses on the impact of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. Clinical trials including PIVENS and FLINT demonstrate that nuclear receptor targeted therapies may lead to the paradoxical dissociation of steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Novel strategies currently under development (including tissue-specific ligands and dual receptor agonists) may be required to separate the beneficial effects of nuclear receptor activation from unwanted metabolic side effects. The impact of nuclear receptor crosstalk in NAFLD is likely to be profound, but requires further elucidation.



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A comprehensive analysis and functional characterization of naturally occurring non-synonymous variants of nuclear receptor PXR

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Manjul Rana, Suneeta Devi, Samudrala Gourinath, Ravinder Goswami, Rakesh K. Tyagi
Pregnane & Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) acts as a xenosensing transcriptional regulator of many drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters of the 'detoxification machinery' that coordinate in elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics from the cellular milieu. It is an accepted view that some individuals or specific populations display considerable differences in their ability to metabolize different drugs, dietary constituents, herbals etc. In this context we speculated that polymorphisms in PXR gene might contribute to variability in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) metabolizing enzymes of phase I, drug metabolizing components of phase II and efflux components of the detoxification machinery. Therefore, in this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive functional analysis of seventeen naturally occurring non-synonymous variants of human PXR. When compared, we observed that some of the PXR SNP variants exhibit distinct functional and dynamic responses on parameters which included transcriptional function, sub-cellular localization, mitotic chromatin binding, DNA-binding properties and other molecular interactions. One of the unique SNP located within the DNA-binding domain of PXR was found to be functionally null and distinct on other parameters. Similarly, some of the non-synonymous SNPs in PXR imparted reduced transactivation function as compared to wild type PXR. Interestingly, PXR is reported to be a mitotic chromatin binding protein and such an association has been correlated to an emerging concept of 'transcription memory' and altered transcription output. In view of the observations made herein our data suggest that some of the natural PXR variants may have adverse physiological consequences owing to its influence on the expression levels and functional output of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The present study is expected to explain not only the observed inter-individual responses to different drugs but may also highlight the mechanistic details and importance of PXR in drug clearance, drug–drug interactions and diverse metabolic disorders.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.



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Transcriptome analysis reveals salt-stress-regulated biological processes and key pathways in roots of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)

Abstract

The cultivated peanut is important oil crop and salt stress seriously influences its development and yield. Tolerant varieties produced using transgenic techniques can effectively increase peanut plantation area and enhance its yields. However, little is known about how gene expression is regulated by salt stress in peanut. In this study, we screened genes regulated by salt stress in peanut roots using microarray technique. In total, 4828 up-regulated and 3752 down-regulated probe sets were successfully identified in peanut roots subjected to 3 and 48 h of salt stress. Data analysis revealed that different response groups existed between the up and down-regulated probe sets. The main up-regulated biological processes involved in salt stress responses included transcription regulation, stress response, and metabolism and biosynthetic processes. The main down-regulated biological processes included transport processes, photosynthesis and development. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis indicated that metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and plant–pathogen interaction, were mainly up-regulated in peanut under salt stress. However, photosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were mainly down-regulated during salt stress. The function of some probe sets in salt stress regulation was not clarified (e.g., protein functioning in cell cycle regulation and xylem development). Many of the genes we identified lacked functional annotations and their roles in response to salt stress are yet to be elucidated. These results identified some candidate genes as potential markers and showed an overview of the transcription map, which may yield some useful insights into salt-mediated signal transduction pathways in peanut.



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Harnessing publicly available genetic data to prioritize lipid modifying therapeutic targets for prevention of coronary heart disease based on dysglycemic risk

