Τρίτη, 20 Μαρτίου 2018

The First Report of Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Uropathogens in Sikkim and Darjeeling Hills of India

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2DM2kCQ
via IFTTT

ISAba1 Regulated OXA-23 Carbapenem Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains in Durban, South Africa

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2prGLCV
via IFTTT

Changes in Macrolide Resistance Among Group A Streptococci in Serbia and Clonal Evolution of Resistant Isolates

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2DM29aE
via IFTTT

Historical Datasets Support Genomic Selection Models for the Prediction of Cotton Fiber Quality Phenotypes Across Multiple Environments

Genomic selection (GS) has successfully been used in plant breeding to improve selection efficiency and reduce breeding time and cost. However, there has not been a study to evaluate GS prediction models that may be used for predicting cotton breeding lines across multiple environments. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Bayes Ridge Regression, BayesA, BayesB, BayesC and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces regression models. We then extended the single-site GS model to accommodate genotype x environment interaction (GxE) in order to assess the merits of multi- over single-environment models in a practical breeding and selection context in cotton, a crop for which this has not previously been evaluated. Our study was based on a population of 215 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) breeding lines which were evaluated for fiber length and strength at multiple locations in Australia and genotyped with 13,330 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers. BayesB, which assumes unique variance for each marker and a proportion of markers to have large effects, while most other markers have zero effect, was the preferred model. GS accuracy for fiber length based on a single-site model varied across sites, ranging from 0.27 to 0.77 (mean = 0.38), while that of fiber strength ranged from 0.19 to 0.58 (mean = 0.35) using randomly selected sub-populations as the training population. Prediction accuracies from the MxE model were higher than those for single-site and across-site models, with an average accuracy of 0.71 and 0.59 for fiber length and strength, respectively. The use of the MxE model could therefore identify which breeding lines have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for GxE and so reduce the amount of phenotypic screening required in cotton breeding programs to identify adaptable genotypes.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FYoAep
via IFTTT

Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola), limber pine (Pinus flexilis), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2GOBBZs
via IFTTT

Exploring Bacteroidetes: metabolic key points and immunological tricks of our gut commensals

Bacteroidetes are the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract and are considered the leading players of the healthy state and sophisticated homeostasis safeguarded by gut microbiota. Furthermore, specific roles have been attributed to some Bacteroidetes genera in the development of immune dysregulation, systemic disease such as metabolic syndrome and also neurological disorders. Glycoproteins secretion, short fatty acids imbalance, toxins production and molecular mimicry are only a part of the functions exerted by these commensals interacting with the host.

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2HQu9wa
via IFTTT

A hairy polypoid lesion of the colon



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2GPhk64
via IFTTT

C-11 Choline and F-18 Fluciclovine PET/CT demonstration of annular pancreas



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2HNhwSA
via IFTTT

WHEN AND HOW SHOULD WE PERFORM A BIOPSY FOR HCC IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS IN 2018? A REVIEW

The role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has changed over time. The diagnostic algorithm for this tumour is nowadays mainly based on radiological imaging, relegating histology to controversial cases, in which imaging techniques cannot establish a clear-cut diagnosis. This most commonly happens in small lesions, where biopsies frequently become mandatory, or in larger hypovascularized lesions. In this case however, the histological examination may not be reliable enough to grade the lesion, as different cell clones, deriving from sequential mutations, can originate heterogeneous cell populations.

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2G9KFtG
via IFTTT

P.09.17 PNPLA3 RS738409 POLYMORPHISM PREDICTS THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE SEVERITY OF HEPATIC STEATOSIS, BUT NOT METABOLIC SYNDROME, IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FWpvvS
via IFTTT

Exploring Bacteroidetes: metabolic key points and immunological tricks of our gut commensals

Bacteroidetes are the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract and are considered the leading players of the healthy state and sophisticated homeostasis safeguarded by gut microbiota. Furthermore, specific roles have been attributed to some Bacteroidetes genera in the development of immune dysregulation, systemic disease such as metabolic syndrome and also neurological disorders. Glycoproteins secretion, short fatty acids imbalance, toxins production and molecular mimicry are only a part of the functions exerted by these commensals interacting with the host.

