Παρασκευή, 5 Μαΐου 2017

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Leaf Extract Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion, Invasion, and Intracellular Survival in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Rebound thrombocytosis and persistence of clinical symptoms after recovery from dengue hemorrhagic fever

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Won Sriwijitralai, Viroj Wiwanitkit

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):286-286



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Myopericytom

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Sunil Y Swami, Harshiya Gupta, Grace D'Costa

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):261-263



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Elements dictating the fate of artemisinin combination therapy in India

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Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, G Shiva Prakash, Thomson Rose Sereen

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):7-12

Over the course of its existence in India, Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), has emerged as the titular tool at mankind's disposal to counter falciparum malaria related mortalities. The dramatic slide in reported deaths due to Plasmodium falciparum is a testament to ACT's efficacy. However, a closer look reveals the successes so far achieved with ACT to be only a smokescreen. A large majority of the patients in the more remote and backward regions of India, still remain bereft of ACT, which might be the reason for the startling malaria mortality figures reported by the community surveillances. In our manuscript, we have laid focus on the key facets of the Indian health care system that has purportedly played a central role in the present successes with ACT. Further, we have highlighted as to how these key elements, for instance, health workers like Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), sub-centers, supply chain of ACT can be improved upon further so as to ensure that ACT is able to reach the truly needy.

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Ten lessons learned from the recent outbreak of the Middle East respiratory syndrome

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Ali Mehrabi Tavana

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):231-233

From 2012 till the present, the name of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has been heard many a times in the mass media and many papers that have been published in different scientific journals, but one question has remained – What is the lesson learned about MERS epidemic at the present time and what can really be done in order to prevent the matter? I would like to bring your attention to what could be done at the present time, based on lessons learned from MERS outbreak in the world.

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Sand fly fever: An important vector-borne diseases for travelers?

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Ali Mehrabi Tavana

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):13-15

Context: Sand fly fever is a vector-borne viral infection and is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in areas that are infected with different types of leishmaniasis. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to very high fever and photophobia in patients. During the last decades, an increase in imported sand fly fever cases in developed and nonendemic countries have been pointed out from an international literature review. Among the possible causes are increasing international travelers, travel of immigrants from endemic area, and army operations. It has been noted that the main region for the diseases are west of Asia and east of Europe, and perhaps imported cases may be seen clinically in different parts of the world, either in developed or in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Two methods were used to gather the information for this article. First, PubMed was searched for English language references to published relevant articles. Second, the term sand fly fever was searched on Google Scholar too. Results: In PubMed, 156 articles and in Google Scholar, 70,400 articles mentioned the term sand fly fever. The most searched items in PubMed were epidemiology, treatment, prevention, and life cycle with incidences of 41.66, 20.51, 13.46, and 1.92%, respectively, and in terms of geographical distribution of the study, the maximum number of articles in PubMed were published from Europe, Asia, Australia, and America, with percentages being 26.92, 17.30, 17.0, 1.28, and 1.28%, respectively. Conclusion: Different countries have reported the disease either as an endemic or as an imported one. co-infection. Sand fly fever must be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a similar clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, which are mentioned above. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas; these travelers should receive counseling regarding sand fly fever appropriate protective health measures. In this review article sand fly fever situation will be studied.

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Improving patient safety standards in hospitals: A global public health concern

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Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):275-276



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Interventions for improved retention of skilled health workers in rural and remote areas

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Manas Ranjan Behera, Chardsumon Prutipinyo, Nithat Sirichotiratana, Chukiat Viwatwongkasem

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):16-21

Background: Worldwide, rural inequitable distribution and dearth of health professionals pose poor functioning of health services. In this study, we gather interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of health professionals working in rural and remote areas. Methods: We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and google scholar database with key words such as "doctors", "nurses" "health workers", "health care professionals" and "human resources for health". Further, comprehensive data base of relevant literature on recruitment or retention or both, of health workers in rural and remote areas has been searched through the websites of different government, non-government, national and international agencies. Results: We found that, there are mainly four interventions employed for improved rural retention. These interventions are generally grouped into educational, financial, regulatory, personal and professional strategies. We also judged the effectiveness of the intervention provided in the literature. Conclusion: Currently, there is limited reliable evidence regarding the effects of these interventions aimed at addressing the maldistribution of health professionals. Hence, well-designed observational studies are needed to confirm that educational, financial, regulatory, personal and professional strategies might influence the health workers' decision to stay in underserved areas. Further, the state governments, public health schools and medical colleges should ensure that when interventions are implemented, their impacts can be measured through scientifically rigorous approaches to establish the true effects of these measures for improved rural recruitment and retention.

