Τετάρτη, 11 Απριλίου 2018

Microwear textures of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus molars in relation to paleoenvironment and diet

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Publication date: June 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 119
Author(s): Alexandria Peterson, Elicia F. Abella, Frederick E. Grine, Mark F. Teaford, Peter S. Ungar
The importance of diet in primate ecology has motivated the use of a variety of methods to reconstruct dietary habits of extinct hominin taxa. Dental microwear is one such approach that preserves evidence from consumed food items. This study is based on 44 specimens of Australopithecus africanus from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and 66 specimens of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Drimolen. These samples enable examination of potential differences between the two assemblages of A. africanus, and among the various assemblages of P. robustus in relation to the paleoenvironmental reconstructions that have been proffered for each fossil site. Sixteen microwear texture variables were recorded for each specimen from digital elevation models generated using a white-light confocal profiler. Only two of these differ significantly between the Makapansgat and Sterkfontein samples of A. africanus. None of the microwear texture variables differs significantly among the samples of P. robustus. On the other hand, P. robustus has significantly higher values than A. africanus for 11 variables related to feature complexity, size, and depth; P. robustus exhibits rougher surfaces that comprise larger, deeper features. In contrast, A. africanus has smoother, simpler wear surfaces with smaller, shallower and more anisotropic features. As for possible habitat differences among the various sites, only a relatively small number of subtle differences are evident between the specimens of A. africanus from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and there are none among the specimens of P. robustus from various deposits. As such, it is reasonable to conclude that, while subtle differences in microwear textures may reflect differences in background habitats, the wear fabric differences between P. robustus and A. africanus are most reasonably interpreted as having been driven by dietary differences.



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Using modern human cortical bone distribution to test the systemic robusticity hypothesis

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Publication date: June 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 119
Author(s): Karen L. Baab, Lynn E. Copes, Devin L. Ward, Nora Wells, Frederick E. Grine
The systemic robusticity hypothesis links the thickness of cortical bone in both the cranium and limb bones. This hypothesis posits that thick cortical bone is in part a systemic response to circulating hormones, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone, possibly related to physical activity or cold climates. Although this hypothesis has gained popular traction, only rarely has robusticity of the cranium and postcranial skeleton been considered jointly. We acquired computed tomographic scans from associated crania, femora and humeri from single individuals representing 11 populations in Africa and North America (n = 228). Cortical thickness in the parietal, frontal and occipital bones and cortical bone area in limb bone diaphyses were analyzed using correlation, multiple regression and general linear models to test the hypothesis. Absolute thickness values from the crania were not correlated with cortical bone area of the femur or humerus, which is at odds with the systemic robusticity hypothesis. However, measures of cortical bone scaled by total vault thickness and limb cross-sectional area were positively correlated between the cranium and postcranium. When accounting for a range of potential confounding variables, including sex, age and body mass, variation in relative postcranial cortical bone area explained ∼20% of variation in the proportion of cortical cranial bone thickness. While these findings provide limited support for the systemic robusticity hypothesis, cranial cortical thickness did not track climate or physical activity across populations. Thus, some of the variation in cranial cortical bone thickness in modern humans is attributable to systemic effects, but the driving force behind this effect remains obscure. Moreover, neither absolute nor proportional measures of cranial cortical bone thickness are positively correlated with total cranial bone thickness, complicating the extrapolation of these findings to extinct species where only cranial vault thickness has been measured.



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Challenges in inbreeding estimation of large populations based on Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle pedigree

