Τρίτη, 27 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Azathioprine induces endoscopic but not histological healing in children with inflammatory bowel disease: A prospective, observational study

Background and aims: Mucosal healing (MH) has become an important endpoint in children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). We aimed to analyze endoscopic and histologic healing in children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in clinical remission after 52 weeks of Azathioprine (AZA) and to correlate clinical, endoscopic and histologic features.

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Ileo-cecal Crohn's disease is associated with early stricturing and poor medical outcomes in children

Background: Localized ileo-cecal disease is a specific CD phenotype whose prevalence and natural history in pediatric age is not well characterized. The aims of this study were to compare the outcomes of medical therapy in ileocecal CD children with pediatric patients showing different CD localizations.

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Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in children with phenylketonuria: A case–control study

The restriction of dietary phenylalanine (phe) remains the main treatment for Phenylketonuria (PKU). The primary aim of this study was to examine dietary daily glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in PKU children on phe-free diet. Twenty-one PKU and 21 healthy children [mean (SD) 8.0 (2.2) years], age and sex matched were enrolled. In all children daily energy (Kcal/die), macronutrient (% of daily energy), fiber (g/die) intakes, GI and GL were determined by 3-days food record. No significant difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children (p=0.570).

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Rachitis and celiac disease: A case report

CD is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten which activates an immune reaction against the CD autoantigen, such as tissue transglutaminase (TG2), in genetically predisposed subjects.

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Nutritional status and morbidity in chronically ill children

Background: Nutritional status is an important consideration in many pediatric clinical conditions. This study aimed to investigate the nutritional status in children with chronic diseases at the time of admission (hospitalization, ambulatory, day hospital) in order to estimate the malnutrition prevalence and examine the relationship between nutritional status and morbidity.

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Acute protein food-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to multiple solid food proteins: A case report

A male infant was exclusively formula-fed since birth without any evident problems.

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Unexpected haemoptysis in a young liver-transplanted patient

We report the case of a 22 years-old male hepatotransplant patient with unexpected acute massive hemoptysis. The patient received liver transplant at the age of 1 year for decompensated cirrhosis due to biliary atresia. When hemoptysis occurred, immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil was in course. Computed Tomography (CT) identified a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) and endovascular embolization was performed resulting in resolution of symptoms. Since multiple malformations may be associated with biliary atresia, a diagnostic work up, including cerebral neuroimaging, was performed but no malformation was found.

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Remind the neurological manifestations of celiac disease

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition with chamalaeon clinical expressions.

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Tolerogenic mechanisms elicited by extensively hydrolysed casein formula with L. rhamnosus GG

We showed that extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) stimulates tolerance acquisition in children with cow milk allergy (CMA). We aimed to investigate tolerogenic immune and non-immune mechanisms elicited by LGG immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ODN ID35) and by the three most abundant β-casein-derived peptides contained in the formula.

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The changing profile of coeliac disease in paediatric patients: A 20-year long retrospective study

Coeliac disease (CD) is a systemic immune-mediated disorder causing an injury to the mucosa of the small intestine, with extremely variable symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the current clinical presentation of coeliac paediatric patients in order to increase the awareness of this disorder, to improve its diagnostic rate and to identify familiar conditions. The diagnosis, performed on 186 coeliac children from 1994 and July 2015, relied on different algorithms: the earliest patients diagnoses were based on Anti-Gliadin Antibodies and histological evaluation of the intestinal biopsies, while the most recent ones followed the latest 2012 ESPGHAN guidelines.

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Which concern about ocular involvement in IBD pediatric patients?

Objective: Ocular involvement is a recognized extra-intestinal manifestation (EIM) of both Crohn Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Data on prevalence in IBD patients are inconsistent and there is no consensus on ophthalmological management, especially in children. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of ocular disorders in IBD.

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Where is pediatric non celiac gluten sensitivity (PNCGS) going?

Pediatric non celiac gluten sensitivity (pNCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and/or extra intestinal symptoms associated to gluten ingestion; symptoms disappear with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and reappear within hours or days from the restatement, in subjects in which celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA) have been excluded.