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Prospects of mandibular advancement device (MAD) as a preferred treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in India: a systematic review

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Abhishek Dubey, Surya Kant, Darshan Kumar Bajaj, Balendra Pratap Singh

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):1-6

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular morbidity and mortality. OSA leads to loss of human life and huge economical burden to our Society worldwide. The adult's prevalence of OSA ranges between 9.3-13.5% in India. India is the second largest populated country of the world and by the end of 2030 it may become the most populated nation. This developing nation is already known as the world's capital of T2 DM, and other non-communicable diseases like Obesity, Hypertension, Stroke, Ischemic heart diseases (IHD), Hypercholesterolemia congestive heart failure are on a rising trend. These cardiovascular disorders were found to be associated with OSA. OSA treatment may improve these co-morbid conditions. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a preferred choice for OSA treatment in western and developed countries. In India, where CPAP is out of the reach of most of the OSA affected population due to high cost and other socio-economic and cultural factors, MAD may become a preferred treatment option. MAD is cheaper than CPAP and generally equally effective. The patients suffering from sleep-related breathing disorder (SBD) may have an alternative to CPAP or surgery for their disease management. Mandibular Advancement Device (MAD) may become an additional standard treatment of OSA in India, and has great potential for reducing associated undesirable cardiovascular co-morbidities and mortalities. This review highlights the prospects of MAD as a preferred treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in India by extensively researching scientific literature, PubMed, Google Scholar, scientific, and academic web portals.

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Spectrum of physical deformities in leprosy patients visiting a tertiary care center in Mangalore

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A Kashinath Nayak, Radhika Satheesh, Kotian Shashidhar

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):22-26

Background: Presence of physical deformities in patients with leprosy reflects the rate of disease transmission in the community; delay in detection of cases; and inadequacy or failure of treatment. Objectives: To determine the spectrum of physical deformities in patients with leprosy, to analyze the various sociodemographic factors affecting the study population, and to assess the treatment history of the selected number of patients. Materials and Methods: The study was an analytical study conducted on all leprosy patients who visited the dermatology out-patient department in a tertiary care hospital during the period of 1 year. Results: Males constituted 70.66% and females constituted 29.34%. It was found that a majority were in the age group of 21–60 years than in the extreme age groups (0–20 years and 61–80 years). Among the 92 patients studied, it was found that majority of the patients (60.86%) had WHO grade 0 or grade 1 deformity. Those with visible deformities (WHO grade 2 deformity) constituted 39.13% of the study population. Among those with visible deformities, the most common deformity was seen to be trophic ulcer (21.73%). This was followed by claw hand, foot drop, madarosis, claw toes, lagophthalmos, ear lobe deformity, facial palsy, and finally nose deformity. Conclusions: Our study found that more than one third of number of leprosy patients had deformities. It reflects the need for further efforts to curb this infectious disease and increase education among masses.

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Intestinal amebiasis presenting as life threatening lower GI bleed-A rare presentation

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VK Dogra, D Gupta, R Kashyap, Laxmi Nand, Sachin Sondhi

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):244-246

Amoebiasis is a common intestinal protozoan infection due to Entamoeba histolytica. In India, the prevalence of the disease varies from 2% to 67%.[1] Acute Fulminant Colitis is a rare complication of intestinal amebiasis. Life threatening lower Gastrointestinal bleed is very rare presentation of amebiasis. Here, we are presenting a case of severe lower GI bleed proved to be caused by amebiasis along with extra intestinal complications.

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Mobile phone dependence among undergraduate medical students in Nanded city

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Vijay K Domple, Satish K Wadde, PL Gattani

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):27-30

Introduction: In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding problematic use of mobile phones, and accordingly, it has been publicized extensively as an emerging social problem. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess mobile phone dependence among undergraduate medical students of the Nanded city. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students of a Government Medical college, Nanded, Maharashtra, during November to December 2016. All the 348 students in the college were enrolled in the study. A predesigned Test of Mobile Phone Dependence (TMD Brief) developed by Chóliz et al was used for collection of information. The participants scoring ≥ 50%, that is, a score of ≥ 30 were considered as mobile dependent. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20 and Graph Pad Prism. Results: Out of 348 participants, data were collected from 251 students, and 206 (82.1%) students were found to be dependent on the mobile phone. In total, 137 (85.1%) students in the age group of 17–20 years were mobile phone dependent. Most of the mobile phone dependents were females 99 (83.9%) than males, that is, 107 (80.5%). Out of 206 mobile-phone-dependent students, majority 77 (90.6%) were from the first year. The chi square test showed that the mobile phone dependence was significantly dependent on the academic year (X2=6.82, P=0.033). The binary logistic regression also proved first year as an independent risk factor for mobile dependence compared to second and third years. Conclusions: A total of 82.1% undergraduate medical students were mobile phone dependent. Health education about the use of mobile phone is necessary in the first year.