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate observed and future inbreeding level in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle population. In total, over 9.8 mln animals were used in the analysis coming from the pedigree of Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. Inbreeding level, as an average per birth year, was estimated with the method accounting for missing parent information with the assumption of year 1950 as the base year of the population. If an animal had no ancestral records, an average inbreeding level from its birth year was assigned. Twice the average inbreeding level served as relatedness of the animal to the population, which enabled estimation of inbreeding in its offspring. The future inbreeding of potential offspring was estimated as an average of animals (bulls and cows) available for mating in a certain year. It was observed that 30–50% of animals born between 1985 and 2015 had no relevant ancestral information, which is caused by a high number of new animals and/or entire farms entering the national milk recordings. For the year 2015, the observed inbreeding level was 3.30%, which was more than twice the inbreeding with the classical approach (without missing parent information) and higher by 0.4% than the future inbreeding. The average increase of inbreeding in years 2010–2015 was 0.10%, which is similar to other countries monitored by World Holstein-Friesian Federation. However, the values might be underestimated due to low pedigree completeness. The estimates of future inbreeding suggested that observed inbreeding could be even lower and also increase slower, which indicates a constant need to monitor rate of increase in inbreeding over time. The most important aspect of presented results is the necessity to advise individual farmers to keep precise recordings of the matings on their farm in order to improve the pedigree completeness of Polish Holstein-Friesian and to use suitable mating programs to avoid too rapid growth of inbreeding.



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Minimally invasive esophagectomy attenuates the postoperative inflammatory response and improves survival compared with open esophagectomy in patients with esophageal cancer: a propensity score matched analysis

Abstract

Background

Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for patients with esophageal cancer has recently spread worldwide. However, whether MIE is less invasive has not yet been fully evaluated.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed data from 551 patients who underwent curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer from 2005 to 2014: 145 patients underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) and 406 patients underwent open transthoracic esophagectomy (OE). We compared postoperative CRP levels with propensity score matching. In addition, long-term outcomes were also compared between the groups.

Results

Operative time was significantly longer, and intraoperative blood loss was significantly less in the MIE group compared with the OE group. Although the incidence of postoperative complications was similar between the 2 groups, postoperative serum CRP levels during the first 3 and 5 postoperative days and peak postoperative CRP levels were significantly lower after MIE versus OE (MIE vs. OE, median, 15.21 vs. 19.50 mg/dl; P < 0.001). The MIE group had significantly more favorable disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates than the OE group (3-year DFS rate, 81.7 vs. 69.3%, log-rank P = 0.021; 3-year OS rate, 89.9 vs. 79.2%, log-rank P = 0.007). MIE was an independent prognostic factor for patients with esophageal cancer. The incidence of regional lymph node recurrence was lower in the MIE group.

Conclusions

MIE significantly attenuated postoperative serum CRP levels compared with OE. MIE could contribute to improved survival.



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Proficiency-based preparation significantly improves FES certification performance

Abstract

Background

The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) certification has recently been mandated by the American Board of Surgery but best methods for preparing for the exam are lacking. Our previous work demonstrated a 40% pass rate for PGY5 residents in our program. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a proficiency-based skills and cognitive curriculum for FES certification.

Methods

Residents who agreed to participate (n = 15) underwent an orientation session, followed by skills pre-testing using three previously described models (Trus, Operation targeting task, and Kyoto) as well as the actual FES skills exam (vouchers provided by the FES committee). Participants then trained to proficiency on all three models for the skills curriculum and completed the FES online didactic material for the cognitive curriculum. Finally, participants post-tested on the models and took the actual FES certification exam. Values are mean ± SD; p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

Of 15 residents who participated, 8 (53%) passed the FES skills exam at baseline. Participants required 2.7 ± 1.3 h to achieve proficiency on the models and approximately 3 h to complete the cognitive curriculum. At post-test, 14 (93%, vs. pre-test 53%, p = 0.041) passed the FES skills exam. 14 (93%) passed the FES cognitive exam and 13/15 (87%) passed both the skills and cognitive exam and achieved FES certification.

Conclusions

Our traditional clinical endoscopy curricula were not sufficient for senior residents to pass the FES exam. Implementation of a proficiency-based flexible endoscopy curriculum using bench-top models and the FES online materials was feasible and effective for the majority of learners. Importantly, with a modest amount of additional training, 87% of our trainees were able to pass the FES examination, which represents a significant improvement for our program. We expect that additional refinements of this curriculum may yield even better results for preparing future residents for the FES examination.



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More Thoughts on Standards and Reproducibility

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 85-86, April 2018.