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2HQu9wa
via IFTTT

A hairy polypoid lesion of the colon



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2GPhk64
via IFTTT

C-11 Choline and F-18 Fluciclovine PET/CT demonstration of annular pancreas



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2HNhwSA
via IFTTT

WHEN AND HOW SHOULD WE PERFORM A BIOPSY FOR HCC IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS IN 2018? A REVIEW

The role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has changed over time. The diagnostic algorithm for this tumour is nowadays mainly based on radiological imaging, relegating histology to controversial cases, in which imaging techniques cannot establish a clear-cut diagnosis. This most commonly happens in small lesions, where biopsies frequently become mandatory, or in larger hypovascularized lesions. In this case however, the histological examination may not be reliable enough to grade the lesion, as different cell clones, deriving from sequential mutations, can originate heterogeneous cell populations.

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2G9KFtG
via IFTTT

P.09.17 PNPLA3 RS738409 POLYMORPHISM PREDICTS THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE SEVERITY OF HEPATIC STEATOSIS, BUT NOT METABOLIC SYNDROME, IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FWpvvS
via IFTTT

Effects of exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages on adipocyte gene expression, differentiation, and insulin-dependent glucose uptake

Abstract

Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response. The objective of the present research is to investigate the effect of exosomes released by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages on gene expression and cell metabolism of adipocytes, focusing on the differential exosomal miRNA pattern between LPS- and non-activated macrophages. The results show that the exosomes secreted by the macrophages do not influence the preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation process, fat storage, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, exosomes induce changes in adipocyte gene expression depending on their origin (LPS- or non-activated macrophages), including genes such as CXCL5, SOD, TNFAIP3, C3, and CD34. Some of the pathways or metabolic processes upregulated by exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages are related to inflammation (complement activation, regulation of reactive oxygen species, migration and activation of leukocyte, and monocyte chemotaxis), carbohydrate catabolism, and cell activation. miR-530, chr9_22532, and chr16_34840 are more abundant in exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages, whereas miR-127, miR-143, and miR-486 are more abundant in those secreted by non-activated macrophages.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2psz8MR
via IFTTT

Paramedic - Falck Rocky Mountain

Falck Rocky Mountain is proud to be the exclusive emergency ambulance provider for the City of Aurora, Colorado. Following a competitive bid process, Falck was recommended unanimously as the provider of choice by a committee of local hospital representatives, fire department subject matter experts, and City of Aurora management and finance staff. With our innovative public/private partnership with Aurora ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2psC0bz
via IFTTT

Evaluation of 99mTc-Labeled Bevacizumab–N-HYNIC Conjugate in Human Ovarian Tumor Xenografts

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2DIDrYn
via IFTTT

Evaluation of 99mTc-Labeled Bevacizumab–N-HYNIC Conjugate in Human Ovarian Tumor Xenografts

Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Ahead of Print.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2IBr1p0
via IFTTT

Metabolic shift from glycogen to trehalose promotes lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

As Western diets continue to include an ever-increasing amount of sugar, there has been a rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes. To avoid metabolic diseases, the body must maintain proper metabolism, even on a high-sugar diet. In both humans and Caenorhabditis elegans, excess sugar (glucose) is stored as glycogen....

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FW0alK
via IFTTT

RNAi is a critical determinant of centromere evolution in closely related fungi [Genetics]

The centromere DNA locus on a eukaryotic chromosome facilitates faithful chromosome segregation. Despite performing such a conserved function, centromere DNA sequence as well as the organization of sequence elements is rapidly evolving in all forms of eukaryotes. The driving force that facilitates centromere evolution remains an enigma. Here, we studied...