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Vector-borne diseases quiz for MD students

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Sagar Atmaram Borker

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):267-272



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Indoor air quality at shopping malls in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (particulate matter and ozone)

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Carolyn Payus, Carmen Chai

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):31-35

Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ) in shopping malls is an interesting case of study since a shopping mall is a public place where people favor to spend their time. This study was conducted to investigate the IAQ of shopping malls in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, whereby three shopping malls were selected as investigation sites. Methods: The parameters being studied include particulate matter (PM0.3-∞, PM0.5-∞, PM2-∞ and PM5-∞) and ozone. Indoor and outdoor air measurements were performed in the three shopping malls on weekdays and weekends to determine the I/O ratios. Results: In this study, overall average indoor PM concentrations on weekends were higher than weekdays, reaching maxima average concentrations of 421.44 ± 102.96 µg/m3 for PM0.3-∞, 41.75 ± 15.54 µg/m3 for PM0.5-∞, 1.30 ± 0.41 µg/m3 for PM2-∞, and 0.21 ± 0.09 µg/m3 for PM5-∞. Correlation between indoor and outdoor PM concentrations mostly showed poor relationship in the three shopping malls, showing that indoor sources such as re-suspension phenomena due to occupant's activities were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations. Poor ventilation system also affected IAQ by increasing the PM accumulation. However, I/O ratios were often less than 1.0, indicating that PM in indoor air arises predominantly from outdoor air transported to indoors. Average indoor ozone concentration at all the shopping malls was measured to be below the 0.05 ppm of ICOP-IAQ 2010. Conclusion: The overall assessment of IAQ in the three shopping malls showed that SM2 has a better IAQ compared to SM1 and SM3.

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Supporting and encouraging breastfeeding through strengthening of the existing legal provisions globally

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Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):280-282



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Evaluate the decision of as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) solutions for the safe use of pesticide among the pesticide handlers, paddy farm, Tanjung Karang, Selangor

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Vivien How, Khaval Abdullah, Khairuddin Bin Othman

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):36-43

Introduction: Most of the farmers encounter the similar problems such as low-financial capacity and lack of information to control over the pesticide hazards. This study highlights the importance of the approach of As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) solutions to control and reduce the identified health risks from the pesticide use. Objective: To evaluate the decision of ALARP solutions for the safe use of pesticide among the pesticide handlers. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 85 pesticide handlers to evaluate the ALARP practical solutions. The solution shall consider the factors that could control and mitigate the health risks suitably and cost-effectively. Result and Discussion: Pesticide handlers were aware of the fact that using hazardous pesticides without appropriate control equipment is detrimental to their health. When ALARP solutions are considered, respondents prefer to utilize the control strategies that are less likely to incur costs. Among all, the practices of the safe system of work and administrative control are highly recommended to mitigate the potential health risks during mixing and loading, application, and drift control and decontamination. Conclusion: It is recommended to apply the ALARP solutions to control and mitigate the pesticide risks sustainable during mixing and loading, application, drift reduction and decontamination.

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Maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination accomplished from the south-east Asian Region: World Health Organization

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Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):289-290



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A case crossover analysis of primary air pollutants association on acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children in urban region of Klang valley, Malaysia

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SR Abdul Rahman, S. N. S Ismail, M Sahani, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Mohammad Talib Latif

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):44-55

Introduction: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children is one of the health effects associated with poor air quality. Objective: This study explores the distribution of ARI cases by subtypes among children in an urban region in tropical country and its association with the air pollution level. Method: Secondary data of primary air pollutants and the ARI data recorded at the selected main public hospital in the same area from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed descriptively using statistical software and spatially through the geographical information system (GIS). Results: In total, 54,542 cases of ARI hospital admission among children were reported with 16 subtypes. Most of the ARI cases were recorded at the general hospital located in the city center (Kuala Lumpur Hospital, N = 27,719, 50.82%), and other cases were distributed at the hospitals located at suburbs (Serdang Hospital, N = 6868 (12.59%), Selayang Hospital, N = 6548, (12.01%), and Klang Hospital, N = 5434, (9.96%). Most of the patients were boys (N = 31,682, 58.09%) and aged below 5 years (N = 45,393, 83.22%). Thirteen ARI subtypes were influenced by the particulate matter with diameter size less than 10 µm (PM10), followed by NO2 (eight subtypes), CO (four sub-types), and O3 (two sub-types). PM10 contributes to high risk of acute bronchiolitis (odd ratio (OR): 1.115, 95% CI: 1.093-1.138), acute upper respiratory infection of multiple and unspecified sites (OR: 1.065, 95% CI: 1.034-1.096), and unspecified acute lower respiratory infection (OR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.051–1.059). In conclusion, this study supported the theory that children were mainly exposed to air pollution in urban area and they were at risk to experience ARI.

