Τρίτη, 31 Μαΐου 2016

The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on 137Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP

Publication date: September 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 161
Author(s): N. Zarubina
Levels of soil contamination with 137Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of 137Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of 137Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of 137Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of 137Cs specific activity in fungi.



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The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

Publication date: September 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 161
Author(s): Yoshito Sasaki, Hironobu Abe, Katsuaki Mitachi, Takayoshi Watanabe, Yasuo Ishii, Tadafumi Niizato
We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average 137Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) in the stemflow was measured to be around 10 Bq/L. The 137Cs concentration ratio [present at the time of the accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 103. A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the <0.45 μm fraction through ultrafiltration revealed that the radiocesium was present as an almost dissolved species. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction (>0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium.



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A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province

Publication date: October 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 162–163
Author(s): Che Doering, Andreas Bollhöfer
This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides (227Ac, 40K, 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 234U, 238U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.



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Editorial board

Publication date: September 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 161





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Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Publication date: September 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 161
Author(s): Masabumi Komatsu, Shinji Kaneko, Shinta Ohashi, Katsushi Kuroda, Tetsuya Sano, Shigeto Ikeda, Satoshi Saito, Yoshiyuki Kiyono, Mario Tonosaki, Satoru Miura, Akio Akama, Takuya Kajimoto, Masamichi Takahashi
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs; Bq m−2) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the 137Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total 137Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 105 Bq m−2) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 104 Bq m−2). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0–5.8 × 104 Bq m−2), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18–19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0–5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of rainfall after the accident, and the leaf biomass by the tree species may influence differences in the spatial pattern of radiocesium by study plots. The results of the present study and further studies of the spatial pattern of radiocesium are important for modeling future radiocesium distribution in contaminated forest ecosystems.



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Neurons that Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in Fruitless-Expressing Neurons

Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1) underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2-5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.



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To compare and evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of terminalia arjuna (aqueous extract of bark) with diclofenac sodium on rats

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Maninder Singh Rana, Rani Walia, Alok Dixit, Kaustubh Raina.
Background: Terminalia arjuna is a well-known Indian medicinal plant whose bark is extensively used in ayurvedic medicine. It is one of the most versatile medicinal plants having a wide spectrum of biological activity. The objective of this study was to study and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Terminalia arjuna on carragennan induced paw edema in sprague dwaley rats. Methods: Terminalia arjuna aqueous extract of bark in 200, 400 and 800mg/kg doses were administered to sprague dawely rats prior to induction of carrageenan induced paw edema. Statistical analysis: was done by using student t test. P

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Comparison of efficacy of telmisartan with losartan in patients of essential hypertension with cognitive impairment

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Nitin Natthuji Puram, Vitthal Baburao Karande, Jaiprakash Bharma Ramanand, Sunita Jaiprakash Ramanand, Nimish Ravindra Halasawadekar, Rama Rangnathrao Bhosale.
Background: Hypertension can lead to mild to moderate alteration in the brain structure and function including cognitive functions impairments. Many first line antihypertensive drugs are devoid of producing significant improvement in cognitive functions; in fact some of them worsen cognitive function. Data suggests that angiotensin II receptor antagonist slows the progression of cognitive impairment associated with hypertension. Hence present study was planned to compare the efficacy of telmisartan with losartan in hypertensive patients with cognitive impairment. Methods: Prospective, randomized, single blind, comparative study was conducted for period of 24 weeks. Study population was enrolled into two groups: group A (losartan 50 mg) and group B (telmisartan 20 mg). Cognitive functions were assessed by mini mental status examination and trail making test part-A. Qualitative data were analysed by using Fischers test and quantitative data was analysed by using t test. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics of patients receiving losartan and telmisartan did not show significant difference Telmisartan was as effective as losartan in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients of essential hypertension. Increase in mini mental status examination score appeared similar in both groups and there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Reduction in trail making test part A score was slightly more among patient receiving losartan but on comparison of two groups reduction in trail making test part A score was not statistically significant (p>0.05) at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Conclusions: Telmisartan is as effective as losartan in controlling blood pressure and improving cognitive function in hypertensive patients with cognitive impairment.


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Glycemic control and cost-effectiveness attained by the drug utilization of oral antidiabetic agents in a tertiary care hospital in South India

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Nirmal George, Ajith Kumar PV, Vijayalekshmi Amma S..
Background: Diabetes mellitus require lifelong intervention and Kerala has high prevalence. New expensive agents require comparison with existing regimens for cost-effectiveness. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometric, FPG and HbA1C (baseline and post treatment) of 150 patients (73 men; 77 women) were obtained from records using standard case report forms in our retrospective study. ANOVA and paired t test were used for between groups and within group comparison. Results: Metformin was maximum utilized (DDD/1000/day-252.39). All treatment regimens produced significant reduction in FPG (except metformin monotherapy) and HbA1C (except metformin sulfonylurea α-glucosidase inhibitor DPP-4 inhibitor combination). When compared to metformin sulfonylurea pioglitazone combination (best therapy), other regimens were less cost effective in reducing FPG and metformin sulfonylurea α-glucosidase inhibitor DPP-4 inhibitor was more effective and expensive in reducing HbA1C. Conclusions: High prescription rates of metformin were due to its action on insulin resistance and weight. Addition of pioglitazone was cost effective and DPP-4 inhibitor was expensive but effective.


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Awareness about generic drug prescription amongst practitioners: a knowledge attitude practice survey at rural set up

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Jyoti Ramchandra Patil, Swapnil Chudaman Jaykare, Vijay Motiram Motghare, Sudhir Laxmanrao Padwal, Vinod Shivajirao Deshmukh.
Background: to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding generic drugs prescription and the factors influencing it amongst practitioners at a rural set up. Methods: All the practitioners in the town, at both government and private settings were interviewed individually and the data was collected with the help of a self-administered, pre-validated and semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analysed to describe all variables and test any significant difference between the practitioners at government and private set-up. Results: The study included 97 practitioners from different affiliations with a response rate of 87.63%. Our survey showed that most of the practitioners (74.36%) were in favour of generic drugs substitution owing to their knowledge about generics. Majority of the practitioners (69.10%) were aware that both the brand and generic drugs are bioequivalent and that there exits significant price difference between them, yet, concerns regarding the manufacturing standards of the latter, prevented them from practicing generic substitution. Practitioners did not report a significant pressure from patients to prescribe either brand or generic drugs. Most practitioners (76.92%) had a positive attitude towards the governments role in assuring the quality of generic drugs by improving manufacturing standards of these drugs. Conclusions: Although the practitioners were strongly in favour of generic substitution, concern regarding their quality standards is discouraging them from doing the same. The government can play a major role by improving the standard operating procedures for manufacturing the generic drugs thereby assuring the practitioners about their quality.


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Open label study to assess the safety and efficacy of cinacalcet in refractory hyperparathyroidism with chronic renal failure

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Reema Thottol, M. Sreelatha, PV Narayanan.
Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism a common consequence of chronic kidney disease is associated with many complications like renal osteodystrophy, vascular and soft tissue calcification. This study is to assess the safety and efficacy of Cinacalcet a calcimimetic drug in patients with refractory hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure. Methods: Patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on maintenance haemodialysis diagnosed to have refractory hyperparathyroidism who do not attain the target range for hyper-parathyroid indicators serum PTH ≤300, Serum Ca (8.4-9.5), serum phosphorous (3.5-5.5) with the use of calcitriol and phosphate binders were included in the study. Twenty patients satisfying the case definition of refractory hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure received 30mg Cinacalcet therapy. Total duration of treatment was 6 weeks. Standard serum calcium, serum phosphorous, PTH was assessed before and after 6 weeks. Results: Cinacalcet significantly reduces serum PTH level when results were compared by paired t test. P=0.016 0.05, serum phosphorous P=0.132>0.05. In this study after overall assessment. Conclusions: Cinacalcet is more efficacious and safe in treating refractory hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure.