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Clinical application of next generation sequencing for the diagnosis of pediatric hepatic and intestinal diseases: Results of a single centre experience

Background: Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) with in silico gene panel analysis (isGPA) is an innovative diagnostic approach for the identification of molecular defects in patients with suspected genetic disorders not otherwise identified.

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Prevalence of coeliac disease and of HLA predisposition in first degree relatives of coeliac paediatric patients

CD is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten which activates an immune reaction against the CD autoantigen, such as tissue transglutaminase (TG2), in genetically predisposed subjects. It has a strong genetic component and the disease incidence is significantly higher among first-degree relatives, with an increasing rate among twin patients. HLA class II genes play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease, even though other involved genes have been characterized. The aim of the study was the determination of the prevalence of CD and the genetic predisposition for the disease onset in first degree relatives of paediatric coeliac patients.

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Detection of gluten content in the naturally gluten free and gluten free labelled commercially available food products in Italy

Background: Gluten free diet is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease and other gluten related disorders. Lack of gluten contamination is usually ensured by a certified food chain but is not routinely checked in gluten-free food that are available in the Italian market. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in Italian gluten-free products.

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Diagnosis of celiac disease according to ESPGHAN criteria and gluten-free diet adherence

Our study evaluates the number of biopsies avoided in diagnosis of celiac disease using ESPGHAN criteria and adherence to gluten-free diet after diagnosis by clinical evaluation and titration tTG-IgA or tTG-IgG and DGP-IgG in deficiency-IgA. From 01/01/2014 to 05/31/2016 28 new celiac disease patients were diagnosed with ESPGHAN criteria. 9 males (32.2%, 19 females (67.8%), age 13 months–12 years (mean 5 years 2 months). Clinical signs: diarrhea 15 patients (53%), weight loss 22 (78.5%), abdominal pain 8 (28.5%).

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Outcome of esophagogastric dissociation in children with severe neurodisability and gastroesophageal reflux: Experience of two centers

Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) unresponsive to medical treatment affects many neurologically impaired (NI) children.

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Body mass index in celiac children before and during gluten free diet

Gluten free diet (GFD) is hypothesized to be a predisposing factor for overweight and obesity in celiac children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of GFD in celiac patients.

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Short bowel syndrome and total parenteral nutrition: Why not a Baby Port?

Introduction: Subcutaneous implantable port devices are used mostly to treat hematology/oncology patients, and are seldom inserted for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone. Here we describe a child with short bowel syndrome (SBS) where TPN was administered via a small port device and discuss pros/contras.

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Iodine and autoimmune diseases. Urinary iodine concentration in children affected by coeliac disease or thyroiditis

Objectives and study: Iodine is an essential micronutrient for thyroid function and its abundance is evaluated through urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Autoimmune thyroid diseases seem to relate to an excessive iodine intake. The objectives of this study were to investigate the correlation between the presence or absence of autoimmune disease and UIC.

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Mom call Rogaland radio,My boy needs help!

He is btw.Stavanger-Egersund in a sailboat,not"experienced at sea"Big waves,1person on board.Rogaland inform HRS(S.):Pilot123on Pos.in30Min. RS+Coastguard on Pos.in60Min.Saver5.0(=330SQ.SeaKing) scrambel by HRS when Pilot got uppdate on Pos.Boy not able to steer&get tug-line,Pilote123 plan to Stand-by to RS on Pos.Boys Engine stop,Boy gets Tug-line.(Film start):C.G. deploy MOB-BOAT,enters&take comand. Welcom to Jaerens Reef... (Mob-Boat=NorSafe): http://www.norsafe.com/ HRS= http://ift.tt/2dxEy1S RS= http://ift.tt/2d7DnrQ Rogaland radio= http://ift.tt/2dxFKlU Mom&Boy= :-) Do your homework! Bet he knew the weater-forecast next time!Norwegian nature will eat you in a heart-beat,Sea,Mountain and Arctic! ExEMTNor

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Mom call Rogaland radio,My boy needs help!

