Παρασκευή, 16 Ιουνίου 2017

Systematic identification and characterization of miRNAs and piRNAs from porcine testes

Abstract

microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) execute important regulatory roles in testis development and spermatogenesis, while previous studies mainly focus on the expression profiles in immature and mature porcine testes, which may cause a bottleneck for further understanding their complex physiological processes in porcine testes development and spermatogenesis. Thus, we presented the expression and characterization of miRNAs and piRNAs in DS (60-day-old), DN (90-day-old), DT (120-day-old) and DF (150-day-old) pig testes. In total, 12,834,628, 13,359,726, 12,851,249 and 12,938,601 clean reads were generated from these libraries, respectively. 293 mature and 36 novel miRNAs as well as 4923 piRNA clusters were identified from pig testes, and they showed an age-dependent manner. GO enrichment analysis of miRNA target genes and piRNA generated genes showed that they participated widely in regulating the pig spermatogenesis process. In addition, 12 differentially expressed miRNAs were randomly selected to validate using qRT-PCR. Our results provided novel comprehensive expression profiles of miRNAs and piRNAs in pig testes at different stages of sexual maturity, which will promote our knowledge of them in regulating the pig testes development and spermatogenesis process.



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Identification and comparative analysis of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata hemocytes microRNAs in response to Vibrio alginolyticus infection

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules that function as negative regulators of gene expression and play important roles in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including in immune response. However, the physiological regulation function of Pinctada fucata miRNAs, specially their immunomodulation has not been explored yet. Here, two small RNA libraries from hemocytes of P. fucata with or without Vibrio alginolyticus infection were constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina deep sequencing technology. In total, 11,939,992 and 11,083,327 raw reads, corresponding to 10,993,546 and 9,988,179 clean reads, were respectively obtained in the control and infected libraries. A total of 276 miRNAs, including 225 known miRNAs and 51 putative novel miRNAs, were identified by bioinformatic analysis. By using pairwise comparison between two libraries, 93 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed, with 42 and 51 miRNAs exhibiting up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. Thereinto, some known miRNAs were considered to be immune-related. Real-time PCR were implemented for 6 miRNAs co-expressed in the control and infected samples, and agreement was confirmed between the high-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR data. After miRNA targets were predicted, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed, and the results indicated that ten of the differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in immune-related pathways, and might participate in the host immune response to V. alginolyticus. These results of identification and comparative analysis of miRNAs might deepen our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immune defense mechanisms in P. fucata.



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Genome-wide analysis of the PHB gene family in Glycine max (L.) Merr.

Abstract

Prohibitins (PHBs) have one SPFH domain in common and present in species ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although a number of researches on PHBs were performed in different plant species, a systematic analysis of the PHB family in soybean is still remains uncharacterized. In the present study, 24 putative PHB genes have been first systemically identified in soybean. According to phylogenetic analysis, these GmPHBs could be classified into four groups. Gene structures and motif patterns showed high levels of conservation within the phylogenetic subgroups. Several members of this family have undergone purifying selection based on Ka/Ks analysis on duplicated PHB genes in soybean. We performed microsynteny analysis across four legume species based on the comparisons among the specific regions contained in PHB genes. As a result, numerous microsyntenic gene pairs among soybean, Medicago, Lotus and Phaseolus were identified. Most soybean PHB genes exhibited different expression levels in various tissues and developmental stages through expression analysis using publicly available RNA-seq datasets. The 11 GmPHB genes from III_B subgroup were examined by qPCR for their expression in two soybean cultivar after infection by Phytophthora sojae. Besides three GmPHB genes previous reported by us, here other four genes also were rapidly induced by P. sojae infection in the resistant genotype, while induction was very weak in the susceptible genotype. The comprehensive overview of the PHB gene family in soybean genome will provide useful information for further functional analysis of the PHB gene family in soybean.



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Inhibition of the AKT/mTOR Pathway Augments the Anticancer Effects of Sorafenib in Thyroid Cancer

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2017, Vol. 32, No. 5: 176-183.


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Molecular Targeted Drugs and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: Recent Progress and Future Perspectives

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2017, Vol. 32, No. 5: 149-160.


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Inhibition of the AKT/mTOR Pathway Augments the Anticancer Effects of Sorafenib in Thyroid Cancer

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2017, Vol. 32, No. 5: 176-183.


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Molecular Targeted Drugs and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: Recent Progress and Future Perspectives

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2017, Vol. 32, No. 5: 149-160.


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Association of Hip Radiograph Findings with Pain and Function in Patients Presenting with Low Back Pain

Relationships between low back pain (LBP) and the hip in patient cohorts have been described primarily in patients with moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis (OA). Less is known about the links of LBP with hip radiographic findings of hip deformity and minimal OA.

