Κυριακή, 20 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Regulatory activities of transposable elements: from conflicts to benefits

Transposable elements (TEs) are widely known for their deleterious consequences of selfish propagation and mutagenesis. However, as described in this Review, TEs also provide hosts with rich, beneficial gene-regulatory machinery in the form of regulatory DNA elements and TE-derived gene products. The authors highlight the diverse regulatory contributions of TEs to organismal physiology and pathology, provide a framework for responsibly assigning functional roles to TEs and offer visions for the future.

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DNA repair: RNA–DNA hybrids: double-edged swords

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Order from clutter: selective interactions at mammalian replication origins

Genome-wide mapping, mathematical models and functional genetic analyses suggest that distinct molecular interactions at replication initiation sites underlie the regulation of DNA replication in metazoans. In this Review, the authors discuss recent insights into these DNA–protein interactions, and the genetic and epigenetic features of mammalian replication origins.

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From profiles to function in epigenomics

A wealth of data is emerging from diverse studies of epigenomics, including genome-scale profiles of DNA methylation, histone modifications and higher-order chromatin features. In this Review, the authors discuss how, despite all this information, many challenges remain for inferring and proving the physiological and pathological functions of chromatin states. They describe the degrees of 'functionality' that are revealed by different experimental approaches, the value of integrative strategies and visions for the future.

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A review on meat tenderization and recent technological advancements in meat tenderization.

Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Sabahu Noor, Nair Shruti Radhakrishnan.
Meat tenderness appears as top rated issue to be solved concerning meat sensorial quality, which requires enhanced knowledge and further work to understand the processes involved. Meat tenderness plays an important role, where entire pieces of meat are cooked, fried or barbecued. In these cases some types of meat, in particular beef, have to undergo a certain ripening or ageing period before cooking and consumption in order to achieve the necessary tenderness. In the fabrication of many processed meat products the toughness or tenderness of the meat used is of minor importance. Many meat products are composed of comminuted meat, a process where even previously tough meat is made palatable. Further processing of larger pieces of meat (e.g. raw or cooked hams) also results in good chewing quality as these products are cured and fermented or cured and cooked, which makes them tender. Tenderness of meat depends on various pre-and post slaughter factors. In the recent past, much of the advancements were occurred in the methods employed for tenderization of meat. These newer methods of meat tenderization resulted in better efficiency and high quality meat products. In this review, tenderness of meat and their mechanism, methods of tenderization and their evaluation techniques have been discussed briefly

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Seasonal evaluation of some disease conditions of cattle slaughtered in Ngaoundere-Municipal abattoir, Cameroon

Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Manchang Tanyi Kingsley, Mfopit Mouliom Youssouf, Awah Ndukum Julius, Nguini Atanga Joseph, Germanus Soh Bah, Henri Bayemi.
Studies were conducted in the Ngaoundere Municipal abattoir from May 2012 to March 2013 to have an insight on diseases of cattle slaughtered. Ante mortem and post mortem examinations were done on a total of 4072 cattle during eighty two visits at a rate of twice per week on randomly selected days. The results showed that 93.2 % of slaughtered cattle were cows. Tick infestation (33.3 %), dermatophilosis (13.7 %) and fatigue (3 %) were the major health conditions observed following ante mortem examination. However, fasciolosis (27%), pulmonary tuberculosis (6.6%), generalized hematomas (7%) were the major gross pathologies observed at postmortem. Significantly higher (P

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Electrophysiology in Fisher syndrome

Fisher's syndrome (FS) is defined by the unique clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia (Fisher, 1956). This syndrome is regarded as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and is mediated by autoantibodies against ganglioside GQ1b (Mori and Kuwabara, 2011; Shahrizaila and Yuki, 2012). In his original report, Charles Miller Fisher himself speculated that a selective attack on the sensory neurons underlying postural stability should have existed and that the involvement of special sensory neurons mediating tendon reflexes should be considered (Fisher, 1956).

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A model of dynamic stability of H3K9me3 heterochromatin to explain the resistance to reprogramming of differentiated cells

Publication date: Available online 20 November 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Charly Jehanno, Gilles Flouriot, Pascale Le Goff, Denis Michel
Despite their dynamic nature, certain chromatin marks must be maintained over the long term. This is particulary true for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) trimethylation, that is involved in the maintenance of healthy differentiated cellular states by preventing inappropriate gene expression, and has been recently identified as the most efficient barrier to cellular reprogramming in nuclear transfer experiments. We propose that the capacity of the enzymes SUV39H1/2 to rebind to a minor fraction of their products, either directly or via HP1α/β, contributes to the solidity of this mark through (i) a positive feedback involved in its establishment by the mutual enforcement of H3K9me3 and SUV39H1/2 and then (ii) a negative feedback sufficient to strongly stabilize H3K9me3 heterochromatin in post-mitotic cells by generating local enzyme concentrations capable of counteracting transient bursts of demethylation. This model does not require direct molecular interactions with adjacent nucleosomes and is favoured by a series of additional mechanisms including (i) the protection of chromatin-bound SUV39H1 from the turnovers of soluble proteins, which can explain the uncoupling between the cellular contents in SUV39H1 mRNA and protein; (ii) the cooperative dependence on the local density of the H3K9me3 of HP1α/β-dependent heterochomatin condensation and, dispensably (iii) restricted enzyme exchanges with chromocenters confining the reactive bursts of SUV39H1/2 in heterochromatin. This mechanism illustrates how seemingly static epigenetic states can be firmly maintained by dynamic and reversible modifications.

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Is nasotracheal intubation safe in facial trauma patients?

Related Articles

Is nasotracheal intubation safe in facial trauma patients?

Am J Surg. 2016 Nov 8;:

Authors: Jazayeri-Moghaddas OP, Tse W, Herzing KA, Markert RJ, Gans AJ, McCarthy MC

BACKGROUND: In the prehospital setting, oral intubation is preferred in facial trauma patients due to the potential for further injury during nasotracheal intubation. This study compared the complications of nasal vs. oral vs. nasal + oral intubations performed by first responder crews in facial trauma patients. Our objective was to assess patient outcomes and complications to determine the risk of nasal intubation in facial trauma patients in the prehospital setting.
METHODS: Patients with facial trauma between 2008 and 13 were abstracted from the Miami Valley Hospital trauma registry: 50 were nasal only (n), 27 nasal + oral (no), and 135 oral only (o) intubation. Analysis of variance with the post-hoc Least Significance Difference Test and the chi square test were used in the analysis.
RESULTS: The oral group was older [41.1 ± 17.6 (o) vs. 36.2 ± 14.1 (n) vs. 33.0 ± 15.7 (no), p = 0.032] and had a higher facial abbreviated injury severity (AIS) mean score (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5, p < 0.001). The three groups did not differ in mortality (n = 20% vs. o = 18% vs. no = 30%, p = 0.37). The n + o group was intubated longer (p < 0.001) and had longer ICU and hospital lengths of stay (p = 0.015 and p = 0.023). The three groups did not differ on the composite of any pulmonary complication - i.e., any one of sinusitis, pneumonia, atelectasis, and respiratory failure - 44% (no) vs. 24% (o) vs. 30% (n), p = 0.10). However, nasal + oral patients were more likely to have one or more of the eight complication studied [63% (no) vs. 28% (o) vs. 34% (n), p = 0.002], and have a longer ICU and HLOS.
CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital nasal intubation is a viable short-term alternative to oral intubation in patients with facial trauma and warrants further research.

PMID: 27863722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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