Abstract

Therapeutic interventions that lower LDL-cholesterol effectively reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, statins, the most widely prescribed LDL-cholesterol lowering drugs, increase diabetes risk. We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in the public domain to investigate the relationship of LDL-C and diabetes and identify loci encoding potential drug targets for LDL-cholesterol modification without causing dysglycemia. We obtained summary-level GWAS data for LDL-C from GLGC, glycemic traits from MAGIC, diabetes from DIAGRAM and CAD from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortia. Mendelian randomization analyses identified a one standard deviation (SD) increase in LDL-C caused an increased risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.63 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.55, 1.71), which was not influenced by removing SNPs associated with diabetes. LDL-C/CAD-associated SNPs showed consistent effect directions (binomial P = 6.85 × 10−5). Conversely, a 1-SD increase in LDL-C was causally protective of diabetes (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.81, 0.91), however LDL-cholesterol/diabetes-associated SNPs did not show consistent effect directions (binomial P = 0.15). HMGCR, our positive control, associated with LDL-C, CAD and a glycemic composite (derived from GWAS meta-analysis of four glycemic traits and diabetes). In contrast, PCSK9, APOB, LPA, CETP, PLG, NPC1L1 and ALDH2 were identified as "druggable" loci that alter LDL-C and risk of CAD without displaying associations with dysglycemia. In conclusion, LDL-C increases the risk of CAD and the relationship is independent of any association of LDL-C with diabetes. Loci that encode targets of emerging LDL-C lowering drugs do not associate with dysglycemia, and this provides provisional evidence that new LDL-C lowering drugs (such as PCSK9 inhibitors) may not influence risk of diabetes.



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Spectrum–dose conversion operator of NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for air dose rate measurement in contaminated environments

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Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Author(s): Shuichi Tsuda, Kimiaki Saito
Spectrum–dose conversion operators, the G(E) functions, for common NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters and CsI(Tl) detectors are obtained for measurements in a semi-infinite plane of contaminated ground field by photon-emitting radionuclides (ground source). The calculated doses at a height of 100 cm from the ground in 137Cs-contaminated environments by the Monte Carlo simulation technique are compared with those obtained using the G(E) functions by assuming idealized irradiation geometries such as anterior–posterior or isotropic. The simulation reveals that one could overestimate air dose rates in the environment by a maximum of 20–30% for NaI(Tl) detectors and 40–50% for CsI(Tl) detectors depending on photon energy when using the G(E) functions assuming idealized irradiation geometries for ground source measurements. Measurements obtained after the nuclear accident in Fukushima reveal that the doses calculated using a G(E) function for a unidirectional irradiation geometry are 1.17 times higher than those calculated using a G(E) function for the ground source in the case of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, which has a rectangular parallelepiped crystal (13 × 13 × 20 mm3). However, if a G(E) function is used assuming irradiation to a surface of the detector, the doses agree with those of the ground source within 2%. These results indicate that in contaminated environments, the commonly used scintillation-based detectors overestimate doses within the acceptable limit. In addition, the degree of overestimation depends on the irradiation direction of each detector assumed for developing the G(E) function. With regard to directional dependence of the detectors, reliable air dose rates in the environment can be obtained using the G(E) function determined in unidirectional irradiation geometry, provided that the irradiation surface of the crystal is determined properly.



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Comparing face-to-face intubation with different devices



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Intranasal midazolam administration enhances amnesic effect in rats

Abstract

Intranasal (i.n.) administration of midazolam has been shown to be effective and safe for its sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, there has been no investigation on the influence of i.n. administration on midazolam-induced anterograde amnesia. In addition, although the potential of direct drug delivery from the nose to the central nervous system (CNS) has recently become a topic of great interest, it remains unclear whether this pathway is also involved after i.n. midazolam. In this study, we examined the efficacy and the underlying mechanism of i.n. administration compared with intramuscular (i.m.) administration on midazolam-induced amnesia in rats. Equivalent doses of 0.6 mg/kg midazolam were administered via either the i.m or the i.n. route. Anterograde amnesia was assessed by a contextual/cued fear conditioning test. Each animal was conditioned 20 min after drug administration and then tested for a freezing response 24 h later. Midazolam administration by either route produced a similar level of light sedation (minimum spontaneous activity). However, i.n. administration of midazolam induced significantly less freezing behavior compared with i.m. midazolam. Furthermore, in rats with disrupted electrical input from the olfactory epithelium after an olfactotoxicant 3-methylindole administration, the i.n.-mediated enhanced amnesic effect of midazolam was not observed. Our findings indicate that i.n midazolam could probably generate olfactory signals to the brain via benzodiazepine receptors and, compared with i.m. administration, can produce a more significant amnesic effect without alteration in sedative levels. Further clinical studies are warranted.