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Prevalence of Bleeding Complications Following Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patiens on Anticoagulation or Antiplatelet Therapy

Patients on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy may be at higher risk of bleeding complications following intramuscular chemodenervation injections. Musculoskeletal ultrasound may be able to reduce the risk of bleeding complications by providing real time visualization of vascular structures and post-injection monitoring. Limited data exist addressing risk of bleeding complications following ultrasound-guided botulinum neurotoxin intramuscular chemodenervation procedures in the setting of anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy.

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Can sagittal approach for cadaveric study of TTP block spread more than transverse approach?

An ultrasound-guided transversus thoracic plane (TTP) block can release the pain at internal mammary area [1,2]. An injection point of the TTP block was between the transversus thoracic muscle and the intercostal muscle between the fourth and fifth ribs next to the sternum [3]. The spread of local anesthetic for peripheral nerve block is important for good perioperative pain management. In particular, the spread of local anesthetic for the TTP block is more important because of trunk block. There was no study, which investigated the difference of local anesthetic's spread in approach of the TTP block.

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Inhalation versus intravenous anaesthesia for adults undergoing on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

To compare the use of inhalation versus intravenous anaesthesia for adults undergoing on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

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Neuraxial hypothermia incidence misinterpreted

We read with interest the recent systematic review by Shaw et al. [1] and applaud the authors for discussing the prevalence of perioperative hypothermia in patients receiving neuraxial anesthetics. However, we have concerns that they have inaccurately interpreted the data of a 2017 publication by Frisch et al. [2] examining hypothermia in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty, a population that often receives neuraxial anesthesia. When describing the Frisk et al. study, the Shaw et al.

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Overnight call and cognitive functioning: Will tablet-based assessment be the solution for safety check in residents?

In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Williams and colleagues investigated whether measurable sensorimotor and executive function differences exist in anesthesiology residents after a single overnight call shift versus a routine daytime shift using two tablet-based pointing tasks (i.e., ProPoint and AntiPoint) [1]. They found increased reaction times on both tasks amongst overnight call residents compared to those residents working daytime hours, which was suggestive of sensorimotor and cognitive slowing in the overnight call residents.

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Dexmedetomidine and Renal Protection after Cardiac Surgery

Dexmedetomidine is a well-known alpha 2 adrenergic agonist and widely used drug. First approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1999 as a sedative, now dexmedetomidine has been a focus of extensive research because of its anti-inflammatory, sympatholytic actions. In a recent study Brandao et al. has described significantly lower reoperation rate, neurological injury, decrease hospital stay and improved thirty day mortality in their retrospective analysis of cardiac surgical patients who received dexmedetomidine during procedure [1].

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Sensorimotor and executive function slowing in anesthesiology residents after overnight shifts

Medical residents working overnight call shifts experience sleep deprivation and circadian clock disruption. This leads to deficits in sensorimotor function and increases in workplace accidents. Using quick tablet-based tasks, we investigate whether measureable executive function differences exist following a single overnight call versus routine shift, and whether factors like stress, rest and caffeine affect these measures.

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The LMA Supreme: Is it a suitable alternative to the i-gel and LMA ProSeal for airway maintenance in children?

In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Bhattacharjee and colleagues [1] present their results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the LMA Supreme™ (Teleflex; Triangle park, NC USA) with the i-gel™ (Intersurgical, Wokingham UK) and LMA ProSeal™ (Teleflex; Triangle park, NC USA) in children. This comparison of supraglottic airway (SGA) devices is timely, as emerging data continues to suggest that SGA use for airway management in children result in fewer peri-operative airway complications when compared to tracheal intubation [2,3].

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Erratum to “Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists” [J Clin Anesth 38 (2017) 107–110]

The authors regret that the affiliation A was incorrectly displayed. This affiliation should read "Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd S, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA".

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Fishing for answers in an ocean of data: The potential for big data analytics to enhance our knowledge of the complex regional pain syndromes

In an era of expanding costs and declining reimbursement, the healthcare industry has dramatically expanded the collection of demographic and clinical data to facilitate billing efficiency and maintain financial solvency. Electronic health data collection has primarily emphasized the capture of diagnostic coding, medication delivery, laboratory utilization, and procedural interventions to support third party reimbursement claims, improve efficiency, and provide transparency. Although much of the electronic stored data was never directly intended to answer clinical questions, or guide clinical care, the use of data analytics has created opportunities to winnow through the vast data collections and pull out useful insights into previously unrecognized patterns of common and uncommon medical disorders [1–3].

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Bioimpedence: A noninvasive measure of stroke volume and cardiac output

If a non-invasive measure of cardiac output is not accurate is it still non-invasive?

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Revolutionizing medication administration safety: Automated carts are here - Are anesthesiologists ready?