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Comparative evaluation of H1 receptor blocking activity and safety of newer H1antagonist mizolastine with loratadine and placebo: a randomized double blind three way crossover study

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
K. Swarnalatha, S. Sharon Sonia, C. Prabahkar Reddy, Ramesh Kumar Rao, M. U. R Naidu.
Background: Histamine is a naturally occurring body constituent synthesized from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase enzyme that is expressed throughout the body including central nervous system neurons, gastric mucosa, mast cells and basophils. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacological activity and safety of 10 mg mizolastine, 10 mg loratadine and placebo in healthy human volunteers. Methods: After randomly allocating the 3 drugs, a battery of psychometric tests was done. Histamine prick test for wheal and flare reaction, VAS for sedation and itch followed by salivary flow test were done. Vitals were recorded. The subjects were randomized to receive either of the treatment in a cross-over manner with washout period of 7 days. The wheal and flare areas were recorded before and after 1,2,4,8, and 24 hours. Results: Mean inhibition on histamine induced wheal and flare response with mizolastine was highly significant as compared to placebo from 1 hour onwards (p


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A prospective study, to determine adverse effects of anti-retroviral agents in rural tertiary care teaching hospital

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Swapnil Chudaman Jaykare, Jyoti Ramchandra Patil, Vijay Motiram Motghare, Sudhir Laxmanrao Padwal, Vinod Shivajirao Deshmukh, Harshal Nutanrao Pise.
Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective of this study was to evaluate the adverse drug reaction profile of anti-retroviral drugs in HIV patients in terms of causality, severity and preventability. Methods: Patients newly started on ART were followed prospectively for a period of initial six months and were interviewed in person during their routine follow-up or visit following development of any ADRs. ADRs were screened clinically and investigated accordingly for causality, severity and preventability. Results: Out of 59 cases, zidovudine+lamivudine+nevirapine (ZLN) was the most commonly used ART regimen. A total 122 ADRs involving various systems were observed in these patients; majority being related to gastrointestinal system (54.10%). Most of these ADRs were observed in the ZLN regimen followed by the stavudine+lamivudine+nevirapine (SLN) regimen. On causality assessment in ZLN regimen, 74.58% of ADRs were possible, while 25.42% were probable. Severity assessment showed that most of the ADR were mild whereas on preventability assessment it was observed that most of the ADRs were not-preventable. Conclusions: Antiretroviral drugs are not solely responsible for the ADRs due to these medications; various co-morbid and predisposing conditions share the responsibility. An efficient pharmacovigilance is imperative by means of improving ADR reporting and monitoring, in order to improve compliance and acceptability of ART.


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Analysis of prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy and neonatal outcome in a tertiary care centre

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Soundarya Yamakanamardi, Anuradha HV, Sujani BK, Shivamurthy MC.
Background: Hypertensive disorders are the most common medical complications of pregnancy with an incidence of 2-8%. Maternal hypertension, even of the mild to moderate category, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes like low birth weight, prematurity, stillbirth and intrauterine growth retardation. Though hypertension occurs up to 8% of pregnancies, yet information on the safety of antihypertensive medication use during pregnancy is limited. The objective of this study was to analyse the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs in pregnant woman and also to assess the neonatal outcome in pregnant woman on antihypertensive drugs. Methods: The retrospective study includes analysis of all the prescriptions from case records of hypertensive pregnant women till the delivery for one year. Results: Total number of 122 hypertensive pregnant patients was included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 25.8 years. 51.6% were primigravida. Most of them were diagnosed after 28±2 weeks of pregnancy. 54% were on monotherapy. Most commonly used drug was alpha methyl dopa followed by nifedipine. Out of 86.9% (n=106) live birth delivered; 29.2% were of low birth weight. Conclusions: All the prescriptions were prescribed rationally. Most of the prescriptions contain monotherapy with alpha methyl dopa which is considered to be safest antihypertensives in pregnancy.


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Treatment and prognostic assessment of acute myeloid leukemia

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Bannur Ramanna Nandeesh, Subramanya S. Mallikarjunappa.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of clonal malignant myeloid neoplasms. Malignant transformation of hematopoietic progenitor cell leads to clonal expansion and replacement of normal bone marrow cells with malignant cells leading to suppression of normal haematopoiesis. Advancements in our understanding of disease biology have allowed AML to be classified based on its gene expression profile, which includes previously identified cytogenetic subgroups, and distinct novel subgroups which have prognostic significance. Identification of mutations in DNMT3A and IDH 1 genes in cytogenetically normal AML (by gene sequencing) helps to identify patients with poor prognosis. Redesigning the treatment regimen consisting of cytarabine and daunorubicin has improved the treatment outcomes without increase in the treatment-related mortality. Increasing the dose of daunorubicin to 90 mg/m2 improves complete remission rates without increasing treatment-related complications both in young and elderly patients. Cytarabine (200 mg/m2 in cycle I and 2 g/m2 in cycle 2) is shown to be as effective as high dose cytarabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily in cycle 1and 2 g/m2 twice daily in cycle 2) and is associated with less treatment-related toxicities.


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Experimental evaluation of the anti-ulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed in wistar albino rats against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Anand M. Ingale, Venkata Bharat Kumar Pinnelli, Vijaya Rajendran.
Background: There is an increased demand for newer safer drugs for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease as its incidence is increasing gradually in view of changing lifestyle and stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera. Methods: The ethanol extract of Vitis vinifera was investigated for its anti-ulcer activity in rats against Aspirin plus Pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, pH, free and total acidity; ulcer number and its inhibition, ulcer severity and ulcer index. Results: A significant antiulcer activity was observed. Pylorus ligation model showed significant (p


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The effect of riluzole alone and in combination with sodium valproate on pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in swiss-albino rats

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Amol Ramrao Jadhav, Kiran Prabhakar Vakade, Bana Bihari Nayak, Vijayaprasad M. Sangisetti, Vijaykumar N. Abhavathi.
Background: Riluzole- a glutamate antagonist is known to enhance antiepileptic effects of various other antiepileptic drugs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anticonvulsant effect of riluzole alone and in combination with sodium valproate on pentylenetetrazole (Metrazol) induced seizures in swiss-albino rats. Methods: Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 50 mg/kg intraperitonially (ip) was used to induce seizure in swiss- albino rats. Anticonvulsant effect of riluzole (at 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate (at 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was studied on PTZ induced seizures in albino rats. Also effect of riluzole (10mg/kg) in combination with sodium valproate (75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was studied. Parameters such as time of onset of first clonic convulsion in seconds, frequency of clonic convulsion in 60 minute and total duration of entire convulsion in minutes were studied. For statistical analysis unpaired t test was used. Results: At 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses riluzole per se was not found to produce any significant effect in PTZ induced seizures (P>0.05). Sodium valproate at 300 mg/kg dose was found to produce significant antiepileptic effect (P0.05). Interestingly significant antiepileptic effect was noted with combination of riluzole (at 10 mg/kg) with sodium valproate at 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg dose (P


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Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Vihang S. Chawan, Abhishek M. Phatak, Kalpesh V. Gawand, Sagar V. Badwane, Sagar S. Panchal.
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA) has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline.


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Orexin receptors: a journey through their discovery to the development of suvorexant, the new sleeping pill

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Anandabaskar Nishanthi, Mourouguessine Vimal, Selvarajan Sandhiya, Steven Aibor Dkhar.
Orexin (OX) neuropeptides acting through G-protein coupled OX1 and OX2 receptors are implicated in a variety of physiological roles including regulation of feeding, sleep-wake cycle, energy metabolism and reward pathways. Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that orexins are wake promoting neuropeptides and deficits in orexinergic neurotransmission leads to narcolepsy, a debilitating sleep disorder. This has led to a search for orexin receptor agonists for pharmacotherapy of narcolepsy. However, development of orexin receptor agonists are still in their infancy stage and it invokes further research to know whether it could turn into a reality. In addition, the role of orexin neuropeptides in promoting arousal and wakefulness has generated considerable interest in developing orexin receptor antagonists for treatment of insomnia. This quest was accomplished with the approval of suvorexant by United States food and drug administration in 2014. This remarkable discovery has opened a novel approach for treatment of insomnia through neuromodulation of orexin signaling. Hence this review focuses on the orexinergic system, their physiological action and potential role as pharmacological targets.


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Treatment options for the specific phobias

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Jarnail Singh, Janardhan Singh.
Specific phobias are among the most common psychological problems both in men and women. For treatment of specific phobias, exposure-based therapy is the first choice followed by cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques and short-term pharmacotherapy. Long-term pharmacotherapy for specific phobias, is associated with adverse drug reactions and drug abuse, thus not a reasonable choice for long-term symptom control. Glucocorticoids and d-cycloserine (DCS) cause fear reduction when used in combination with exposure based therapy. Being a non-anxiolytic DCS accelerates fear reduction during exposure by facilitating memory consolidation during post-treatment phase. Adjuvant cortisol to exposure therapy also caused great reduction in fear in spider phobia.