He is btw.Stavanger-Egersund in a sailboat,not"experienced at sea"Big waves,1person on board.Rogaland inform HRS(S.):Pilot123on Pos.in30Min. RS+Coastguard on Pos.in60Min.Saver5.0(=330SQ.SeaKing) scrambel by HRS when Pilot got uppdate on Pos.Boy not able to steer&get tug-line,Pilote123 plan to Stand-by to RS on Pos.Boys Engine stop,Boy gets Tug-line.(Film start):C.G. deploy MOB-BOAT,enters&take comand. Welcom to Jaerens Reef... (Mob-Boat=NorSafe): http://www.norsafe.com/ HRS= http://ift.tt/2dxEy1S RS= http://ift.tt/2d7DnrQ Rogaland radio= http://ift.tt/2dxFKlU Mom&Boy= :-) Do your homework! Bet he knew the weater-forecast next time!Norwegian nature will eat you in a heart-beat,Sea,Mountain and Arctic! ExEMTNor

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Medical changes that could prevent brain damage in infants

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By Allison G. S. Knox, EMT-B, Faculty Member at American Military University

It isn't rare for newborn babies to have trouble with jaundice in the days after their birth. The condition is usually recognizable by an orange coloring of the skin, which is caused by a high level of bilirubin in the blood. Most of the time the baby's liver will rid the body of bilirubin, but in rare cases, the bilirubin level rises so quickly that their body simply cannot recover, resulting in devastating effects.

When the level is high enough, bilirubin crosses the blood-brain barrier and leaves a stain on the brain that causes brain damage, a condition called kernicterus. Untreated severe hyperbilirubinemia can also cause auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, ranging from mild to complete hearing loss, and cerebral palsy, which leaves a child unable to walk. Many of these children are forced into wheelchairs for life. For some, severe hyperbilirubinemia can even result in death. Once caused, the damage from hyperbilirubinemia cannot be reversed, but the cognitive parts of the brain are often left intact. For the family of a child with kernicterus, it can be devastating to see their child who was perfectly healthy at birth suddenly suffer from a debilitating illness.

Changing medical policies
To effectively manage jaundice and detect hyperbilirubinemia in newborn babies, healthcare policies are in urgent need of change. Because potentially devastating levels of bilirubin are so rare, many doctors don't necessarily look out for the signs and symptoms that can arise in the first few days of a newborn's life. As a result, a child who could be helped is often left untreated. If bilirubin levels were regularly checked through physician-ordered tests, fewer babies would suffer from kernicterus.

Full Story: Medical changes that could prevent brain damage in infants



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Mom call Rogaland radio,My boy needs help!

He is btw.Stavanger-Egersund in a sailboat,not"experienced at sea"Big waves,1person on board.Rogaland inform HRS(S.):Pilot123on Pos.in30Min. RS+Coastguard on Pos.in60Min.Saver5.0(=330SQ.SeaKing) scrambel by HRS when Pilot got uppdate on Pos.Boy not able to steer&get tug-line,Pilote123 plan to Stand-by to RS on Pos.Boys Engine stop,Boy gets Tug-line.(Film start):C.G. deploy MOB-BOAT,enters&take comand. Welcom to Jaerens Reef... (Mob-Boat=NorSafe): http://www.norsafe.com/ HRS= http://ift.tt/2dxEy1S RS= http://ift.tt/2d7DnrQ Rogaland radio= http://ift.tt/2dxFKlU Mom&Boy= :-) Do your homework! Bet he knew the weater-forecast next time!Norwegian nature will eat you in a hart-beat,Sea,Mountain and Arctic ! ExEMTNor

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Mom call Rogaland radio,My boy needs help!