In this month's issue of the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Wang and colleagues [1] present a randomized controlled trial assessing the use of an automated operating room anesthesia cart and its effect on the recording of medication errors. A search of the US National Library of Medicine database (PubMed, at http://ift.tt/1cTZOuj) for the term, "medication error" performed at the time of the writing of this editorial retrieved a total of 17,808 citations. So, why is another such article needed? In this innovative and important study, 78 anesthesiologists were trained on the use of an automated medication-dispensing cart, and the anesthetic management then was randomized to intraoperative medication administration using either the automated cart or a conventional manual cart [1].

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Acute pain management in the pediatric ambulatory setting: How do we optimize the child's postoperative experience?

The accompanying article by Cai and colleagues in this edition of The Journal of Clinical Anesthesia characterizes factors that influence postoperative pain in 204 healthy preschool age children during the first two weeks following outpatient surgery. [1] Postoperative pain management is a complex and challenging issue in pediatrics, especially with regard to ambulatory surgery. The authors, in their prospective study, explored the impact of various demographic, intra-operative, and parental factors on both pain and behavior-related outcomes in young children undergoing outpatient surgical procedures.

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Did we open a treasure chest of chest blocks? The jury is out.

According to estimates from the American Cancer Society, there will be more than 250,000 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the United States with breast cancer remaining as the second leading cause of over 40,000 cancer deaths in women in the year 2017 [1]. Many patients who are diagnosed will choose to undergo multiple oncoplastic surgical interventions, including breast conserving and reconstructive procedures. For these patients, acute postoperative and chronic pain remains a prevalent and devastating outcome that impacts on physical and psychosocial well-being.

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Acetaminophen and ondansetron: The central serotonergic connection

Acetaminophen is one of the most widely used analgesic drugs, yet the exact mechanism of its analgesic effect remains largely unknown. Although originally thought to share similar mechanistic properties with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, acetaminophen is only weakly anti-inflammatory [1] and appears to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis centrally rather than peripherally, accounting for its antipyretic activity [2]. However, COX inhibition by acetaminophen may only occur under specific low peroxide conditions, likely explaining its known tissue selectivity [3].

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Perioperative use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists

Clinical repercussions of perioperative treatment with ACEIs/ARBs.

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Workload, efficiency, and productivity following open access scheduling in a gastrointestinal endoscopy suite

In this issue of the Journal, Tsai and colleagues describe a managerial intervention in their gastrointestinal endoscopy suite to accommodate the scheduling of additional cases for a new pediatric gastroenterologist on one day of the week [1]. Their intervention was to share the 2 existing locations with first case starts among the 3 separate gastroenterology groups, rather to expand the number of anesthetizing locations staffed at the start of the workday from 2 to 3 locations. One anesthesia provider was allocated to one adult group, and the other provider was shared between a second adult gastroenterology group and a new pediatric gastroenterologist in the third group.

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Maurice S. Albin, pioneer neuroanesthesiologist dies at 93; pioneered spinal cord injury care

Maurice Simeon Albin, MD, MSc, a pioneering anesthesiologist who specialized in neuroanesthesia, died at age 93 in Birmingham, Alabama.

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Assessing effects of intubating stylet use on early postoperative pharyngeal pain

In a small size randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of stylet use during tracheal intubation on early postoperative pharyngeal pain in anesthetized patients, Komasawa et al. [1] show that stylet use results in an increased incidence of early postoperative pharyngeal pain. To differentiate the effects of one factor on primary study endpoint, however, all of other factors have to be standardized for avoidance of potential biases. In this study, postoperative pharyngeal pain was evaluated when patients leaved operation room after sufficient recovery.

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The effect of ondansetron on analgesic efficacy of acetaminophen after hysterectomy: A randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial

To determine that perioperative ondansetron reduces the analgesic efficacy of acetaminophen.

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Post-operative cognitive dysfunction after total knee arthroplasty: It ain't what you do, it's the way that you do it

In this edition, Tanaka et al. [1] describe a prospective study designed to ascertain whether propofol vs desflurane anesthesia affects the incidence of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in elderly obese patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

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A 64-bp sequence containing the GAAGA motif is essential for CaMV-35S promoter methylation in gentian

Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Asahi Shimada, Azusa Okumura, Satoshi Yamasaki, Yuji Iwata, Nozomu Koizumi, Masahiro Nishihara, Kei-ichiro Mishiba
This study investigated sequence specificity and perenniality of DNA methylation in the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter of transgenic gentian (Gentiana triflora×G. scabra) plants. Unlike conventional transgene silencing models, 35S promoter hypermethylation in gentian is species-specific and occurs irrespective of the T-DNA copy number and genomic location. Modified 35S promoters were introduced into gentian, and single-copy transgenic lines were selected for methylation analysis. Modified 35S promoter lacking a core (−90) region [35S(Δcore)] in gentian conferred hypermethylation and high levels of de novo methylation of the CpHpH/CpCpG sites in the 35S enhancer regions (−298 to −241 and −148 to −85). Therefore, promoter transcription may not be an absolute requirement for the methylation machinery. In vitro, de novo methylation persisted for more than eight years. In another modified 35S promoter, two "GAAGA" motifs (−268 to −264 and −134 to −131) were replaced by "GTTCA" in the two highly de novo methylated regions. It did not support hypermethylation and showed transgene expression. A 64-bp fragment of the 35S enhancer region (−148 to −85) was introduced into gentian and the resultant transgenic lines analyzed. The 64-bp region exhibited hypermethylation at the CpG/CpWpG sites, but the CpHpH/CpCpG methylation frequency was lower than those of the unmodified 35S- and 35S(Δcore) promoters. Nevertheless, a distinct CpHpH/CpCpG methylation peak was found in the 64-bp region of all single-copy transgenic lines. These results suggest that the 64-bp region may contain an element required for 35S methylation but insufficient for high de novo methylation compared with those in the unmodified 35S and 35S(Δcore) promoters.



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Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and cytology for differentiating benign from malignant lymph nodes

Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Hussein Okasha, Shaimaa Elkholy, Mohamed Sayed, Ahmed Salman, Yahia Elsherif, Emad El-Gemeie
Background and study aimsIntra-abdominal and mediastinal lymphadenopathy are often difficult to diagnose, particularly in the absence of a primary lesion. Endosonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration and cytology (FNAC) has provided an easy and safe access to these lymph nodes, sparing the use of invasive and costly interventions. The main aim of this study is to assess the specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value of EUS-guided FNAC in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lymph nodes. In addition, the study aims to determine significant EUS features that could help in predicting lymph node malignancy.Patients and methodsThis prospective study included 142 patients with intra-abdominal or intrathoracic lymphadenopathy who were referred for EUS-guided FNAC because of inaccessibility by other imaging modalities. Ninety (63.3%) patients were found to have malignant lymph nodes, and 52 (36.6%) had lymphadenopathy of benign nature.ResultsEUS-guided FNAC had a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 100% respectively. It had positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 88% for malignancy, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, EUS features and shortest diameter were found to be potential predictors of malignancy with p-value of <0.0001.ConclusionEUS-guided FNAC is a powerful modality in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lymph nodes. Additional complementary EUS features could be added to this technique for definitive diagnosis.



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Comparative study on the effect of low intensity laser and growth factors on stem cells used in experimentally-induced liver fibrosis in mice

Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Eman Naguib, Ashraf Kamel, Osama Fekry, Gamal Abdelfattah
Background and study aimsThe therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) exposed to diode laser and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were compared in mice with experimental liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetra chloride (CCl4).Material and methodsAnimal model of liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 0.4ml/kg, twice a week for 6weeks. UC-MSCs were obtained from normal full term placentas and were exposed to diode laser and/or HGF. Before treatment, UC-MSCs were labelled with red fluorescent PKH26. Fifty four male mice weighing 25–35g were randomly divided into four groups control, stem cells, CCl4, and treated groups. After the experimental period, body and liver weights were recorded, and the liver specimens were processed for histological examination using haematoxylin and eosin, Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS), and Masson's Trichrome staining (MT).ResultsResults showed that administration of UC-MSCs stimulated by diode laser and/or HGF improved body and liver weights, reduced vascular dilatation and congestion, reduced mononuclear cellular infiltration, reduced hepatocyte vacuolation, eosinophilia, and pyknosis. Furthermore, periportal fibrosis was minimized and PAS reaction was increased. These effects were maximum when UC-MSCs were exposed to both diode laser and HGF.ConclusionUC-MSCs stimulated by both diode laser and HGF proved to be an effective therapeutic option in experimental liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in mice.



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Novel use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for drainage of perirectal abscess. A case series

Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Mindy Lee, Manhal Izzy, Sammy Ho




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Transcriptional Complexity and Distinct Expression Patterns of auts2 Paralogs in Danio rerio

Several genes that have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders are large and have multiple transcripts. Neurons are especially enriched with longer transcripts compared to non-neural cell types. The human autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene is ~1.2 Mb long and is implicated in a number of neurological disorders including autism, intellectual disability, addiction and developmental delay. Recent studies show AUTS2 to be important for activation of transcription of neural specific genes, neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth. However, much remains to be understood regarding the transcriptional complexity and the functional roles of AUTS2 in neurodevelopment. Zebrafish provide an excellent model system for studying both these questions. We undertook genomic identification and characterization of auts2 and its paralogous genes in zebrafish. There are four auts2 family genes in zebrafish: auts2a, auts2b, fbrsl1 and fbrs. The absence of complete annotation of their structures hampers functional studies. We present evidence for transcriptional complexity of these four genes mediated by alternative splicing and alternative promoter usage. Furthermore, the expression of the various paralogs is tightly regulated both spatially and developmentally. Our findings suggest that auts2 paralogs serve distinct functions in the development and functioning of target tissues.