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A case study to know the level of awareness about pharmacogenomics and its clinical application among doctors of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Aditi Jhunjhunwala, Narendra Kumar, Rahul Kumar, Sarvesh Singh, Rakesh Kumar Dixit.
Background: Presently knowledge of pharmacogenomics is important for therapeutic purposes as well as for the prevention of many ADRs (adverse drug reactions). So this study was planned to know the level of awareness about pharmacogenomics and its clinical application among doctors of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: The study was done through a survey among 400 doctors by a questionnaire method. The questions were formulated to know the awareness and extent of knowledge of doctor. The answers were in yes and no and the data collected was calculated in percentage. Results: 79.75% doctors were well aware about pharmacogenomics. 13.0% doctors were not aware but wanted to know about it, while 7.25% of doctors were neither aware nor interested about pharmacogenomics. Conclusions: Most of the doctors were aware about the pharmacogenomics theoretically and they need to be updated about its clinical application in their practice by seminars, presentation and workshops.


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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles decreases activity of rat brain when administered prenatally

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Nikita Saraswat, Pranay Wal, Ankita Wal, Shikha Bajpai, Rituparna Palit.
Background: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used in the sunscreens, toothpastes, and cosmetic products that the human use daily. Previous reports have proved that the impact of nanomaterials on brain activity is not negligible, especially for the people working in nanomaterials manufacturing factories. We are using titanium dioxide in our daily life in cosmetics, food industry and many other pharmaceutical products. So to keep a check on the threat what these chemicals may cause, we conducted a research to study effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on rat brain. This research gave us an insight of the possible threats it can cause to brain. Methods: The effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on brain activity were reported. Our studies showed that titanium dioxide nanoparticles have a differential tendency towards neurons. To insight the possible effect on titanium dioxide nanoparticles on neurobehaviour we conducted a conditioned avoidance response study using shuttle box analysis. In the study we administered the drug titanium dioxide nanoparticles prenatally and observed its effects by neurobehaviour studies in progenies of wistar rat. Results: In the results we observed that titanium dioxide nanoparticles have caused a decreased learning and memory behaviours as compared to control groups. Conclusions: We studied the neurobehaviour of progenies, when the drug was administered to rat brain prenatally. The results showed that the titanium dioxide nanoparticles particles have decreased the brain activity of the rat brain by showing decreased brain activity in progenies also.


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An intensive monitoring of adverse drug reaction in indoor patients of medicine department at tertiary care teaching hospital

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Nishita H. Darji, Shilpa Jadav, Chintan Doshi, Rutvij Hedamba, Rusva Mistry, Hiren Trivedi.
Background: Use of drugs itself may result into illness and death due to their adverse effects. In India 10-20% of inpatients developed adverse drug reactions. Most of these problems can be overcome by undertaking hospital based intensive monitoring. Objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and document the spectrum of ADRs in studied patients in terms of causality, severity, frequency, type and preventability. A prospective, observational, single centre study conducted among the indoor patients of the department of general medicine, Guru Gobind singh government hospital, Jamnagar over a period of 12 months. Methods: Admitted patients who either had developed a clinically suspected ADR after admission (group A) or were admitted primarily because of an ADR (group B) were included. In all ADR related patients the necessary data was recorded on a pre-designed case record form, NCC-PvPI form and analysis was done. Results: Total 3566 patients were screened. 87 patients had 101 ADRs, among them 62 from group A and 25 from group B with 2.44% incidence. In causality, by WHO-UMC and by naranjo scale most common probable category in group A (54.7%) and group B (50%) and 89.9% group A and 84.6% in group B respectively.95.05% ADRs were Not preventable. Hartwig seigles scale maximum ADRs 65.4% ADRs in group A and 73.1% in group B were moderate in severity. Conclusions: Intercurrent illness, longer hospital stay and poly pharmacy was playing a major role in occurrence of multiple ADRs with 2.44% incidence in our setup.


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Innovations in existing routes and novel drug delivery systems for local anaesthetics

2016-05-31T03-23-57Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Diwanshu Sharma, Anshu Gupta.
New drug delivery systems (NDDS) are developed for improvement in efficacy of the drugs, provide maximum benefit to the patient and to minimize the adverse drug reactions. For local anaesthetics (LAs), the development of new effective delivery systems modulate the release rate, extend their anaesthetic effect , and helps to enhance their localisation as desired. The various routes of local anaesthetic delivery (epidural, peripheral, wound catheters, intra-nasal, intra-vesical, intra-articular, intra-osseous) are under innovation these days. Different methods such as include iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and magnetophoresis are being used to enhance local anaesthetic permeation. Adjuvants are added to potentiate drug effects. The use of different delivery systems should help to keep the LA at the target site for longer periods prolonging the anesthetic or analgesic effect with an extended range of agents.


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Group III/IV muscle afferents limit the intramuscular metabolic perturbation during whole body exercise in humans

To investigate the role of metabo- and mechanosensitive group III/IV muscle afferents in limiting the intramuscular metabolic perturbation during whole body endurance exercise, eight subjects performed 5-km cycling time trials under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing lower limb muscle afferent feedback (FENT). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after exercise. Motoneuronal output was estimated through vastus lateralis surface electromyography (EMG). Exercise-induced changes in intramuscular metabolites were determined using liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quadriceps fatigue was quantified by pre- to post-exercise changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch torque (ΔQTsingle) evoked by electrical femoral nerve stimulation. Although motoneuronal output was 21 ± 12% higher during FENT compared to CTRL (< 0.05), time to complete the time trial was similar (∼8.8 min). Compared to CTRL, power output during FENT was 10 ± 4% higher in the first half of the time trial, but 11 ± 5% lower in the second half (both P < 0.01). The exercise-induced increase in intramuscular inorganic phosphate, H+, adenosine diphosphate, lactate, and phosphocreatine depletion was 55 ± 30%, 62 ± 18%, 129 ± 63%, 47 ± 14% (P < 0.001), and 27 ± 14% (P < 0.01) greater in FENT than CTRL. ΔQTsingle was greater following FENT than CTRL (−52 ± 2 vs −31 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and this difference was positively correlated with the difference in inorganic phosphate (r2 = 0.79; P < 0.01) and H+ (r2 = 0.92; P < 0.01). In conclusion, during whole body exercise, group III/IV muscle afferents provide feedback to the CNS which, in turn, constrains motoneuronal output to the active skeletal muscle. This regulatory mechanism limits the exercise-induced intramuscular metabolic perturbation, preventing an abnormal homeostatic challenge and excessive peripheral fatigue.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity distinguishes hypersensitive esophagus from functional heartburn

Abstract

Background

Hypersensitive esophagus (HE) is defined by endoscopy-negative heartburn with a normal acid exposure time but positive symptom association probability (SAP) and/or symptom index (SI) on impedance–pH monitoring, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) responsiveness. Functional heartburn (FH) is distinguished by negative SAP/SI and PPI refractoriness. The clinical value of SAP and SI has been questioned. We aimed to investigate whether impairment of chemical clearance and of mucosal integrity, expressed by the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and the mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI), characterize HE independently of SAP and SI.

Methods

Impedance–pH tracings from PPI-responsive endoscopy-negative patients, 125 with nonerosive reflux disease and 108 with HE, distinguished by an abnormal and a normal acid exposure time, and from 70 patients with FH were retrospectively selected and blindly reviewed.

Results

The mean PSPW index and MNBI were significantly lower in nonerosive reflux disease (30 %, 1378 Ω) than in HE (51 %; 2274 Ω) and in both of them as compared with FH (76 %; 3445 Ω) (P = 0.0001). Both the PSPW index (adjusted odds ratio 0.863, P = 0.001) and the MNBI (adjusted odds ratio 0.998, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of HE; with their combined assessment, the area under the curve on receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.957. SAP and/or SI was positive in 67 of the 108 HE patients (62 %), whereas the PSPW index and/or MNBI was abnormal in 99 of the 108 HE patients (92 %; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions

HE is characterized by impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity, which explains the increased reflux perception. When SAP and SI afford uncertain results, the PSPW index and MNBI should be analyzed.