He is btw.Stavanger-Egersund in a sailboat,not"experienced at sea"Big waves,1person on board.Rogaland inform HRS(S.):Pilot123on Pos.in30Min. RS+Coastguard on Pos.in60Min.Saver5.0(=330SQ.SeaKing) scrambel by HRS when Pilot got uppdate on Pos.Boy not able to steer&get tug-line,Pilote123 plan to Stand-by to RS on Pos.Boys Engine stop,Boy gets Tug-line.(Film start):C.G. deploy MOB-BOAT,enters&take comand. Welcom to Jaerens Reef... (Mob-Boat=NorSafe): http://www.norsafe.com/ HRS= http://ift.tt/2dxEy1S RS= http://ift.tt/2d7DnrQ Rogaland radio= http://ift.tt/2dxFKlU Mom&Boy= :-) Do your homework! Bet he knew the weater-forecast next time!Norwegian nature will eat you in a hart-beat,Sea,Mountain and Arctic ! ExEMTNor

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Reflections on Incorporating a Behavioral Intervention into a Busy Pediatric Subspecialty Clinic

Pediatric diabetes is a condition that requires a tremendous amount of self-care and investment on the part of patients and families. It involves checking blood glucose values multiple times per day, counting carbohydrates, calculating insulin doses, and taking an insulin injection (or pump bolus) with every meal. It is not uncommon for patients to feel burned out and decrease the intensity of their diabetes care, particularly during the teenage years (Hood et al., 2014). There are many reasons why this can occur—for example, lack of acceptance of diagnosis, fatigue with the process and work involved, feeling discouraged because of erratic blood glucose levels despite good effort, or simply not wanting to be told what to do as an adolescent.

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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Public Perception of Risks of Exposing Children to Second- and Third-Hand Tobacco Smoke

Extensive evidence exists regarding health risks posed by children's exposure to second-hand smoke, and there is increasing evidence concerning the risks of third-hand smoke. This evidence is most meaningful if the public is aware of these risks and can help curb childhood exposure.

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Development of the 24/7 Nurse Practitioner Model on the Inpatient Pediatric General Surgery Service at a Large Tertiary Care Children's Hospital and Associated Outcomes

Nurse practitioners (NPs) have been providing high-quality and safe patient care for a few decades, and evidence showing the extent of their impact is emerging. This article describes the implementation of a 24/7 NP patient care model on an inpatient pediatric general surgery service in a tertiary free-standing Children's Hospital in the Northeastern United States. The literature shows that there is limited evidence regarding NP models of care and their effect on patient outcomes. In response to policy changes leading to reduction of resident work hours and a more acute and complex inpatient pediatric general surgery patient population, our existing NP model evolved into a 24/7 NP Model in June 2011.

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Association of Healthy Home Environments and Use of Patient-Centered Medical Homes by Children of Low-Income Families

Medicaid agencies have been promoting the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model. Most caregivers choose physician practices for their children, and we hypothesized that those following healthier childrearing practices are more likely to seek care in a PCMH.

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Rectal mucosal/submucosal biopsy under general anesthesia ensures optimum diagnosis of bowel motility disorders

Pediatric Surgery International

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Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: A reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study

The Lancet

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NUS scientists discover potential mechanism for early detection and better treatment of gastric cancer

National University of Singapore News

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Hepatitis B viral load response to two antiviral regimens (tenofovir/lamivudine vs lamivudine) in HIV and HBV co-infected pregnant women in Guangxi, China: The tenofovir in pregnancy (TiP) study

The Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Genetic variation near IRS1 is associated with adiposity and a favorable metabolic profile in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos

Obesity

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Appendectomy and risk of Parkinson's disease: A nationwide cohort study with more than 10 years of follow-up

Movement Disorders

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Same day discharge protocol implementation trends in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pediatric patients

Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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HCV reinfection incidence and spontaneous clearance rates in HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Western Europe

Journal of Hepatology

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Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation, Obesity, and Diabetes Mellitus

Current Diabetes Reports

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Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts with covered stents increase transplant-free survival of patients with cirrhosis and recurrent ascites

Gastroenterology

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Implementation of national body contouring surgery guidelines following massive weight loss: A national cross-sectional survey of commissioning in England

Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery

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Analysis of resistance-associated substitutions in acute hepatitis C virus infection by deep sequencing across six genotypes and three continents

Journal of Viral Hepatitis

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Adalimumab or infliximab as monotherapy, or in combination with an immunomodulator, in the treatment of Crohn's disease