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Effects of Repeated Aurora-A siRNA Transfection on Cilia Generation and Proliferation of SK-MES-1 or A549 Cells

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 110-117, April 2018.


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CLR 125 Auger Electrons for the Targeted Radiotherapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 87-95, April 2018.


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MiR-17 Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Through Inhibiting JAK-STAT3 Signaling Pathway

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 103-109, April 2018.


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Constructing a Novel Hypoxia-Inducible Bidirectional shRNA Expression Vector for Simultaneous Gene Silencing in Colorectal Cancer Gene Therapy

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 118-123, April 2018.


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Impact of one-to-one tutoring on fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) passing rate in a single center experience outside the United States: a randomized controlled trial

Abstract

Background

Outside the US, FLS certification is not required and its teaching methods are not well standardized. Even if the FLS was designed as "stand alone" training system, most of Academic Institution offer support to residents during training. We present the first systematic application of FLS in Italy.

Our aim was to evaluate the role of mentoring/coaching on FLS training in terms of the passing rate and global performance in the search for resource optimization.

Methods

Sixty residents in general surgery, obstetrics & gynecology, and urology were selected to be enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, practicing FLS with the goal of passing a simulated final exam. The control group practiced exclusively with video material from SAGES, whereas the interventional group was supported by a mentor.

Results

Forty-six subjects met the requirements and completed the trial. For the other 14 subjects no results are available for comparison. One subject for each group failed the exam, resulting in a passing rate of 95.7%, with no obvious differences between groups. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any difference between the groups for FLS tasks.

Conclusion

We confirm that methods other than video instruction and deliberate FLS practice are not essential to pass the final exam. Based on these results, we suggest the introduction of the FLS system even where a trained tutor is not available. This trial is the first single institution application of the FLS in Italy and one of the few experiences outside the US.

Trial Number: NCT02486575 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov).



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ERP evidence for implicit L2 word stress knowledge in listeners of a fixed-stress language

Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Andrea Kóbor, Ferenc Honbolygó, Angelika B.C. Becker, Ulrike Schild, Valéria Csépe, Claudia K. Friedrich
Languages with contrastive stress, such as English or German, distinguish some words only via the stress status of their syllables, such as "CONtent" and "conTENT" (capitals indicate a stressed syllable). Listeners with a fixed-stress native language, such as Hungarian, have difficulties in explicitly discriminating variation of the stress position in a second language (L2). However, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) indicate that Hungarian listeners implicitly notice variation from their native fixed-stress pattern. Here we used ERPs to investigate Hungarian listeners' implicit L2 processing. In a cross-modal word fragment priming experiment, we presented spoken stressed and unstressed German word onsets (primes) followed by printed versions of initially stressed and initially unstressed German words (targets). ERPs reflected stress priming exerted by both prime types. This indicates that Hungarian listeners implicitly linked German words with the stress status of the primes. Thus, the formerly described explicit stress discrimination difficulty associated with a fixed-stress native language does not generalize to implicit aspects of L2 word stress processing.



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Feasibility of robot-based perturbed-balance training during treadmill walking in a high-functioning chronic stroke a case-control study

For stroke survivors, balance deficits that persist after the completion of the rehabilitation process lead to a significant risk of falls. We have recently developed a balance-assessment robot (BAR-TM) that e...

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The feasibility and positive effects of a customised videogame rehabilitation programme for freezing of gait and falls in Parkinson’s disease patients: a pilot study

Freezing of gait and falls represent a major burden in patients with advanced forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). These axial motor signs are not fully alleviated by drug treatment or deep-brain stimulation. Re...