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Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis

Whole genome duplication can have large impacts on genome evolution, and much remains unknown about these impacts. This includes the mechanisms of coping with a duplicated sex determination system and whether this has an impact on increasing the diversity of sex determination mechanisms. Other impacts include sexual conflict, where alleles having different optimums in each sex can result in sequestration of genes into non-recombining sex chromosomes. Sex chromosome development itself may involve sex-specific recombination rate (i.e. heterochiasmy), which is also poorly understood. Family Salmonidae is a model system for these phenomena, having undergone autotetraploidization and subsequent rediploidization in most of the genome at the base of the lineage. The salmonid master sex determining gene is known, and many species have non-homologous sex chromosomes, putatively due to transposition of this gene. In this study, we identify the sex chromosome of Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis and compare sex chromosome identities across the lineage (eight species, four genera). Although non-homology is frequent, homologous sex chromosomes and other consistencies are present in distantly related species, indicating probable convergence on specific sex and neo-sex chromosomes. We also characterize strong heterochiasmy with 2.7-fold more crossovers in maternal than paternal haplotypes with paternal crossovers biased to chromosome ends. When considering only rediploidized chromosomes, the overall heterochiasmy trend remains, although with only 1.9-fold more recombination in the female than the male. Y chromosome crossovers are restricted to a single end of the chromosome, and this chromosome contains a large interspecific inversion, although its status between males and females remains unknown. Finally, we identify QTL for 21 unique growth, reproductive and stress-related phenotypes to improve knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits important to aquaculture and evolution.



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Conservation of BMP2/4 expression patterns within the clade Branchiostoma (amphioxus): Resolving interspecific discrepancies

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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Luok Wen Yong, Stéphanie Bertrand, Jr-Kai Yu, Hector Escriva, Nicholas D. Holland
In 2016, Kaji et al. concluded that the amphioxus mouth has the quality of a coelomoduct and is, therefore, not homologous to the oral opening of any other animal. They studied a Japanese population of Branchiostoma japonicum and based their conclusion, in part, on the larval expression of BMP2/4 in cells that reportedly joined the rim of the forming mouth. They did not detect transcription of that gene in any other tissues in the anterior region of the larva. Their results were almost the inverse of findings for B. floridae by Panopoulou et al. (1998), who detected BMP2/4 expression in several anterior tissues, but not in cells intimately associated with the nascent mouth. To resolve this discrepancy, we have studied BMP2/4 in a Chinese population of B. japonicum as well as in an additional species, the European B. lanceolatum. In both species, larval expression of BMP2/4 closely resembles the pattern previously reported for B. floridae—that is, transcription is undetectable in tissues juxtaposed to the forming mouth, but is seen in several other anterior structures (most conspicuously in the lining of the rostral coelom and the club-shaped gland). In sum, we could not repeat the BMP2/4 expression pattern of Kaji et al. (2016) even in the same species, and their findings for this gene, at least, cannot be counted as a support for their hypothesis for a coelomoduct mouth.



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Differential expression of long noncoding RNAs in congenital microtia

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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Ling Zhang, Lin Lin, Yu-Peng Song, Bo Pan, Qing-Hua Yang, Hai-Yue Jiang
ObjectiveTo analyse lncRNA expression profiles in microtia using bioinformatics analysis.MethodsWe examined lncRNA expression profiles in residual ear cartilage and normal ear cartilage from individual congenital microtia patients.ResultsThe gene chips used in this study included 30586 lncRNAs and 26109 mRNA probes. Intotal, 180 lncRNAs with differential expression weredetected in the residual ear cartilage compared with the normal cartilage, including 74 up-regulated and 106down-regulated lncRNAs. Signalling pathway analysis highlighted glyceride metabolism, osteoclast differentiation, andtumour growth. The results of qRT-PCR analysis were consistent with those of themicroarray.ConclusionDifferential expression of lncRNAs occurs in microtia. These lncRNAs and related signalling pathways may play an important role in the occurrence and development ofmicrotia.