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A Six (6) Month Survey of Gross Pathological Conditions of Slaughtered Cattle at Yola Abattoir Adamawa State, Nigeria

2016-05-31T02-34-45Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Mohammed Baba Ardo, Shadrach Kevin Ndyakalah, Haruna Lawal.
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2014 to April, 2015 on 14,508 slaughtered cattle at Yola abattoir Adamawa State on Postmortem examination. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Contagious Bovine PleuroPneumonia (CBPP), Bovine Fasciolosis and Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) in slaughtered cattle according to sex and breeds. A regular visit was made to the Yola Abattoir at 6:00 AM Seven (7) times a week and this was done for Six (6) Months. A total of 14,508 slaughtered cattle were examined at postmortem and 3,418 (23.56%) cases were recorded; CBPP 898 (6.19%), Fasciolosis 1,100 (7.58%) and TB 1,420 (9.79%). There was Statistical significance (P


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Building operative care capacity in a resource limited setting: The Mongolian model of the expansion of sustainable laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Surgery

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Marijuana use is not associated with progression to advanced liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV coinfected women

Clinical Infectious Diseases

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Non-hematopoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin on lean mass and body weight regulation

Obesity

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Efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin in veterans with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 infection, compensated cirrhosis, and multiple comorbidities

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Dual-energy CT with iodine quantification in distinguishing between bland and neoplastic portal vein thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Clinical Radiology

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Successful retreatment of HCV in patients coinfected with HIV who failed 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir

Clinical Infectious Diseases

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Could the immune response in the sentinel lymph nodes of gastric cancer patients be the key to tailored surgery?

Surgery

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Serum level of trefoil factor 2 can predict the extent of gastric spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia in the H. pylori-infected gastric cancer relatives

Helicobacter

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Determinants of outcomes following resection for pancreatic cancer--A population-based study

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

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Incidence of neutropenia in patients receiving either nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or FOLFIRINOX as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma

Value in Health

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The Impact of maternal obesity and race/ethnicity on perinatal outcomes: Independent and joint effects

Obesity

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Nissen fundoplication for laryngopharyngeal reflux after patient selection using dual pH, full column impedance testing: A pilot study

Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology

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Ferric maltol therapy for iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Long-term extension data from a Phase 3 study

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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Impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity distinguishes hypersensitive esophagus from functional heartburn

Journal of Gastroenterology

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Long-term surveillance is necessary after operative resection for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

Surgery

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FGFR2 in gastric cancer: Protein overexpression predicts gene amplification and high H-index predicts poor survival

Modern Pathology

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Should oral contrast be omitted in patients with suspected appendicitis?

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

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Estimation of incidence of pancreatic cancer by state and by age group in the United States

Value in Health

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Cost-effectiveness comparison of prophylactic octreotide and pasireotide for prevention of fistula after pancreatic surgery

Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery

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Next-generation sequencing of matched primary and metastatic rectal adenocarcinomas demonstrates minimal mutation gain and concordance to colonic adenocarcinomas

Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Methotrexate induced chronic hepatotoxicity

2016-05-31T00-28-17Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Hemalatha Thiyagarajan, Seema P. Mohamed Ali, Karunai Kadhir Veluchamy.
55 year old male patient diagnosed to have psoriasis 2.5 years ago and was started on methotrexate 5 mg thrice weekly. Patient was symptomatically better and continued methotrexate without proper follow up. 2 months ago patient experienced abdominal pain and distension. Skin lesions worsened on discontinuing methotrexate but later subsided with treatment. 1 week ago, patient had abdominal pain, bleeding and ascites. Cumulative dose of methotrexate 1.8g; Liver function tests: total bilirubin- 2.0; direct - 1.0; platelet count: 58,000 cells/cu.mm; ascitic tap done and fresh frozen plasma was infused.


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Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report

2016-05-31T00-28-17Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Ravi Shankar Manchukonda, Chandrakantha Thippeswamy, Neha Krishnegowda, Narasimhamurthy Kalenahally Muthahanumaiah.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an immune complex mediated hypersensitivity complex that typically involves the skin and the mucous membranes. Various etiologic factors (e.g., infection, drugs and malignancies) have been implicated as causes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. However, as many as half of the cases are idiopathic. Bastuji and Roujeau proposed that the denomination of Stevens-Johnson syndrome should be used for a syndrome characterized by mucous membrane erosions and widespread small blisters that arise on erythematous or purpuric maculae that are different from classic targets. In this case report, a 6 year old girl who was administered a cough syrup (containing bromhexine, guaiphenesin, diphenhydramine and phenylephrine) and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid dispersible tablet for the treatment of cough developed pruritic skin eruptions all over the body along with painful erosions on the tongue, buccal mucosa, genital and anal mucosa. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome was made. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was identified as the culprit based on the temporal relationship between the drug administration and the appearance of the rashes and based on a number of SJS reports implicating amoxycillin and clavulanic acid having been published before. The cough syrup and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination tablets were immediately stopped. Symptomatic treatment was administered. The child improved and was later discharged. Causality assessment using Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale revealed that amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was a possible cause for the harmful cutaneous adverse reaction with a score of 4.


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Proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive necrotizing vasculitis induced by ciprofloxacin

2016-05-31T00-28-17Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Khalid Ahmed, Syeda Atia Qudsia, Syed Hani Abidi, Rabia Malik, Muhammad Awais, Abdul Rehman.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegeners), microscopic polyangitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis are commonly grouped together as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitides. Many drugs and infections can induce serologic positivity for ANCA, while a few can precipitate overt ANCA-positive vasculitis. Although fluoroquinolones have been reported to cause ANCA-negative leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV), fluoroquinolones are not known to induce proteinase 3-ANCA (PR3-ANCA)-positive vasculitis. Here, we present the case of a middle-aged man who developed severe headache, purpura on legs and numbness in hands and feet after taking ofloxacin for 5 days. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with ANCA-negative LCV and treated with steroids and immunosuppressants. Thirteen years later, he inadvertently received intravenous ciprofloxacin and developed severe headache and epistaxis. Serologic testing at that time revealed elevated titers of PR3-ANCA. Biopsy of nasal septum revealed a mixed mononuclear and polymorphonuclear infiltrate without evidence of granuloma formation. He was treated with steroids and immunosuppressive therapy. Over the next several years, he remained stable with residual hearing loss and nasal septal deformity. This case provides the first evidence for a PR3-ANCA-positive necrotizing vasculitis induced by ciprofloxacin.


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Phenytoin induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome: a case report

2016-05-31T00-28-17Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Yogesh Devaraj, Sathyanarayana Dasegowda Belagola, Ranga Swaroop Mukunda, Ravi Shankar Manchukonda, Puneetha Basavanaik, Aneesa K. Hasanabba, Priyanka Kumari.
DRESS syndrome (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a severe adverse drug reaction characterised by rash, fever, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement. Although the death rate can reach 10%, rapid diagnosis and prompt withdrawal of the offending drug is the key to limit morbidity and mortality. The potential role of corticosteroids remains controversial. We report a case of a 45-year-old male patient who suffered a head injury, for which he was prescribed phenytoin. Five weeks later he developed features of DRESS syndrome including facial and peri-orbital oedema, generalized erythematous, maculo-papular rash, conjunctivitis, inguinal lymphadenopathy, leucocytosis, eosinophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Skin biopsy revealed acanthosis and spongiosis of epidermis and dense inflammatory cell infiltrate comprising eosinophils and lymphocytes. In this case, causalty assessment using Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale showed that phenytoin was a probable cause for the adverse drug reaction (score-7). Phenytoin was immediately stopped and patient was treated with systemic corticosteroids. The patient improved dramatically within the next few days. Early recognition of symptoms of DRESS and immediate withdrawal of the offending drug followed by prompt treatment with corticosteroids and other supportive measures will ensure quick recovery and will avoid fatal outcomes.