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Validation of the Narrowing Beam Walking Test in lower limb prosthesis users

Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Andrew Sawers, Brian Hafner
ObjectiveTo evaluate the content, construct, and discriminant validity of the Narrowing Beam Walking Test (NBWT), a performance-based balance test for lower limb prosthesis users.DesignCross-sectional study.SettingResearch laboratory and prosthetics clinic.ParticipantsForty unilateral transtibial and transfemoral prosthesis users.InterventionNot applicable.Main Outcome Measure(s)Content validity was examined by quantifying the percentage of participants receiving maximum or minimum scores (i.e. ceiling and floor effects). Convergent construct validity was examined using correlations between participants' NBWT scores and scores or times on existing clinical balance tests regularly administered to lower limb prosthesis users. Known-groups construct validity was examined by comparing NBWT scores between groups of participants with different fall histories, amputation levels, amputation etiologies, and functional levels. Discriminant validity was evaluated by analyzing the area under each test's Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.ResultsNo minimum or maximum scores were recorded on the NBWT. NBWT scores demonstrated strong correlations (|rs|=.70‒.85) with scores/times on performance-based balance tests (Timed up and Go, Four Square Step Test, and Berg Balance Scale), and a moderate correlation (|rs|=.49) with the self-report Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. NBWT performance was significantly lower among participants with a history of falls (p=.003), transfemoral amputation (p=.011), and a lower mobility level (p<.001). The NBWT also had the largest area under the ROC curve (.81), and was the only test to exhibit an area that was statistically significantly greater than 0.50 (i.e. chance).ConclusionThe results provide strong evidence of content, construct, and discriminant validity for the NBWT as a performance-based test of balance ability. The evidence supports its use to assess balance impairments and fall risk in unilateral transtibial and transfemoral prosthesis users.



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Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the Balance Computerized Adaptive Test in patients with stroke

Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Hsin-Yu Chiang, Wen-Shian Lu, Wan-Hui Yu, I-Ping Hsueh, Ching-Lin Hsieh
ObjectiveTo examine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the Balance Computerized Adaptive Test (Balance CAT) in patients with chronic stroke having a wide range of balance functions.DesignA repeated-assessments design (1 week apart) was used to examine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the Balance CAT. The Balance CAT was administered by 3 raters in the inter-rater reliability study and by 2 raters in the intra-rater reliability study.SettingSeven teaching hospitalsParticipantsTwo independent groups of outpatients (n=50 for the inter-rater reliability study; n=52 for the intra-rater reliability study) with chronic stroke were recruited.InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome MeasureBalance CAT.ResultsFor the inter-rater reliability study, the values of ICC, minimal detectable change (MDC), and MDC% for the Balance CAT were 0.84, 1.90, and 31.0%, respectively. For the intra-rater reliability study, the values of ICC, MDC, and MDC% ranged from 0.89 to 0.91, 1.14 to 1.26, and 17.1% to 18.6%, respectively.ConclusionsThe Balance CAT showed sufficient intra-rater reliability in patients with chronic stroke having balance functions ranging from sitting with support to independent walking. While the Balance CAT may have good inter-rater reliability, we found substantial random measurement error between different raters. Accordingly, if the Balance CAT is used as an outcome measure in clinical or research settings, same raters are suggested over different time points to ensure reliable assessments.



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Force of Peer Mentorship for Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

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Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Julie Gassaway, Bethlyn Vergo Houlihan, Sarah Everhart Skeels, Michael L. Jones




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Assessment of nociception and pain in participants with unresponsive or minimally conscious state after acquired brain injury: the relationship between the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised.

Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Camille Chatelle, Solveig L. Hauger, Charlotte Martial, Frank Becker, Bernd Eifert, Dana Boering, Joseph T. Giacino, Steven Laureys, Marianne Løvstad, Petra Maurer-Karattup
ObjectiveInvestigate the relationship between consciousness and nociceptive responsiveness (i.e., Nociception Coma Scale-Revised [NCS-R]), examine the suitability of the NCS-R for assessing nociception in participants with disorders of consciousness (DoC) and replicate previous findings on psychometric properties of the scale.DesignWe prospectively assessed consciousness with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Responses during baseline, non-noxious and noxious stimulations were scored with the NCS-R, CRS-R oromotor and motor subscales.SettingSpecialized DoC program and university hospitals.ParticipantsEighty-five participants diagnosed with DoCs.Main Outcome MeasuresCorrelation between CRS-R total scores and CRS-R and NCS-R (sub)scores to noxious stimulation, proportion of grimace and/or cry in participants with minimally consciousness (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) during non-noxious and noxious conditions.InterventionsNot applicableResultsCRS-R total scores correlated with NCS-R total scores and subscores. CRS-R motor subscale correlated with NCS-R total scores and motor subscale and CRS-R oromotor subscale correlated with NCS-R total scores, as well as verbal and facial expression. There was a difference between participants with UWS and MCS in the proportion of grimace and/or crying during the noxious condition. We replicated previous findings on psychometric properties of the scale, but found a different score as the best threshold for nociception.ConclusionWe report a strong relationship between responsiveness to nociception and the level of consciousness. The NCS-R seems to offer a valuable tool to assess nociception in an efficient manner, but additional studies are needed to allow recommendations for clinical assessment of subjective pain experience.