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Endoscopic submucosal dissection with the Nestis ® jet injector system with a bifunctional catheter: first prospective clinical trial (NCT: 2012-A00272-41)

Abstract

Background

The Enki-2 water jet system (Nestis SAS®, Lyon, France) with dual injection and dissection capability significantly reduced ESD procedure time and perforation rates in animal studies. The study aim was to evaluate its efficacy and safety in patients with superficial neoplastic lesions.

Methods

A prospective study including 18 patients with esophageal, gastric and rectal superficial neoplasms treated by ESD using Enki-2 was designed.

Results

Eighteen lesions (6 esophageal, 3 gastric, 9 rectal, mean diameter 43.5 mm) in 17 patients (10 men, mean age 65.9) were included. The mean procedure time was 65.6 min. One patient needed clipping for an incomplete muscle tear during procedure; there were neither delayed bleedings nor perforation. The "en bloc" resection rate was 100 %, the R0 resection rate was 88.9 % (16/18 lesions), and the curative resection rate was 77.8 %. The 3-month disease-free rate was 92.3 % (12/13 patients, 13/14 lesions, 1 patient lost to follow-up). The 12-month disease-free rate was 69.2 % (9/13 patients, 10/14 lesions, 4 patients lost to follow-up).

Conclusions

ESD with Enki-2 water jet system is effective and safe for superficial neoplastic digestive lesions.



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Impact of totally laparoscopic combined management of colorectal cancer with synchronous hepatic metastases on severity of complications: a propensity-score-based analysis

Abstract

Background

Thanks to widespread diffusion of minimally invasive approach in the setting of both colorectal and hepatic surgeries, the interest in combined resections for colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases (SCLM) by totally laparoscopic approach (TLA) has increased. Aim of this study was to compare outcome of combined resections for SCLM performed by TLA or by open approach, in a propensity-score-based study.

Study design

All 25 patients undergoing combined TLA for SCLM at San Raffaele Hospital in Milano were compared in a case-matched analysis with 25 out of 91 patients undergoing totally open approach (TOA group). Groups were matched with 1:2 ratio using propensity scores based on covariates representing disease severity. Main endpoints were postoperative morbidity and long-term outcome. The Modified Accordion Severity Grading System was used to quantify complications.

Results

The groups resulted comparable in terms of patients and disease characteristics. The TLA group, as compared to the TOA group, had lower blood loss (350 vs 600 mL), shorter postoperative stay (9 vs 12 days), lower postoperative morbidity index (0.14 vs 0.20) and severity score for complicated patients (0.60 vs 0.85). Colonic anastomosis leakage had the highest fractional complication burden in both groups. In spite of comparable long-term overall survival, the TLA group had better recurrence-free survival.

Conclusion

TLA for combined resections is feasible, and its indications can be widened to encompass a larger population of patients, provided its benefits in terms of reduced overall risk and severity of complications, rapid functional recovery and favorable long-term outcomes.



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Age is highly associated with stereo blindness among surgeons: a cross-sectional study

Abstract

Background

The prevalence of stereo blindness in the general population varies greatly within a range of 1–30 %. Stereo vision adds an extra dimension to aid depth perception and gives a binocular advantage in task completion. Lack of depth perception may lower surgical performance, potentially affecting surgical outcome. 3D laparoscopy offers stereoscopic vision of the operative field to improve depth perception and is being introduced to several surgical specialties; however, a normal stereo vision is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of stereo blindness among surgeons in the field of general surgery, gynecology, and urology as these are potential users of 3D laparoscopy.

Methods

The study was conducted according to the STROBE guidelines for cross-sectional studies. Medical doctors from the department of general surgery, gynecology, and urology were recruited and stereo tested by the use of the Random Dot E stereo test. Upon stereo testing, a demographic questionnaire was completed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the association between stereo blindness and the variables resulting from the univariate analysis.