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Expression analyses of salinity stress- associated ESTs in Aeluropus littoralis

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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Tayebeh Kakeshpour, Sajad Rashidi Monfared, Amin Ebrahimi, Arman Beyraghdar Kashkooli, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Salinity is among the most important abiotic stresses affecting crop production throughout the earth. Halophyte plants can sustain high salinity levels, therefore elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying their salinity resistance is beneficial for crop improvement. Aeluropus littoralis, a halophyte weed, is a great genetic resource for this purpose. Isolated expressed sequence taq (EST) sequences from A. littoralis under salinity stress, have given us the chance to find and analyze transcripts of genes involved in response to salinity. Transcriptome analyses indicated the expression levels of mRNAs corresponding to 10 of sequences were increased under treatments. All mRNAs were significantly induced under salt treatment with the highest peaks observed at different hours of treatments. Moreover, the full-length cDNA of vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (VP) was isolated utilizing 3′ and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) and characterized (GenBank accession number of KT253223.1). The extracted full-length of VP was 2732 bp, which contained ORF of 2292 bp encoding 763 amino acids.



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Lateralization of housekeeping genes in the brain of one-day old chicks

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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Jacek Lenart, Klaudia Kogut, Elzbieta Salinska
Real-time quantitative PCR is an exceptionally sensitive method that can detect even very small differences in gene expression and, as such, it is essential to use suitable reference genes. Domestic chickens are used in a wide range of studies including neurobiology, behavior, ecology and disease transmission. In recent avian gene expression experiments, 18S (18S ribosomal RNA), beta actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) have frequently been used; however, there is not enough evidence that these reference genes are suitable for all types of experiments. There is considerable evidence for lateralization in numerous learning tasks and for differences in the functional contribution of the two brain hemispheres. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify a set of reference genes for chick brain region called an intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), which is connected with memory formation in the chick brain, whilst also taking into consideration the differences between the left and right hemispheres. This study evaluated the expression stability of eleven candidate housekeeping genes in the IMM region of the 1-day old chick brain. In our experimental system, the most reliable results were given by the NormFinder algorithm. The results show for the first time that ACTB, commonly used as an avian reference gene, is not suitable for investigation of gene expression in the chick brain and that brain lateralization exact selection of different reference gens for each hemisphere. For memory process investigations using tasks in one-day old chicks the most effective reference genes for the left hemisphere were HMBS and SDHA, and for the right hemisphere the most effective was RPL19.



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Parents who lost child to heart disease placing AEDs around Ill. town

The Greg Holthaus Memorial Fund partnered with St. Joseph's Hospital to place AEDs near high schools

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Paramedic *$7500 Sign-On Bonus! - Sanford Health

JOB SUMMARY Responds immediately to emergency calls; provides medical support and care for patients in the pre-hospital environment. Assesses emergency medical calls to identify patient needs and requirements and to determine best course of action. Provides advanced medical care and basic life support service to patients, using appropriate medical equipment, devices and treatment modalities. Communicates ...

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Paramedics and EMTs Needed - UCHealth

At UCHealth, we do things differently We believe in something different: a focus on the individuality of every person. In big ways and small, we exist to improve the extraordinary lives of all those we serve. As Colorado's largest and most innovative health care system, we as a team deliver on the commitment to provide the best possible experience for our patients and their families. We foster a true ...

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Assessment of Metabolic Flexibility by Means of Measuring Blood Lactate, Fat, and Carbohydrate Oxidation Responses to Exercise in Professional Endurance Athletes and Less-Fit Individuals

Abstract

Background

Increased muscle mitochondrial mass is characteristic of elite professional endurance athletes (PAs), whereas increased blood lactate levels (lactatemia) at the same absolute submaximal exercise intensities and decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity are characteristics of individuals with low aerobic power. In contrast to PAs, patients with metabolic syndrome (MtS) are characterized by a decreased capacity to oxidize lipids and by early transition from fat to carbohydrate oxidation (FATox/CHOox), as well as elevated blood lactate concentration [La] as exercise power output (PO) increases, a condition termed 'metabolic inflexibility'.

Objective

The aim of this study was to assess metabolic flexibility across populations with different metabolic characteristics.

Methods

We used indirect calorimetry and [La] measurements to study the metabolic responses to exercise in PAs, moderately active individuals (MAs), and MtS individuals.

Results

FATox was significantly higher in PAs than MAs and patients with MtS (p < 0.01), while [La] was significantly lower in PAs compared with MAs and patients with MtS. FATox and [La] were inversely correlated in all three groups (PA: r = −0.97, p < 0.01; MA: r = −0.98, p < 0.01; MtS: r = −0.92, p < 0.01). The correlation between FATox and [La] for all data points corresponding to all populations studied was r = −0.76 (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Blood lactate accumulation is negatively correlated with FATox and positively correlated with CHOox during exercise across populations with widely ranging metabolic capabilities. Because both lactate and fatty acids are mitochondrial substrates, we believe that measurements of [La] and FATox rate during exercise provide an indirect method to assess metabolic flexibility and oxidative capacity across individuals of widely different metabolic capabilities.