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Can Older Adults Accurately Report their Use of Physical Rehabilitation Services?

Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Vicki A. Freedman, Judith D. Kasper, Alan Jette
ObjectivesTo explore accuracy of rehabilitation service use reports by older adults and variation in accuracy by demographic characteristics, time since use, duration, and setting (inpatient, outpatient, home).DesignWe calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of survey-based measures from an observational panel study, the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), relative to measures developed from linked Medicare claims.ParticipantsCommunity-dwelling sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2015 NHATS who were enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B for 12 months prior to their interview (N=4,228).Main Outcome MeasuresRespondents were asked whether they received rehabilitation services in the last year and the duration and location of services. Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes and Revenue Center codes were used to identify Medicare-eligible rehabilitation service.ResultsSurvey-based reports and Medicare claims yielded similar estimates of rehabilitation use over the last year. Self-reported measures had high sensitivity (77%) and PPV (80%) and even higher specificity and NPV (approaching 95%). However, in adjusted models sensitivity was lower for Black enrollees, the very old, and those with lower education levels.ConclusionsSurvey-based measures of rehabilitation accurately captured use over the past year but differential reporting should be considered when characterizing rehabilitation use in certain subgroups of older Americans.



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Monte Carlo method for gamma spectrometry based on GEANT4 toolkit: Efficiency calibration of BE6530 detector

Publication date: September 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 189
Author(s): Guembou Shouop Cebastien Joel, Ndontchueng Moyo Maurice, Nguelem Mekongtso Eric Jilbert, Motapon Ousmanou, Strivay David
The combination of gamma-ray spectrometry, the development of related Monte Carlo method and the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) toolkit have been developed for gamma spectrometry simulation. The main objective was to validate simulation models of broad energy germanium (BEGe) detector geometry built in our laboratory (BE6530 model). Monte Carlo simulation of the geometry of BE6530 detector for efficiency calibration was carried out with GEANT4 toolkit. The simulated efficiencies curves using MC were compared with experimental results. Measurement uncertainties for both simulation and experimental estimations of the efficiency were assessed in order to see whether the consequences of the realistic measurement fall inside adequate cut-off points. The validation of the simulation was carried out by experimentally estimating the activity concentration in a reference sample and the comparison showed good correlation between experimental and simulation. Therefore, from the outcomes of this study, it can be concluded that Monte-Carlo simulation is a helpful, reasonable option that additionally gives more prominent adaptability, greater flexibility, precision and accuracy, and gained time when determining the detector response and efficiency in routine of environmental radioactivity monitoring.

Graphical abstract

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DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing

DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing

DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0004-3

Biomarkers of ageing based on DNA methylation data enable accurate age estimates for any tissue across the entire life course. Horvath and Raj review the development of these 'epigenetic clocks' and how they link to biological ageing.