Results

Three hundred medical doctors completed the study. Of these 9.7 % were stereo blind. There were 47 % women and 53 % men, aged 25–71 years. General surgery was represented with 64 % of the participants, gynecology with 26 %, and urology with 10 %. Age (OR 5.6; CI 1.7–18.9; P = 0.005) and not being aware of having any vision anomaly in need for correction (OR 4; CI 1.4–11.4; P = 0.010) were significantly associated with stereo blindness.

Conclusion

Approximately one in ten medical doctors in general surgery, gynecology, and urology were stereo blind with an increasing prevalence with age. This is relevant since stereo blind surgeons will not benefit from the implementation of 3D laparoscopy.



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Potential sexual function improvement by using transanal mesorectal approach for laparoscopic low rectal cancer excision

Abstract

Objective

Preliminary results of the transanal approach for low rectal cancer suggest better oncological outcomes than the conventional laparoscopic approach. We currently report the functional results.

Methods

From 2008 to 2012, 100 patients with low rectal cancer and suitable for sphincter-saving resection were randomized between transanal and laparoscopic low rectal dissection. Patients derived from this randomized trial were enrolled for functional assessment. End points were bowel function (LARS bowel and Wexner continence scores) and urogenital function (IPSS, IIEF-5 and FSFI-6 scores) obtained by questionnaires sent to patients with a follow-up more than 12 months.

Results

Overall, 76 patients were eligible and 72 responded to the questionnaire: 38 in the transanal group and 34 in the laparoscopic group. The bowel function did not differ between the transanal and the laparoscopic groups: LARS 36 versus 37 (p = 0.941) and Wexner 9 versus 10 (p = 0.786). The urologic function was also similar between the two groups: IPSS 5.5 versus 3.5 (p = 0.821). Among sexually active patients before surgery, 20 of 28 (71 %) patients in the transanal group and 9 of 23 (39 %) in the laparoscopic group maintained an activity after surgery (p = 0.02). Erectile function was also better in men after transanal compared to laparoscopic low rectal dissection: IIEF 17 versus 7 (p = 0.119).

Conclusion

Transanal approach for low rectal cancer did not change bowel and urologic functions compared to the conventional laparoscopic approach. However, there was a trend to a better erectile function with a significantly higher rate of sexual activity in the transanal group.



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One-trocar versus multiport hybrid laparoscopic appendectomy: What’s the best option for children with acute appendicitis? Results of an international multicentric study

Abstract

Background

One-trocar laparoscopic appendectomy (OTA) is routinely adopted in children with acute appendicitis. In case of a difficult appendectomy, it is necessary to add additional trocar/s to safely complete the procedure. This technique is called multiport hybrid laparoscopic appendectomy (HLA). We aimed to compare the outcome of multiport HLA versus OTA.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the data of 1,092 patients underwent LA in 5 European centers of pediatric surgery in the last 5 years. We compared 2 groups: G1 of 575 patients (52.6 %) (average age 10 years) underwent OTA and G2 of 517 patients (47.4 %) (average age 8.2 years) underwent multiport HLA.

Results

No intra-operative complications occurred in both groups. An additional pathology was treated in 12 cases (8 Meckel's diverticulum, 2 carcinoids, 2 ovarian cysts) in G2. Operative time was significantly shorter in G2 compared to G1 (47.8 vs 58.6 min; p < .001). The average analgesic requirement was significantly shorter in G2 compared to G1 (44 vs 56 h; p < .001). As for postoperative complications, the incidence of port-site infections was similar between the two groups, while the incidence of postoperative abdominal abscesses (PAA) was significantly higher in G1 compared to G2 (4.7 vs 0.2 %; p < .001). The cosmetic outcome was excellent in all patients of both groups. A subgroup analysis between complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis showed that only in complicated cases, the average operative time, the average VAS pain score, the average analgesic requirements and the incidence of PAA were significantly higher in OTA group compared to multiport HLA group (p < .001).

Conclusions

Our results suggest that OTA is a valid and safe procedure for the uncomplicated cases, while additional trocars are required in case of complicated appendicitis. Multiport HLA significantly reduces the operative time, the incidence of abdominal abscesses and the analgesic requirements compared to OTA.



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