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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The added diagnostic value of postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index and nocturnal baseline impedance in refractory reflux disease studied with on-therapy impedance-pH monitoring

Neurogastroenterology & Motility

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Infant gastrostomy outcomes: The cost of complications

Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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Impact of a potassium-enriched, chloride-depleted 5% glucose solution on gastrointestinal function after major abdominopelvic surgery results of a randomized controlled trial

Anesthesiology

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Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody MsMab-2 is useful to detect IDH1 R132 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Pathology International

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Preoperative 6-minute walk distance accurately predicts postoperative complications after operations for hepato-pancreato-biliary cancer

Surgery

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Endocannabinoid receptor blockade increases vascular endothelial growth factor and inflammatory markers in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Clinical Endocrinology

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Histologic purity of signet ring cell carcinoma is a favorable risk factor for lymph node metastasis in poorly cohesive, submucosa-invasive early gastric carcinoma

Gastric Cancer

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Control of the Environment in the Operating Room.

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There is a direct relationship between the quality of the environment of a workplace and the productivity and efficiency of the work accomplished. Components such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, drafts, lighting, and noise each contribute to the quality of the overall environment and the sense of well-being of those who work there. The modern operating room is a unique workplace with specific, and frequently conflicting, environmental requirements for each of the inhabitants. Even minor disturbances in the internal environment of the operating room can have serious ramifications on the comfort, effectiveness, and safety of each of the inhabitants. A cool, well-ventilated, and dry climate is optimal for many members of the surgical team. Any significant deviation from these objectives raises the risk of decreased efficiency and productivity and adverse surgical outcomes. A warmer, more humid, and quieter environment is necessary for the patient. If these requirements are not met, the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality is increased. An important task for the surgical team is to find the correct balance between these 2 opposed requirements. Several of the components of the operating room environment, especially room temperature and airflow patterns, are easily manipulated by the members of the surgical team. In the following discussion, we will examine these elements to better understand the clinical ramifications of adjustments and accommodations that are frequently made to meet the requirements of both the surgical staff and the patient. (C) 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution Reduces Allogeneic Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials.

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BACKGROUND: To better understand the role of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in a surgical setting with high risk of bleeding, we analyzed all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the setting of cardiac surgery that compared ANH with standard intraoperative care. The aim was to assess the incidence of ANH-related number of allogeneic red blood cell units (RBCu) transfused. Secondary outcomes included the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and estimated total blood loss. METHODS: Twenty-nine RCTs for a total of 2439 patients (1252 patients in the ANH group and 1187 in the control group) were included in our meta-analysis using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and EMBASE. RESULTS: Patients in the ANH group received fewer allogeneic RBCu transfusions (mean difference = -0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.25 to -0.34; P = .001; I2 = 95.1%). Patients in the ANH group were overall transfused less with allogeneic blood when compared with controls (356/845 [42.1%] in the ANH group versus 491/876 [56.1%] in controls; risk ratio = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.87; P

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Lung Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Perioperative Atelectasis: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

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BACKGROUND: Few diagnostic tools are available to anesthesiologists when confronted with intraoperative hypoxemia. Lung ultrasonography is a safe and accurate bedside imaging modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung ultrasonography during the perioperative period and assess its ability to detect intraoperative respiratory complications and oxygenation changes resulting from perioperative atelectasis. METHODS: In this prospective observational pilot study, 30 consecutive patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were recruited. Mechanical ventilation was standardized. Lung ultrasonography was performed at 5 predefined time points: before induction of general anesthesia (GA), after induction of GA, after pneumoperitoneum insufflation, on arrival in the recovery room, and before recovery room discharge. For each echographic examination, 12 pulmonary quadrants were imaged. From these, a semiquantitative score, the lung ultrasound (LUS) score, was calculated to assess lung aeration at each time point. RESULTS: Lung ultrasonography was possible in all patients. Changes in the LUS score between the postinduction period and arrival in the recovery room were correlated with changes in oxygenation (Spearman r = -0.43, P = .018). Induction of GA was associated with an increase in the LUS score, which gradually worsened at all time points until recovery room discharge. This increase was significantly worse in the basal and dependent lung zones. Lung ultrasonography helped in the detection of 2 capnothoraces, 1 endobronchial intubation, and 1 episode of subclinical pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasonography in the perioperative period is feasible, allows tracking of perioperative atelectasis, and facilitates the diagnosis of respiratory complications. The evolution of aeration loss correlates moderately with changes in oxygenation. (C) 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Metformin Synergizes With Conventional and Adjuvant Analgesic Drugs to Reduce Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Rats.