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The role of resting-state EEG localized activation and central nervous system arousal in executive function performance in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Publication date: June 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 6
Author(s): Da-Wei Zhang, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven Roodenrys, Xiangsheng Luo, Hui Li, Encong Wang, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Li Sun
ObjectiveThis study explored the relationships between resting-state electroencephalogram (RS-EEG) localized activation and two important types of executive functions (EF) to extend the prognostic utilization of RS-EEG in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Also, the role of central nervous system (CNS) arousal in the relationships was examined.MethodsFifty-eight children with AD/HD participated in the study. RS-EEG localized activation was derived from spectral power differences between EEG in eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions. CNS arousal was measured based on alpha band power. Common and everyday EF scores were obtained as EF outcomes.ResultsFrontal delta activation predicted common EF ability and posterior alpha activation predicted everyday EF. A serial mediation analysis found that lower CNS baseline arousal was related to greater arousal and delta activation in series, which in turn related to worse common EF. A follow-up study found that baseline arousal was related to larger interference cost.ConclusionsRS-EEG is indicative of individual differences in two important types of EF in children with AD/HD. Lower CNS arousal may be a driving force for the poorer common EF performance.SignificanceThe current study supports prognostic utilization of RS-EEG and AD/HD models that take resting brain activity into consideration in children with AD/HD.



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The efficacy of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on mood may depend on individual differences including age and trait mood

Publication date: June 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 6
Author(s): Carys Evans, Michael J. Banissy, Rebecca A. Charlton
ObjectivesTo assess whether changes in brain microstructures associated with ageing and presence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) reduce the efficacy of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) improving mood in euthymic older adults.MethodsUsing excitatory high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the effect on mood was assessed in euthymic young adults (YA), older adults (HOA) and older adults with CVRF (OVR). Active-tRNS or sham was applied over two sessions. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale measured self-reported state mood before and after stimulation. Trait mood was also measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale.ResultsResponse to tRNS seemed dependent on individual differences in age and trait mood. In HOA, more negative trait mood was associated with more positive mood change after tRNS. OVR showed a similar but reduced pattern of mood change to HOA. In YA, more positive trait mood was associated with greater positive mood change after tRNS.ConclusionsAge and trait mood may be important factors when examining the efficacy of tES as an alternative treatment for depression.SignificanceFuture studies should consider how response to tES is affected by individual differences.



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Healthcare Services Utilization Among Migrants in Portugal: Results From the National Health Survey 2014

Abstract

Migrants' health is attracting substantial global interest. We aimed to identify barriers and differences in healthcare services utilization between migrants and natives in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health Survey 2014. A total of 18,165 participants providing information on country of birth and nationality were included, and comparison of healthcare services utilization was made by using participants born in Portugal and with Portuguese nationality as the reference group. Migrants reported a lower frequency of medical visits, a higher consumption of medication without a prescription and less use of preventive care services. The main reasons for not attending medical consultations among migrants were the absence of need and financial difficulties. This study illustrates inequalities in healthcare use among migrants in Portugal, and provides useful information for enlightening policymakers and healthcare providers to develop health policies that can address migrants' needs.



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DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing



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Effect of a rest-pause vs. traditional squat on electromyography and lifting volume in trained women

Abstract

Purpose

Rest-pause (4 s unloaded rest between repetitions) single session training effects on lifting volume, and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training program design. This study compared differences in volume lifted and muscle activity between a rest-pause vs. traditional protocol.

Methods

Trained females (N = 13) completed both a rest-pause and traditional squat protocol consisting of four sets to movement failure at 80% pretest 1 repetition maximum load with 2-min rest between sets. Total volume and muscle activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and gluteus maximus were measured on both training days. Differences in muscle activity were viewed as a percent change (%∆).

Results

A paired samples t test indicated total volume lifted was higher in the rest-pause compared to the traditional protocol (2532 vs. 2036 kg; p < .05). Furthermore, paired samples t tests showed muscle activity %∆ of the gluteus maximus was greater in the traditional protocol compared to the rest-pause protocol (p < .05). No other muscle activity differences were observed in the remaining muscles.

Conclusions

The rest-pause allows for greater volume lifted via increased repetitions compared to a traditional protocol in trained women. The rest-pause method may be superior to a traditional method of training during a hypertrophy mesocycle, where a primary focus is total volume lifted. Furthermore, %∆ muscle activity in the GM will be greater while performing a traditional back squat protocol in comparison to a rest-pause.



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