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2Gc98ib
via IFTTT

Intermediate filament accumulation can stabilize microtubules in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons [Genetics]

Neural circuits utilize a coordinated cellular machinery to form and eliminate synaptic connections, with the neuronal cytoskeleton playing a prominent role. During larval development of Caenorhabditis elegans, synapses of motor neurons are stereotypically rewired through a process facilitated by dynamic microtubules (MTs). Through a genetic suppressor screen on mutant animals...

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2HRi2Pj
via IFTTT

Age-dependent expression pattern in the mammalian brain of a novel, small peptide encoded in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region

S1567133X.gif

Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Sabrina Kragness, Mark A.A. Harrison, Joby J. Westmoreland, Adam Burstain, Laurie R. Earls
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) carries increased risk for both physical and psychiatric symptoms, including a high risk for schizophrenia. Understanding the genetic elements within the deletion region therefore has the potential to unlock the mysteries of both diseases. While most of the protein-coding genes in this region have been characterized, novel elements, such as non-coding RNAs and small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) remain unstudied. We have identified a novel, highly-conserved mouse sORF in a region of the mouse genome that is orthologous to a portion of the 22q11 deletion. This region was previously associated with age-dependent synaptic plasticity abnormalities. We refer to it as the Plasticity Associated Neural Transcript Short, or Pants. In developing and aging mouse brain, Pants expression is strongest in hippocampus, especially in areas CA3 and CA2, throughout the dorsoventral axis. The Pants peptide is expressed throughout the hippocampus, with an age-dependent increase in stratum lucidum at 16 weeks of age. This expression pattern suggests a potential role for Pants in many hippocampal behaviors, as well as a potential role in the age-dependent neurologic deficits displayed by 22q11DS model mice and patients.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2HRptGh
via IFTTT

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Enterotoxin-Encoding Genes in Staphylococcus spp. Recovered from Kitchen Equipment from a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FW3Dk9
via IFTTT

Role of GABA in the regulation of the central circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Abstract

In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear. GABA exhibits excitatory and/or inhibitory characteristics depending on the circadian phase or region in the SCN. It can both synchronize and destabilize cellular circadian rhythms in individual SCN cells. Differing environmental light conditions, such as a long photoperiod, result in the decoupling of circadian oscillators of the dorsal and ventral SCN. This is due to high intracellular chloride concentrations in the dorsal SCN. Because mice with functional GABA deficiency, such as vesicular GABA transporter- and glutamate decarboxylase-deficient mice, are neonatal lethal, research has been limited to pharmacological approaches. Furthermore, different recording methods have been used to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN. The excitability of GABAergic neurons also changes during the postnatal period. Although there are technical difficulties in understanding the functions of GABA in the SCN, technical developments may help uncover new roles of GABA in circadian physiology and behavior.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2pqTVjD
via IFTTT

CRISPR/Cas9-edited Pax6-GFP reporter system facilitates the generation of mouse neural progenitor cells during differentiation

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Yanni Li, Xu Li, Haisong Wang, Qian Gao, Jinxin Zhang, Wenhao Zhang, Zhisong Zhang, Luyuan Li, Yang Yu, Ling Shuai




from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2DGjeCH
via IFTTT

Advancing quantitative techniques to improve understanding of the skeletal structure-function relationship

Although all functional movement arises from the interplay between the neurological, skeletal, and muscular systems, it is the skeletal system that forms the basic framework for functional movement. Central to...

from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2Izp5gF
via IFTTT

Pacing in Swimming: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Pacing strategy, or how energy is distributed during exercise, can substantially impact athletic performance and is considered crucial for optimal performance in many sports. This is particularly true in swimming given the highly resistive properties of water and low mechanical efficiency of the swimming action.

Objectives

The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pacing strategies utilised by competitive swimmers in competition and their reproducibility, and to examine the impact of different pacing strategies on kinematic, metabolic and performance variables. This will provide valuable and practical information to coaches and sports science practitioners.

Data Sources

The databases Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched for published articles up to 1 August 2017.