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Discovery of non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles not derived from Unit 1 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, in residences five years after the accident

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Publication date: October 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 177
Author(s): Shogo Higaki, Yuichi Kurihara, Hiroko Yoshida, Yoshio Takahashi, Naohide Shinohara
Non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles were found on masks worn during cleaning work in residences near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), from which residents had evacuated. Three slightly larger (6.6–12 μm) non-spherical radiocesium-bearing particles were found in a residence in Futaba Town, a straight distance of 2.11 km west-northwest from the FDNPP. These were collected on October 25, 2016, 5 years and 7 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster and were presumed to originate from the Plant's Unit 2 based on the measured radioactivity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs. The main elemental composition was similar to particles already reported in other studies. However, this is the first time that such particles had a clearly heterogeneous distribution.



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Radiation exposure of barley seeds can modify the early stages of plants' development

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Publication date: October 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 177
Author(s): Stanislav Geras'kin, Roman Churyukin, Polina Volkova
The reactions of barley seeds (Nur and Grace varieties) in terms of the root and sprout lengths, germination and root mass were studied after γ-irradiation with doses in the range of 2–50 Gy. The dose range in which plants' growth stimulation occurs (16–20 Gy) was identified. It was shown that increased size of seedlings after irradiation with stimulating doses was due to the enhancing pace of development rather than an earlier germination. The activity of the majority of the enzymes studied increased in the range of doses that cause stimulation of seedlings development. The influences of the dose rate, the quality of seeds, their moisture and time interval between irradiation and initiation of germination on the manifestation of the effects of radiation were investigated. The experimental data on the effect of γ-irradiation on seedlings development were significantly better explained by mathematical models that take into account the hormetic effect.



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Older adults display diminished error processing and response in a continuous tracking task

Abstract

Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)—a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex. In the present study, we examined whether or not deficits in the medial-frontal error evaluation system contribute to age-related deficits in motor control. Two groups of participants (young, old) performed a computer-based tracking task that paralleled driving while EEG data were recorded. Our results show that older adults committed more behavioral errors than young adults during performance of the tracking task. An analysis of our ERP data revealed that the amplitude of the ERN was reduced in older adults relative to young adults following motor errors. Our results make an important extension from previous work demonstrating age-related reductions in the ERN during performance of cognitive tasks. Importantly, our results imply the possibility of understanding motor deficits in older age.



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Stability and reliability of error-related electromyography over the corrugator supercilii with increasing trials

Abstract

Electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (cEMG), the primary facial muscle involved in negative emotions, is increased during the commission of errors on speeded reaction-time tasks. In the present paper, data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed to investigate the reliability and stability of error-related, correct-related, and difference cEMG across increasing numbers of trials. For a modified go/no-go and a flanker task, we found that error-related cEMG was highly stable and reliable in 14 trials, and correct-related cEMG between 56 and 82 trials, respectively. Given the typical number of trials used in studies of cognitive control, these findings suggest that many investigations of error monitoring are already sufficient to obtain acceptable error- and correct-related cEMG signals. Error-related cEMG activity is relatively easy to measure and, as such, it shows great promise for future research investigating the cognitive and affective mechanisms of error monitoring.



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EEA1 restores homeostatic synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons from Rett syndrome mice

Abstract

Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Deletion of Mecp2 in mice results in an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which affects "Hebbian" long-term synaptic plasticity. Since the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms, we examined the role of MeCP2 in homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) at excitatory synapses. Negative feedback HSP, also known as synaptic scaling, maintains the global synaptic strength of individual neurons in response to sustained alterations in neuronal activity. Hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout (KO) mice do not show the characteristic homeostatic scaling-up of the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) and of synaptic levels of GluA1 after 48-hour silencing with the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). This deficit in HSP is bidirectional because Mecp2 KO neurons also failed to scale-down mEPSC amplitudes and GluA1 synaptic levels after 48 h blockade of GABAAR-mediated inhibition with bicuculline. Consistent with the role of synaptic trafficking of AMPA-type of glutamate receptors (AMPAR) in HSP, Mecp2 KO neurons have lower levels of early-endosome-antigen-1 (EEA1), a protein involved in AMPAR endocytosis. In addition, expression EEA1 in Mecp2 KO neurons reduced mEPSC amplitudes to WT levels, and restored synaptic scaling-down of mEPSC amplitudes after 48 h blockade of GABAAR-mediated inhibition with bicuculline. The identification of a molecular deficit in HSP in Mecp2 KO neurons provides potentially novel targets of intervention for improving hippocampal function in RTT individuals.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Longitudinal estimation of intramuscular Tibialis Anterior coherence during subacute spinal cord injury: relationship with neurophysiological, functional and clinical outcome measures

Estimation of surface intramuscular coherence has been used to indirectly assess pyramidal tract activity following spinal cord injury (SCI), especially within the 15-30 Hz bandwidth. However, change in higher...