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BACKGROUND: Metformin is a widely used and safe antidiabetic drug that has recently been shown to possess analgesic properties in models of inflammatory pain. Because various arthritic inflammatory disorders are highly prevalent in diabetic patients, we aimed to examine the type of interaction between metformin and several conventional and adjuvant analgesic drugs (ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, and pregabalin) in a rat model of somatic inflammatory hyperalgesia. METHODS: Inflammation of the rat hind paw was induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan (0.1 mL, 1%). The antihyperalgesic effects of metformin (intraperitoneally), analgesics (orally or intraperitoneally), and 2-drug metformin-analgesic combinations were assessed with an electronic Von Frey anesthesiometer, by measuring the change in paw withdrawal thresholds induced by carrageenan (n = 6 rats in drug/drug combination-treated groups). First, we determined the doses of individual drugs needed to produce an antihyperalgesic effect of 50% (ED50 values). In combination experiments, drugs were coadministered in fixed-dose fractions (1/16, 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2) of their individual ED50 values and the type of interaction between components was determined by isobolographic analysis. RESULTS: Metformin (50-200 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia with a maximal antihyperalgesic effect (mean +/- SEM) of 62 +/- 6% (all P

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Preprocedure Ultrasonography Before Initiating a Neuraxial Anesthetic Procedure.

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No abstract available

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The Three Laws of Autonomous and Closed-Loop Systems in Anesthesia.

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No abstract available

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Yao & Artusio's Anesthesiology, 8th Edition.

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No abstract available

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Orthographic and phonological processing in developing readers revealed by ERPs

Abstract

The development of neurocognitive mechanisms in single word reading was studied in children ages 8–10 years using ERPs combined with priming manipulations aimed at dissociating orthographic and phonological processes. Transposed-letter (TL) priming (barin–BRAIN vs. bosin–BRAIN) was used to assess orthographic processing, and pseudohomophone (PH) priming (brane–BRAIN vs. brant–BRAIN) was used to assess phonological processing. Children showed TL and PH priming effects on both the N250 and N400 ERP components, and the magnitude of TL priming correlated positively with reading ability, with better readers showing larger TL priming effects. Phonological priming, on the other hand, did not correlate with reading ability. The positive correlations between TL priming and reading ability in children points to a key role for flexible sublexical orthographic representations in reading development, in line with their hypothesized role in the efficient mapping of orthographic information onto semantic information in skilled readers.



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Pupillary reactivity to negative stimuli prospectively predicts recurrence of major depressive disorder in women

Abstract

There is a large body of research supporting the association between disrupted physiological reactivity to negative stimuli and depression. The present study aimed to examine whether physiological reactivity to emotional stimuli, assessed via pupil dilation, served as a biological marker of risk for depression recurrence among individuals who are known to be at a higher risk due to having previous history of depression. Participants were 57 women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Pupil dilation to angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces was recorded. Participants' diagnoses and symptoms were assessed 24 months after the initial assessment. We found that women's pupillary reactivity to negative (sad or angry faces) but not positive stimuli prospectively predicted MDD recurrence. Additionally, we found that both hyper- and hypopupillary reactivity to angry faces predicted risk for MDD recurrence. These findings suggest that disrupted physiological response to negative stimuli indexed via pupillary dilation could serve as a physiological marker of MDD risk, thus presenting clinicians with a convenient and inexpensive method to predict which of the at-risk women are more likely to experience depression recurrence.



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