Study Selection

A total of 23 studies examining pool-based swimming competitions or experimental trials in English-language and peer-reviewed journals were included in this review.

Results

In short- and middle-distance swimming events maintenance of swimming velocity is critical, whereas in long-distance events a low lap-to-lap variability and the ability to produce an end spurt in the final lap(s) are key. The most effective strategy in the individual medley (IM) is to conserve energy during the butterfly leg to optimise performance in subsequent legs. The pacing profiles of senior swimmers remain relatively stable irrespective of opponents, competition stage or type, and performance time.

Conclusion

Implementing event-specific pacing strategies should benefit the performance of competitive swimmers. Given differences between swimmers, there is a need for greater individualisation when considering pacing strategy selection across distances and strokes.



from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2GMBeyn
via IFTTT

Protein Availability and Satellite Cell Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle

Abstract

Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise. While many studies have investigated the capacity for protein ingestion to increase post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, few investigations have examined the role for protein ingestion to modulate satellite cell activity. Here we review the molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of satellite cells in response to mechanical stress and protein intake in both in vitro and in vivo models. We provide a mechanistic framework that describes how protein ingestion may enhance satellite activity and promote exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.



from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2pvRtsr
via IFTTT

Intraoperative red blood cell transfusion, delayed graft function, and infection after kidney transplant: an observational cohort study

Abstract

Background

Kidney transplant patients are frequently anemic and at risk for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Previous studies suggest that pre-transplant RBC transfusion may improve kidney transplant outcomes; however, RBC transfusion is also associated with infection. The purpose of our study was to characterize the relationships between intraoperative RBC transfusion, delayed graft function (DGF), postoperative surgical site infection (SSI), and sepsis.

Methods

Analysis was performed on a historical cohort of adult kidney transplant patients from a single medical center during a two-year period. Crude odds ratios for DGF, superficial and deep SSI, and sepsis were calculated for transfused patients and multivariate regression was used to control for potential confounders when significant relationships were identified.

Results

Four hundred forty-one patients had kidney transplant during the study period; 27.0% had RBC transfusion, 38.8% had DGF, 7.0% had superficial SSI, 7.9% had deep SSI, and 1.8% had sepsis. High dose RBC transfusion was associated with improved graft function, but this was negated after adjusting for confounders (OR = 0.86, 95% CI  0.26 to 2.88). There was no association between RBC transfusion and SSI. RBC transfusion was independently associated with sepsis (OR = 8.98, 95% CI  1.52 to 53.22), but the confidence interval was wide.

Conclusions

Intraoperative RBC transfusion during kidney transplant is not associated with improved allograft function or incisional SSI, but is associated with postoperative sepsis. RBCs should not be liberally transfused during kidney transplant surgery to improve graft outcomes.



from Anaesthesiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FORRvY
via IFTTT

Feasibility and safety of general anesthesia for bronchial thermoplasty: a description of early 10 treatments

Abstract

Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a recently introduced bronchoscopic treatment for patients with asthma refractory to pharmacotherapy. Intraprocedural sedation management is important for successful performance of BT. However, the results of general anesthesia in patients undergoing BT have not been well described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of general anesthesia in patients undergoing BT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 10 consecutive BT treatments performed under general anesthesia in 4 patients. The feasibility outcomes were coughing and body movement during the procedure, procedure abandonment, and the relative frequency of thermal activation failure. The safety outcomes were bronchospasm and hypoxemia during the procedure, respiratory symptoms, and the need for oxygen after the procedure. Coughing occurred in two treatments. Neither body movement nor procedure abandonment occurred in any treatments. Neither intraprocedural bronchospasm nor hypoxemia occurred in any treatments. Respiratory symptoms occurred in 7 of 10 treatments within 1 day after the procedure and resolved within 4 days, which is comparable with a previous report. These results indicate that general anesthesia is feasible and safe for patients undergoing BT.



from Anaesthesiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2DJNLQc
via IFTTT