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Steroid induced central serous retinopathy following follicular unit extraction in androgenic alopecia

2016-05-31T00-28-17Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Rakesh Tilak Raj, Rajnish Raj, Anuradha Raj.
Dermatologists for various conditions and procedures commonly use corticosteroids worldwide. The development of central serous retinopathy is a lesser known complication occurring in


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Lessons from non-canonical splicing

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.46

Authors: Christopher R. Sibley, Lorea Blazquez & Jernej Ule



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Regulatory elements: Putting enhancers into context

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.74

Author: Darren J. Burgess



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Update on the ACTG1-associated Baraitser–Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome

Baraitser–Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1. Recently, we characterized the large cohort of 41 patients presenting with this condition. Our series contained 34 patients with mutations in ACTB and only nine with ACTG1 mutations. Here, we report on seven unrelated patients with six mutations in ACTG1–four novel and two previously reported. Only one of seven patients was clinically diagnosed with this disorder and underwent ACTB/ACTG1 targeted sequencing, four patients were screened as a part of the large lissencephaly cohort and two were tested with exome sequencing. Retrospectively, facial features were compatible with the diagnosis but significantly milder than previously reported in four patients, and non-specific in one. The pattern of malformations of cortical development was highly similar in four of six patients with available MRI images and encompassed frontal predominant pachygyria merging with the posterior predominant band heterotopia. Two remaining patients showed mild involvement consistent with bilaterally simplified gyration over the frontal lobes. Taken together, we expand the clinical spectrum of the ACTG1-associated Baraitser–Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome demonstrating the mild end of the facial and brain manifestations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



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Δευτέρα, 30 Μαΐου 2016

Archaeological excavation of wild macaque stone tools

Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Michael Haslam, Lydia Luncz, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Tiago Falótico, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Michael Gumert




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Comparison of Wavelet Families for Mental Task Classification

2016-05-30T16-58-58Z
Source: The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences
Caglar Uyulan, Turker Tekin Erguzel.
Wavelet theory is a widely used feature extraction method for raw electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing. The nature of the EEG signal is non-stationary, therefore applying wavelet transform on EEG signals is a valuable process for extraction promising features. On the other hand, determining the proper wavelet family is a challenging step to get the best fitted features for high classification accuracy. In this paper, therefore, we focused on a comparative study of different Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) methods to find the most convenient wavelet function of wavelet families for a non-stationary EEG signal analysis to be used to classify mental tasks. For the classification process, four different mental tasks were selected to and we grouped each with another one to set dual tasked sets including all possible combinations. Feature extraction steps are performed using wavelet functions haar, coiflets (order 1), biorthogonal (order 6.8), reverse biorthogonal (order 6.8), daubechies (order 2) and, daubechies (order 4). Later, a specific feature reduction formula is applied to the extracted feature vector. Generated feature vector is then split into train and test data before the classification. Artificial neural network was used for classification of the extracted feature sets. From the result of the repeated analysis for each DWT methods, Coiflets performed relatively better compared to other wavelet families.


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Are family medicine residents physically active? And do they counsel their chronically ill patients about physical activity? A cross-sectional study among residents of the family medicine joint program, eastern province, Saudi Arabia

2016-05-30T09-42-12Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Malak Audah Al Shammari.
Background: Physical activity is a major factor in both preventing chronic illness and in controlling it in already diseased patients. It has been established that a physically active physician may be more likely to counsel patients about the benefits of physical activity and patients tend to adhere to exercise regimens when advised by a physician they think of as a role model. Objective: To determine the amount of physical activity the family medicines residents adhere to and to determine if family medicine residents practice what they counsel to their patients regarding physical activity. Materials and Methods: All family medicine residents in all of the training levels were recruited to take part in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) survey voluntarily. Levels of physical activity were divided into three categories: low, moderate, and high, according to the guidelines of data processing of the IPAQ. Section two of the survey assessed whether residents in fact counseled patients with chronic prevalent diseases (coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc.) about physical activity and the ranking of the most important health determinants according to them. Result: The sample size consisted of 80 participants, all residents of the program from R1 to R4. We have found that the majority >70% of them had low level of physical activity. The majority (96%) did counsel their patients about physical activity especially when the patient had diabetes. Conclusion: Although residents of the joint family medicine program of the eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were not, self-reportedly, physically active themselves, they were active in patient counseling regarding the importance of physical activity in achieving global health and well-being.


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Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep maps to a homozygous truncating mutation in AMPA receptor component FRRS1L



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Assessment of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. based on experiments in arthritic rat models and qualitative GC/MS analyses.

2016-05-30T06-00-19Z
Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Subhashis Paul, Sudeb Sarkar, Tanmoy Dutta, Soumen Bhattacharjee.
AIM: The principle objective of the study was to explore the anti-arthritic properties of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. flower in a rat model and to identify potential anti-inflammatory compounds derived from flower extracts. The synergistic role played by a combination of Acmella uliginosa flower and Aloe vera gel crude extracts was also investigated. METHOD: Male Wister rats induced with Freunds Complete Adjuvant (FCA) were used as a disease model of arthritic paw swelling. There were three experimental and two control groups each consisting of 5 rats. Paw circumference and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the role of the flower extracts in disease amelioration through a feeding schedule spanning 21 days. GC/MS analyses were performed to search for the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds in the ethanolic and n-hexane solvent extracts of the flower. RESULTS: As a visual cue to the experimental outcomes, FCA-induced paw swelling decreased to the normal level; and haemoglobin, serum protein, and albumin levels were significantly increased in the treated animals. The creatinine level was estimated to be normal in the experimental rats after the treatment. The combination of Acmella uliginosa and Aloe vera showed the best recovery potential in all the studied parameters, confirming the synergistic efficacy of the herbal formulation. GC/MS analyses revealed the presence of at least 5 anti-inflammatory compounds including 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-,phenylmethyl ester, astaxanthin, à-N-Normethadol, fenretinide, that have reported anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic properties. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that the crude flower homogenate of Acmella uliginosa contains potential anti-inflammatory compounds which could be used as an anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic medication.


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Prevalence of needle stick injuries among paramedical staff: a cross sectional study at a tertiary level hospital in Indore

2016-05-30T05-26-21Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Chakresh Jain, BhagwanWaskel, S. B. Bansal, Mahesh Jesani.
Background: Paramedical staff is involved in treating and nursing patients always face great risk of acquiring infections like HBV, HCV & HIV by their daily work caring for others. Present study was conducted among paramedical staff at a tertiary level hospital in Indore. The objective was to assess the magnitude of needle stick injuries and to assess the attitude and knowledge towards safety for needle stick injuries (NSI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in MGM Medical College & associated MY Hospital, Indore from September 2014 to December 2014. Randomly selected 200 paramedical staff which includes Nursing & laboratory technicians was interviewed through a well-structured and administered questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using MS Excel sheets & SPSS. Results: Among 200 staff 50 (25%) admitted that sometimes they tried to re-sheath the needle after administrating It. 64 (32%) have encountered needle stick injury during the last 12 months. 89% staff reports their injuries to doctors 72%, matron 9% and 8% discussed it with their coworker. Conclusions: Paramedical staffs working in MGM Medical College and associated Hospital Indore are frequently exposed to NSI & therefore blood borne infections. NSIs were highly prevalent in these staff therefore preventive education programs should be given to them periodically to increase their awareness regarding the universal precautions. There should be a surveillance system and a centre for managing injured persons.


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Prevalence of depression and its associated factors among medical students of a private medical college in south India

2016-05-30T05-26-21Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Ranu Rawat, Santosh Kumar, Manju L..
Background: Medical students are repeatedly exposed to a variety of stresses which can lead to development of depression. It is of paramount importance to detect this morbidity at the earliest and take timely corrective actions. This research intends to identify the prevalence, severity and associated factors of depression among the medical students of a private Medical College in Trivandrum. Methods: A cross sectional study was done among a total of 300 MBBS students selected randomly from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year. A self-administered questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), based on PRIME-MD Today, was used to make a provisional diagnosis of depression and its severity. Additional Questions were also included to find out the factors associated with depression. Results: This research found that, out of 300 students, 42% had no depression while 43%, 12% and 3% had mild, moderate and severe depression respectively. Factors such as year of study, presence of financial stress, presence of a romantic partner, participation in extra-curricular activities, substance abuse, family history of depression, family problems and health problems were found to have a significant association with presence of depression (p0.05). Conclusions: Depression was found to be high among medical students. It has been stated that young doctors should be given the same care and support that we expect them to provide to their patients. Therefore counselling services should be provided at medical colleges for early detection and treatment of depression.


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A cross sectional study to find out the efficacy of prevention of parent to child transmission services providing centers of Indore division

2016-05-30T05-26-21Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Chakresh Jain, A.K.Khatri, Veena Yesikar, Sanjay Dixit, Shailesh Rai.
Background: The HIV and AIDS epidemic is not just a public health concern, but a major socio-economic problem in India as it is in other parts of the world. In India PPTCT interventions under NACP was started in2002, using single dose NVP prophylaxis For HIV positive pregnant women during labour & also for her new born child immediately after birth. The objective of the study was to find out the proportion of HIV among ANC registered & the efficacy of PPTCT by determining seroconversion rate in children born to HIV positive mothers during study period. Methods: All PPTCT Services providing centres located in four districts of Indore division were taken in study. The required information (data of 1st January to 31st December 2014) was collected through pre-designed semi structured questionnaire undertaken nodal in charge, counselling staff/ laboratory technicians of each centre during the study period of January to October 2015. The data collected was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysis was done by SPSS. Results: The number of HIV positive registered ANC cases & positivity rate among them, both were highest at medical college level as they are catering highest numbers of ANC OPDs & referral too while it is lowest at CHCs level. Among total 67 positive pregnant women, two babies died before 6 weeks. Out of 65 babies tested & 2(3%) babies were found positive. Conclusions: There has been an improvement in number of pregnant women undergoing HIV testing with appropriate pre-test & post-test counselling over years but ANC load in hospitals of urban areas, were higher in comparison to rural, so up gradations of hospitals at primary level should be done.


