Κυριακή, 4 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Effects of response delays and of unknown stimulus-response mappings on the oddball effect on P3

Abstract

P3b is a prominent component of human event-related EEG potentials. P3b has been related to consciousness, encoding into memory, and updating of strategic schemata, among others, yet evidence has also been provided for its close relationship with deciding how to respond to the presented stimuli. P3b is large with rarely occurring stimuli and small with frequent ones. Here, we investigate the extent to which this oddball effect depends on selecting and executing responses. Participants pressed one of two keys in response to one of two letters, one of which was presented rarely and one frequently. Information about letter-key mapping was provided by a second stimulus. In different blocks, this mapping stimulus was either constant across trials or varied randomly, and either preceded or followed the letter. The oddball effect was reduced when responses were delayed (by waiting for the constant mapping stimulus following the letter) and was further reduced when responses could not be assigned to the letters (because letters were followed by varying mapping stimuli). This evidence suggests that P3b is closely related to decision processes, possibly reflecting reactivation of stimulus-response links.



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Thymol and Thymus vulgaris extract protects human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) from UVA and UVB damage

2016-09-04T19-07-09Z
Source: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science
Martina Mapelli, Rossella Calo, Laura Marabini.
Objective: The aims of our study were to characterize ultraviolet (UV)A- and UVB-induced damages in a keratinocytes cell line (HaCaT), and to evaluate the protective capacities two plant-derivative compounds, namely Thymus vulgaris L leaf extract and thymol, its major component. A polyphenol rich diet has gained wide attention and it is now considered to be a protective agent for human skin, which can be over-exposed to environmental factors and in particular UV light. Methods: Cells were pretreated for 1 h, in serum-free medium, with thymol (1 μg/ml) or Thymus vulgaris L (1.82 μg/ml) then exposed to different UVA (8-24 J/cm2) or UVB doses (0.016-0.72 J/cm2). Immediately after the UV exposure the intracellular redox status was evaluated by reactive oxygen species quantification and apoptotic events. Genotoxic aspects were evaluated 24 h after the end of irradiations using the alkaline comet assay and the immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX histone protein (detected 1 h after the end of UV exposure). Results: The pre-treatment of our experimental model with the two substances confirmed an antioxidant action and anti-apoptotic effect by reducing the cells percentage (sub-G1 phase). Furthermore, thymol and extract of Thymus vulgaris L were able to reduce genotoxic damage. The alkaline comet assay showed that the two substances were capable to decrease DNA damage. Also in this case, Thymus vulgaris L extract is more effective than thymol in decreasing genotoxicity markers. Conclusions: Our results confirmed the more oxidant UVA and more genotoxic UVB effects. Regarding the protective effect of thymol and Thymus vulgaris L extract, data obtained proved their antioxidant and free-radical scavenging ability as known for phenolic (which our compounds belong to) and polyphenolic compounds. Thymol and mainly Thymus vulgaris L extract were also able to reduce the direct genotoxic damage.


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Individual response to ionizing radiation

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2016
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Author(s): Nicolas Foray, Michel Bourguignon, Nobuyuki Hamada
The human response to ionizing radiation (IR) varies among individuals. The first evidence of the individual response to IR was reported in the beginning of the 20th century. Considering nearly one century of observations, we here propose three aspects of individual IR response: radiosensitivity for early or late adverse tissue events after radiotherapy on normal tissues (non-cancer effects attributable to cell death); radiosusceptibility for IR-induced cancers; and radiodegeneration for non-cancer effects that are often attributable to mechanisms other than cell death (e.g., cataracts and circulatory disease). All the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind IR-induced individual effects are not fully elucidated. However, some specific assays may help their quantification according to the dose and to the genetic status. Accumulated data on individual factors have suggested that the individual IR response cannot be ignored and raises some clinical and societal issues. The individual IR response therefore needs to be taken into account to better evaluate the risks related to IR exposure.



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Nonsense mediated RNA decay and evolutionary capacitance

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Publication date: Available online 4 September 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Vivek Kumar Raxwal, Karel Riha
Nonsense mediated RNA decay (NMD) is well-known as an RNA quality control mechanism that sequesters a substantial portion of RNA from expression by targeting it for degradation. However, a number of recent studies across a range of organisms indicate a broader role for NMD in gene regulation and transcriptome homeostasis. Here we propose a novel role for NMD as a buffering system with the capability of accumulating and subsequently releasing a wide spectrum of cryptic genetic variation in response to environmental stimuli, and hence facilitating adaptive evolution. We discuss this role for NMD in the context of evolution of plant pathogen defense, whereby NMD may promote rapid diversification of intracellular immune receptors by mitigating the potentially harmful impact of their newly formed variants on plant fitness.



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