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Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling activates TRPA1

Abstract

Hypotonic solutions can cause painful sensations in nasal and ocular mucosa through molecular mechanisms that are not entirely understood. We clarified the ability of human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) to respond to physical stimulus, and evaluated the response of hTRPA1 to cell swelling under hypotonic conditions. Using a Ca2+-imaging method, we found that modulation of AITC-induced hTRPA1 activity occurred under hypotonic conditions. Moreover, cell swelling in hypotonic conditions evoked single-channel activation of hTRPA1 in a cell-attached mode when the patch pipette was attached after cell swelling under hypotonic conditions, but not before swelling. Single-channel currents activated by cell swelling were also inhibited by a known hTRPA1 blocker. Since pre-application of thapsigargin or pretreatment with the calcium chelator BAPTA did not affect the single-channel activation induced by cell swelling, changes in intracellular calcium concentrations are likely not related to hTRPA1 activation induced by physical stimuli.



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Association of preoperative anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy with adverse postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for ulcerative colitis

JAMA Surgery

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Yes, disability insurance really is part of Social Security

Reuters Health News

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Prognostic significance of sarcopenia in patients with esophagogastric junction cancer or upper gastric cancer

Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Google bets on European biotech drugs, backs new fund

Reuters Health News

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A meta-analysis of clinical outcome of intestinal transplantation in patients with total intestinal aganglionosis

Pediatric Surgery International

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Evaluation of a 12-week targeted vitamin D supplementation regimen in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease

Clinical Nutrition

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Efficacy and optimal duration of metallic stent in the management of refractory anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Soluble CD163 and mannose receptor associate with chronic hepatitis B activity and fibrosis and decline with treatment

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Clinical and pathological risk factors associated with liver fibrosis and steatosis in African-Americans with chronic hepatitis C

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

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Body mass index and risk of gastric cancer: A 30-year follow-up study in the Linxian general population trial cohort

Cancer Science

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Derivation and validation of the prediabetes self-assessment screening score after acute pancreatitis (PERSEUS)

Digestive and Liver Diseases

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Sorafenib versus surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion: A propensity score analysis

Liver International

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Adverse events common, often avoidable in hospitalized patients on antibiotics

Reuters Health News

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The efficacy of a new high intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

Journal of Cancer Research & Clinical Oncology

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Do patients requiring a multivisceral resection for rectal cancer have worse oncologic outcomes than patients undergoing only abdominoperineal resection?

The American Journal of Surgery

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Effects of community screening for Helicobacter pylori: 13-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (HEP-FYN)

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Comparing EUS-fine needle aspiration and EUS-fine needle biopsy for solid lesions: A multicenter, randomized trial

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Effect of attention bias modification on brain function and anxiety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A preliminary electroencephalogram and psycho-behavioral study

Neurogastroenterology & Motility

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Prevalence of and risk factors for HBV infection in a metropolitan Southern Italian area: Evidence for the effectiveness of universal Hepatitis B vaccination

Digestive and Liver Diseases

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Does steatosis affect the performance of diffusion-weighted MRI values for fibrosis evaluation in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4?

The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology

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Childhood preoperative anxiolysis: Is sedation and distraction better than either alone? A prospective randomized study

Summary

Background

Preoperative anxiety management receives special attention in pediatric anesthesia. Different pharmacological and nonpharmacological techniques can be employed. This study was designed to assess three different strategies for childhood preoperative anxiolysis: midazolam premedication, midazolam in combination with portable Digital Video-Disk player, or video distraction strategy alone.

Methods

In this prospective randomized study, children aged 2-12 years were assigned to one of the three study groups. The primary outcome was a change in preoperative children's anxiety, from baseline (before transfer to the preanesthetic holding area) to separation from parents, assessed by the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) and the Visual Analog Anxiety Scale (VAS-Anxiety). Delirium emergence, postoperative pain, and parental satisfaction were also collected.

Results

One hundred and thirty-five patients were enrolled. The three preventive strategies allowed control of preoperative distress. Within the three study groups, no significant change was objectified in the anxiety level from baseline to separation from parents (mean change in mYPAS midazolam group: 2.4 95% CI [−1.7 to 6.3]; midazolam+Digital Video-Disk group: −1.0 95% CI [−5.9 to 3]; and Digital Video-Disk group: 1.4 95% CI [−4 to 6.7]). Comparison of change in preoperative children's anxiety between the groups did not show any difference. Emergence delirium, postoperative pain scores, and analgesic consumption were similar between the groups and parents' satisfaction was excellent.

Conclusion

Both pharmacological premedication and video distraction are effective strategies for controlling preoperative childhood anxiety. The combination of midazolam and Digital Video-Disk player was not better than either alone.



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Comment to: “Management and outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients taking oral anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs”



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