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Metastasis: ignorance can be a curse

2016-05-30T05-11-41Z
Source: Case Study and Case Report
Abha Rani, Neetha Mellekatte Chandrashekarappa, Priya Nagur Karibasappa, Shiva bharani Karanam.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by a high tendency for locally aggressive growth, early metastasis to neck lymph nodes, and variability in tumor behavior after surgical intervention. Despite advances in the treatment, the survival of patients with SCC hasnt significantly improved over several decades. The presence of lymph node metastasis directly affects the prognosis of the cancer. The control of lymph node metastasis, thus becomes the prime importance in achieving a high survival rate. Decisions regarding the elective and therapeutic management of lymph node metastases are made mainly on clinical grounds. In addition to decrease in the recurrence rate in the radically dissected neck, only 34% patients developed contralateral nodes. And only 4% recurrences were found in the patients having had the combined treatment or irradiation only. The present case shows metastatic lymph nodes on the contralateral side following radical neck dissection about 1.2 years ago.


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A study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of exclusive breast feeding among primi mothers of healthy term neonates in a tertiary care hospital and predictors of failure of establishment of exclusive breast feeding in first six months

2016-05-30T03-50-19Z
Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Altaf Naseem, Naila Mazher.
Background: In India about 2.4 million children die each year of which two thirds are associated with infant feeding practices which are in appropriate. Thirteen percent reduction in infant mortality rate has been estimated with breast feeding. Methods: This study is a cross sectional questionnaire based study done in the setting of pediatric outpatient department at Owaisi hospital and research center Hyderabad. It was carried out over a duration of two years from 2013 to 2015. Results: Majority of mothers received antenatal counselling regarding benefits and management of breast feeding. Conclusions: Majority of the mothers had good knowledge; attitude and practices are still prevalent in the community which needs to be addressed.


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Prepulse inhibition deficits in women with PTSD

Abstract

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an automatic and preattentive process, whereby a weak stimulus attenuates responding to a sudden and intense startle stimulus. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor filtering, which is conceptualized as a mechanism that facilitates processing of an initial stimulus and is protective from interruption by a later response. Impaired PPI has been found in (a) healthy women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and (b) individuals with types of psychopathology characterized by difficulty suppressing and filtering sensory, motor, or cognitive information. In the current study, 47 trauma-exposed women with or without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed a PPI session during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the early follicular phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both low, and the midluteal phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both high. Startle stimuli were 100 dB white noise bursts presented for 50 ms, and prepulses were 70 dB white noise bursts presented for 20 ms that preceded the startle stimuli by 120 ms. Women with PTSD showed deficits in PPI relative to the healthy trauma-exposed participants. Menstrual phase had no effect on PPI. These results provide empirical support for individuals with PTSD having difficulty with sensorimotor filtering. The potential utility of PPI as a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) phenotype is discussed.



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Comparison of efficacy and outcome of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy versus plasmapheresis in patients with Gullian Barre syndrome

2016-05-30T02-37-55Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Archana Sonawale, Chetan Kalal.
Background: Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) often described as Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an ascending neuropathy involving demyelination of peripheral nerves. Very few studies on GBS have been conducted in Indian scenario in recent years. Taking into account this background, we undertook this study to have better outlook to the spectrum of disease and outcome. The objective was to study the patients clinical profile, outcome of the disease and response to plasmapheresis (PP) versus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in a case of GBS. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. In this study 34 consecutive patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who gave a written informed consent were recruited over a period of 2 years. A detailed history and physical examination was carried out in every patient. History of preceding illnesses and clinical symptoms were recorded. End points of the study were either death during hospital stay or discharge from the hospital, whichever was early. Results: Outcome in the present study was assessed using the modified Barthel index and modified Rankins scale. In IVIG group both MRS and MBS showed statistically favourable outcome, at the end of study (p


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Κυριακή, 29 Μαΐου 2016

Efficacy of Biofeedback and Precautenous Tibial Nerve Stimulation on Functional Faecal Incontinence in Children.

2016-05-29T20-30-29Z
Source: International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research
mohamed serag Mahgoub, Abdkader Mohamed.
studying the effect of precautenious tibial nerve stimulation and biofeedback on functional faecal defecation and comparing the result with traditional physical therapy program group.


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Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Balsam Apple (Mormodica balsamina)

2016-05-29T10-30-44Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Maryam Mainasara Mikailu, Khalifa Muhammad Aljameel, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi, Nasiru Muhammad, Ibrahim Abubakar Anka.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded levels of Mormodica balsamina on performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The animals were fed diets containing 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% inclusion levels of M. balsamina in a completely randomized experimental design replicated five times. Data were collected for 12 consecutive weeks on feed intake and live weight gain. At the end of the feeding trial, three (3) animals were selected for carcass evaluation. With the exception of feed conversion ratio and final weight gain, results indicated no significant difference between the treatments on all performance parameters (P>0.05), Carcass evaluation shows significant effect on weight of liver and lungs (P


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Variations in Inpatient Rehabilitation Functional Outcomes Across Centers in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) Study and the Influence of Demographics and Injury Severity on Patient Outcomes

Publication date: Available online 28 May 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Marie N. Dahdah, Sunni Barnes, Buros Amy, Rosemary Dubiel, Cynthia Dunklin, Librada Callender, Caryn Harper, Amy Wilson, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Thomas Bergquist, Mark Sherer, Gale Whiteneck, Christopher Pretz, Rodney D. Vanderploeg, Shahid Shafi
ObjectiveTo compare patient functional outcomes across TBIMS rehabilitation centers using an enhanced statistical model and to determine factors that influence those outcomes.SettingTraumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) Centers.ParticipantsTBI patients admitted to 19 TBIMS rehabilitation centers from 2003 to 2012 (Total N = 5,505).DesignMulticenter observational cohort study.Main Outcome MeasuresFunctional outcomes of patients with TBI.ResultsIndividuals with lower functional status at the time of admission, longer duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and higher burden of medical comorbidities continued to have worse functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-year follow-up, whereas those who were employed at the time of injury had better outcomes at both time periods. Risk-adjusted patient functional outcomes for patients in most TBIMS centers were consistent with previous research. However, there were wide performance differences for a few centers even after using more recently collected data, improving upon the regression models by adding predictors known to influence functional outcomes, and employing bootstrapping to eliminate confounds.ConclusionsSpecific patient, injury, and clinical factors are associated with differences in functional outcomes within and across TBIMS rehabilitation centers. However, these factors did not explain all the variance in patient outcomes suggesting a role of some other predictors that remain unknown.



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EFFECTS OF SLOW DEEP BREATHING EXERCISE ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE FOR WORKERS EXPOSED TO NOISE IN PLASTIC INDUSTRY

2016-05-29T06-49-32Z
Source: International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research
Amira Mohamed Afify.
Background and purpose: Noise is considered as a nonspecific biological stressor that is associated with hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the slow deep breathing (SDB) exercise on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP respectively), and heart rate (HR) for workers in plastic industry. Subjects: forty male plastic factory workers, age range between 23-35 years old volunteered in this study. Procedures: Assessment of BP and HR took place in two consecutive visits over 2 weeks .During first visit (V1) BP and HR of 40 volunteers were assessed at beginning of their shift and the end of shift (4 p.m.). Thereafter volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups SDB and control groups (n= 20 each). In second visit (V2), volunteers in both groups were assessed at the beginning of their shift. Volunteers in SDB group were taught to perform SDB exercise. Volunteers in control group were not given any instruction or exercises. BP and HR of both groups were reassessed at end of shift. Results: At first visit post shift systolic BP, and HR were significantly different than pre-shift. In second visit the within group difference showed significant increase in control group, while no significant difference in SDB group in SBP and HR. Between groups comparison showed that SDB group had improvement SBP and HR compared to control group. Conclusion: This study showed that SDB exercise can prevent increased SBP & HR in noise- exposed factories workers.


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Frequent Flyers: Chest pains

See all of Lenwood Brown's comics.



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Σάββατο, 28 Μαΐου 2016

Efficacy of daclatasvir/asunaprevir according to resistance-associated variants in chronic hepatitis C with genotype 1

Abstract

Background

The present study explored the treatment outcome of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) therapy combining oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) including liver cirrhosis according to resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in NS3/NS5A region.

Methods

Overall, 641 patients enrolled in Japan with HCV-1b received DCV and ASV for 24 weeks. Baseline drug-resistant mutations L31F/I/M/V, Q54H, P58S, A92K, and Y93H in the HCV NS5A region and V36A, T54A/S, Q80K/L/R, R155K/T/Q, A156S/V/T, and D168A/E/H/T/V in the HCV NS3/4A region were assessed by direct sequencing.

Results

Overall, 86.9 % (543/625) of patients had SVR12, which was significantly higher in NS5A 93Y (wild) (88.3 %) compared with NS5A 93H at baseline (48.0 %), indicating the SVR12 rate was significantly lower in patients with 93H mutations. Additionally, 66.7 % (18/27) of patients with prior triple therapy including simeprevir (SMV) failure had virological failure. The virological failure rate of DCV/ASV therapy after SMV failure was significantly higher in those with preexisting NS3/4A 168 substitutions compared with without substitutions at baseline [84.2 % (16/19) vs. 28.6 % (2/7), p = 0.014]. The number of patients with multiple RAVs or deletions in NS5A increased from 0 to 85 % in failed patients. Alanine aminotransferase elevation was a frequent adverse event causing discontinuation of DCV/ASV therapy, although 87.5 % (14/16) patients achieved SVR12, subsequently.

Conclusions

History of SMV therapy and pre-existing NS5A Y93H were associated with virological failure of DCV/ASV therapy, resulting in the emergence of multiple RAVs. Patients with RAVs at baseline should be assessed to optimize future DAA therapies.



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Mechanisms of Change in the ARC Organizational Strategy: Increasing Mental Health Clinicians’ EBP Adoption Through Improved Organizational Culture and Capacity

Abstract

The development of efficient and scalable implementation strategies in mental health is restricted by poor understanding of the change mechanisms that increase clinicians' evidence-based practice (EBP) adoption. This study tests the cross-level change mechanisms that link an empirically-supported organizational strategy for supporting implementation (labeled ARC for Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity) to mental health clinicians' EBP adoption and use. Four hundred seventy-five mental health clinicians in 14 children's mental health agencies were randomly assigned to the ARC intervention or a control condition. Measures of organizational culture, clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers were collected before, during, and upon completion of the three-year ARC intervention. EBP adoption and use were assessed at 12-month follow-up. Multilevel mediation analyses tested changes in organizational culture, clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers as linking mechanisms explaining the effects of ARC on clinicians' EBP adoption and use. ARC increased clinicians' EBP adoption (OR = 3.19, p = .003) and use (81 vs. 56 %, d = .79, p = .003) at 12-month follow-up. These effects were mediated by improvement in organizational proficiency culture leading to increased clinician intentions to adopt EBPs and by reduced job-related EBP barriers. A combined mediation analysis indicated the organizational culture-EBP intentions mechanism was the primary carrier of ARC's effects on clinicians' EBP adoption and use. ARC increases clinicians' EBP adoption and use by creating proficient organizational cultures that increase clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs.



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The Healthcare Needs of Latinos with Serious Mental Illness and the Potential of Peer Navigators

Abstract

Latinos with serious mental illness get sick and die much younger than other adults. In this paper, we review findings of a community based participatory research project meant to identify important healthcare needs, barriers to these needs, solutions to the barriers, and the promise of peer navigators as a solution. Findings from focus groups reflected general concerns of people with mental illness (e.g., insurance, engagement, accessibility) and Latinos with serious mental illness (e.g., immigration, language, and family). Feedback and analyses especially focused on the potential of peer navigators. Implications of these findings for integrated care of Latinos with serious mental illness are discussed.



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Characterization and fine mapping of osh15 ( t ), a novel dwarf mutant gene in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

Abstract

Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits of plant architecture, and also affects grain yield in rice. In this study, we obtained a novel dwarf rice mutant of japonica variety Shennong9816, designated Shennong9816d. Compared with wild-type, the Shennong9816d plant height was significantly reduced, and the tiller number significantly increased. Additionally, the mutant yield component, and the number of large and small vascular bundles were significantly decreased compared with wild-type. Genetic analysis indicated that the Shennong9816d dwarf phenotype was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene, while the plant was shown to be sensitive to gibberellic acid. Using a large F2 population derived from a cross between Shennong9816d and the indica rice variety Habataki, the osh15(t) gene was fine mapped between RM20891 and RM20898, within a physical distance of 73.78 kb. Sequencing analysis showed that Shennong9816d carries a 1 bp mutation and a 30 bp insertion in the OSH15 region. These results suggest that osh15(t) is a novel allelic mutant originally derived from japonica variety Shennong9816, which may be useful for introducing the semi-dwarf phenotype to improve plant architecture in rice breeding practice.



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A Dilemma in Stroke Application: Standard or Modified Motor Unit Number Index?

The recent advent of motor unit number index (MUNIX) technique has provided a convenient and clinically applicable approach to estimating motor unit population changes in a muscle (Nandedkar et al., 2004, 2010). It uses compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and surface electromyogram (EMG) at different voluntary contraction levels to produce an index associated with motor unit number changes in the muscle. Compared with laborious motor unit number estimation (MUNE) techniques, the MUNIX protocol is easy and quick to implement and can minimize discomforts caused by electrical stimuli.

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Recovery function of somatosensory evoked brain response in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a magnetoencephalographic study

Brain plasticity refers to the brain's ability to reorganize itself throughout life, which can occur according to peripheral and central conditions (Pascual-Leone et al., 2005). For example, plastic changes in the brain have been observed following peripheral lesions (Mohanty et al., 2015; Navarro et al., 2007), as well as lesions in the central nervous system (Isa and Nishimura, 2014; Nudo, 2007). These changes can be adaptive or maladaptive, but the outcome cannot be predicted based on the location of the primary lesion (Nava et al., 2011).

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Detecting epileptiform activity from deeper brain regions in spatially filtered MEG data

It is well known that signals from deep sources, such as mesial temporal epileptic foci, are often barely visible in MEG and EEG (Magneto-/Electro-encephalography) recordings. Here we show in two patients how spatial filtering, using a beamforming technique, can be used to identify epileptiform activity. In these patients, this procedure resulted in detection of hippocampal interictal epileptiform discharges, even though these discharges were poorly discernible by visual inspection of the raw MEG time series.

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Hospice Use for Infants With Life-Threatening Health Conditions, 2007 to 2010

Infant deaths account for a majority of all pediatric deaths. However, little is known about the factors that influence parents to use hospice care for their infant with a life-threatening health condition.

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Spatio-temporal expression of Sox genes in murine palatogenesis

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Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Momoko Waranabe, Katsushige Kawasaki, Maiko Kawasaki, Thantrira Portaveetus, Shelly Oommen, James Blackburn, Takahiro Nagai, Atsushi Kitatmura, Atsushi Nishikawa, Yasumitsu Kodama, Ritsuo Takagi, Takeyasu Maeda, Paul T. Sharpe, Atsushi Ohazama
Members of the Sox gene family play critical roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen Sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18 and 21) during murine palatogenesis from initiation to fusion of the palatal shelves above the dorsal side of the tongue. At palatal shelf initiation (E12.5), the localized expression of six Sox genes (Sox2, 5, 6, 9, 12 and 13) was observed in the shelves, whereas Sox4 and Sox11 showed ubiquitious expression. During the down-growth of palatal shelves (E13.5), Sox4, Sox5, and Sox9 exhibited restricted expression to the interior side of the palatal shelves facing the tongue. Following elevation of the palatal shelves (E14.5), Sox2, Sox11 and Sox21 expression was present in the midline epithelial seam. We thus identify dynamic spatio-temporal expression of Sox gene family during the process of palatogenesis.



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Factors Associated with Recurrent Falls in Individuals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury – a Multi-Center Study

Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Vivien Jørgensen, Emelie Butler Forslund, Erika Franzén, Arve Opheim, Åke Seiger, Agneta Ståhle, Claes Hultling, Johan K. Stanghelle, Kerstin Wahman, Kirsti Skavberg Roaldsen
ObjectiveTo identify factors associated with recurrent falls in individuals with traumatic SCI.DesignCross-sectional multi-center study.SettingTwo specialized Rehabilitation Centers in EuropeParticipantsIncluded: individuals with traumatic SCI ≥1 year post-injury, ≥ 18 years of age. Excluded: individuals with motor complete injuries above C5 or below L5. Participants were consecutively recruited at regular follow-up. Totally 224 individuals (151 wheelchair users, 73 ambulatory), 77% men, mean age 50 (SD 15) years, median 15 (range 1-56) years since injury were included.InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome MeasurePrimary outcome was factors associated with recurrent falls (defined as low frequent [0-2] or recurrent [>2]), the previous year. Independent variables were demographic data, wheelchair user or ambulatory, work, health-related quality of life, risk willingness, alcohol consumption, ability to get up from the ground, and exercise habits.ResultsFifty percent reported recurrent falls. In the final multiple logistic regression model, ambulation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-5.37), ability to get up from the ground (OR= 2.22, 95% CI= 1.21-4.10),) and regular exercise (OR= 1.86, 95% CI= 1.05-3.31), were associated with recurrent falls (p≤0.05), and with increasing age the OR decreased (OR= 0.97, 95% CI= 0.95-0.99).ConclusionIndividuals with SCI should be considered at risk of recurrent falls, and thereby at risk of fall-related injuries. Fall prevention programs should be focused on ambulatory, younger and more active individuals who had the highest risks for recurrent falls.



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Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies – a molecular insight into the white matter pathology

ABSTRACT

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect proper formation of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system. They are characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable intellectual disability. In the past various classification systems for HLDs have been used, based on imaging findings, clinical manifestation, and organelle-specific disorders. Here we present a molecular insight into HLDs based on a defect in specific gene engaged in myelination. We discuss recent findings on pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and imaging related to these disorders. We focus on HLDs that are in use in differential diagnostics of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), with a special emphasis on Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked condition with delayed myelination due to thyroid transport disturbances. On the background of previously published patients we describe a proband initially considered as presenting with a severe PMD, whose diagnosis of AHDS due to a novel nonsense SLC16A2 mutation unravelled two previously undiagnosed generations of affected males who died in infancy from unexplained reasons. Since AHDS is found to be a relatively frequent cause of X-linked intellectual disability, we emphasize the need for determining the whole thyroid profile especially in hypotonic males with a delay of psychomotor development.

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Improved diagnostic yield of neuromuscular disorders applying clinical exome sequencing in patients arising from a consanguineous population

ABSTRACT

Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) include a broad range of disorders affecting muscles, nerves and neuromuscular junctions. Their overlapping phenotypes and heterogeneous genetic nature have created challenges in diagnosis which calls for the implementation of massive parallel sequencing as a candidate strategy to increase the diagnostic yield. In this study, total of 45 patients, mostly offspring of consanguineous marriages were examined using whole exome sequencing. Data analysis was performed to identify the most probable pathogenic rare variants in known NMD genes which led to identification of causal variants for 33 out of 45 patients (73.3%) in the following known genes: CAPN3, Col6A1, Col6A3, DMD, DYSF, FHL1, GJB1, ISPD, LAMA2, LMNA, PLEC1, RYR1, SGCA, SGCB, SYNE1, TNNT1 and 22 novel pathogenic variants were detected. Today, the advantage of whole exome sequencing in clinical diagnostic strategies of heterogeneous disorders is clear. In this cohort, a diagnostic yield of 73.3% was achieved which is quite high compared to the overall reported diagnostic yield of 25 to 50%. This could be explained by the consanguineous background of these patients and is another strong advantage of offering clinical exome sequencing in diagnostic laboratories, especially in populations with high rate of consanguinity.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

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The relation of psychological and sociodemographic variables to medication adherence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a cross-sectional study in Greece

2016-05-28T03-33-00Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
Paraskevi Theofilou.
Several studies have shown that non- adherence is a common and increasing problem regarding the individuals with chronic illnesses, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of psychological and sociodemographic variables on medication adherence among patients with COPD. A sample of 177 participants was recruited from three General Hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of COPD patients. Measurements were conducted with the following instruments: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). The results indicated that medication adherence was associated positively with the dimensions of internal health locus of control and doctors, measured by MHLC questionnaire. It was also related negatively to depression, measured by CES-D scale. The present study demonstrates the importance of depression in understanding medication adherence of COPD patients as well as the contribution of heath beliefs.


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Isolation Associations of Exercise Intensity on Inflammation: Does Engaging in Moderate or Vigorous Intensity Exercise in Isolation have an Influence on Inflammation?

2016-05-28T03-33-00Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
Paul D. Loprinzi, Ovuokerie Addoh, Eveleen Sng.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether engaging in certain physical activity intensity levels in isolation (e.g., only vigorous exercise) are associated with C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods: Data were extracted from the 1999-2006 NHANES (7,564 adults; 18-50 yrs). CRP was assessed from a blood sample and participants reported whether or not they engaged in moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results: After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity and body mass index, when compared to those who engaged in MVPA, those who engaged in only MPA (βadjusted=0.08; 95% CI: 0.04-0.12; p


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Arab-Jewish gap in life expectancy in Israel

Background: Studies about the health status of ethnic minorities in the Middle East are rare. This article examines changes in the life expectancy gap during 1970–2010 between the Arab–Palestinian minority and the Jewish majority in Israel, a persistent gap that has widened over the last 20 years. It examines the gap in a period over which the minority group was undergoing an epidemiological transition and demonstrates consequences of the transition on changes in the main causes of death contributing to the life expectancy gap. Methods: Decomposition methods estimate the contribution of specific age groups and causes of death to the total gap in life expectancy at any given year and changes in these contributions over the studied period. Results: The contribution of mortality differentials at ages <45 years to the Arab–Jewish gap in life expectancy declined while that of differentials at ages >45 has been gradually growing reaching >70% of the total gap. For both males and females, trends in cancer and diabetes mortality differentials contributed to widening the gap among the elderly. Trends in heart mortality lead to increasing the gap among males but to decreasing it among females. Conclusions: While differences in infant and child mortality have declined, old-age (>45) mortality differentials have emerged and have been gradually widening. These findings calls for a special attention to the various factors responsible for the widening mortality gap including social inequality between Arabs and Jews and higher levels of smoking and obesity among the Arab population.



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Effects of small incentives on survey response fractions: randomised comparisons in national alcohol surveys conducted in New Zealand

We experimentally evaluate inexpensive interventions to increase response fractions in two alcohol surveys. Residents on the New Zealand General and Māori electoral rolls were randomized to receive a survey pack with or without an offer of entry to a $500 prize draw. Subsequent randomization of sample members who did not initially respond allowed estimation of effects of offering a $5 donation to charity as an incentive to respond. Offering prize draw entry did not significantly increase responses in either population. Contrary to expectation, promising a $5 donation to non-respondents reduced subsequent responding in the group previously offered the prize draw incentive.



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European Public Health News * EUPHA presidents column * EUPHA office column * Message from the WHO Regional Director for Europe * Message from Vytenis Andriukaitis, EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety * 9th European Public Health Conference--'All for Health--Health for All



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What is generated and what is used: a description of public health research output and citation

The aim of this short report was to describe the output and citation rates of public health. Data-based publications and literature reviews from the year 2008, and their 5-year citation rates were extracted from 10 randomly selected public health journals. In total, 86.2% of publications were descriptive/epidemiological studies, 56.8% used cross-sectional (56.8%) designs and 77.8% were classified as research translation stage 2. Reviews and publications describing randomized controlled trials were the most highly cited, but were infrequently published. Strategies to address the discordance between public health research output and research citation may improve the impact of public health research.



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Inevitable? Doping attitudes among Berliners in 2011: the role of socialist state socialisation and athlete experience

To design effective and commonly accepted public health policies against performance-enhancing drugs (PED), it is important to understand general population attitudes. This article elicits PED attitudes in the Berlin population and compares response rates of former athletes (N = 496) with those of non-athletes (N = 1686). In addition, exploiting the natural experiment of the division of Germany, by comparing East (N = 687) to West Berliners (N = 1315), the article studies the long-term impact of state socialisation on PED attitudes. Former West German amateur athletes are a statistically significant 6ppt more likely to believe that athletes can be successful without doping. Former GDR amateur athletes are 8ppt more likely to believe that doping is inevitable in professional sports.



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Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors.



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