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A study on the blood feeding behavior of sand flies on ABO blood groups using PCR methods in Southeastern Iran

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Fasihi Harandi Majid, Aghaei Afshar Abbas, Hamidreza Mollaie, Kamran Akbarzadeh

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):222-227

Objective: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is presently occurring in Kerman province, southeastern Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the different blood groups and the blood feeding behavior of sand flies. Materials and Methods: Sticky paper traps were used to collect sand flies in the study location. Traps were set at dusk and flies were collected at dawn. A total of 200-300 sticky traps were set each day in each area. Results: A total of 1320 sandflies were collected; 320 blood-fed female sandflies were selected for the analysis of blood meals by PCR-RFLP. In this study, 82 (25.6%) sandflies fed on human blood meals. Conclusion: The results of the current study clearly indicated that there is a significant relationship between the different blood groups and the blood feeding behavior of sand flies.

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Heavy metals contamination in eye shadows sold in Malaysia and user's potential health risks

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Jacquline Sue Jac Lim, Yu Bin Ho, Hazwanee Hamsan

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):56-64

Background: Nowadays, eye shadows have become common cosmetics used by consumers. Previous studies proved that some of the eye shadows used had excessive levels of heavy metals. Objectives: The aims of this study are to (i) quantify the heavy metals concentration of lead and chromium in the eye shadows based on the color categories and types of eye shadows and (ii) assess potential non-carcinogenic health risk due exposure to heavy metals concentrations in eye shadows by using Hazard Quotient (HQ). Methodology: A conventional method using oven heating was applied to extract heavy metals from the samples. The analysis of heavy metals in the samples was performed using the Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GF-AAS). The chronic non-carcinogenic health effect was evaluated quantitatively using HQ. Results: Both lead and chromium concentrations were found to be the highest in blue color category with the mean concentration of 161.8 ± 101.6 µg kg−1 and 149.4 ± 53.1 µg kg−1, respectively. The chromium levels were higher in the shimmering shade compared to the matte shade. The lead concentrations in all the samples analyzed were below the standard set by Health Canada (10 mg kg−1) and United States Food and Drug Administration (20 mg kg−1). The HQ values for chromium in all samples were less than 1. Conclusion: Lead concentrations were present within the permitted levels stated by the international standards in cosmetics intended for external use. The HQ values for chromium were less than 1 in all samples, indicating there was no significant chronic non-carcinogenic health risk to eye shadow users.

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Symmetric peripheral gangrene: A rare complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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Sunita Kumbhalkar, Archana Aher, Shashank Wanjari

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2017 10(1):238-240

Sudden onset of symmetric peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a relatively uncommon clinical entity manifested by distal ischemic damage at two or more sites in the absence of large vessel obstruction. Here, we report a case of a 27-year-old female with complicated falciparum malaria with SPG involving the toes of both the lower limbs.

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The Immune Phenotype of Three Drosophila Leukemia Models

Many leukemia patients suffer from dysregulation of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and leading to general weakening (cachexia). Both adaptive and innate immunity are affected. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has an innate immune system including cells of the myeloid lineage (hemocytes). To study Drosophila immunity and physiology during leukemia we established three models by driving expression of a dominant-active version of the Ras oncogene (RasV12) alone or combined with knockdowns of tumor suppressors in Drosophila hemocytes. Our results show that phagocytosis, hemocytes migration to wound sites, wound sealing and survival upon bacterial infection of leukemic lines are similar to wild type. We find that in all leukemic models the two major immune pathways (Toll and Imd) are dysregulated. Toll-dependent signaling is activated to comparable extents as after wounding wild type larvae, leading to a proinflammatory status. In contrast, Imd signaling is suppressed. Finally, we notice that adult tissue formation is blocked and degradation of cell masses during metamorphosis of leukemic lines, which is akin to the state of cancer-dependent cachexia. To further analyze the immune competence of leukemic lines we used a natural infection model that involves insect-pathogenic nematodes. We identified two leukemic lines, which were sensitive to nematode infections. Further characterization demonstrates that despite the absence of behavioral abnormalities at the larval stage, leukemic larvae show reduced locomotion in the presence of nematodes. Taken together this work establishes new Drosophila models to study the physiological- immune- and behavioral consequences of various forms of leukemia.



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Construction of a Recyclable Genetic Maker and Serial Gene Deletions in the Human Pathogenic Mucorales Mucor circinelloides

Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carp gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG- mutant background. The resulting carRP::pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white-colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild-type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and require uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP::dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP::dpl237 and cnbR::pyrG. These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides.



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Oral L-tyrosine supplementation augments the vasoconstriction response to whole body cooling in older adults

Abstract

L-tyrosine is the primary substrate for noradrenaline biosynthesis within sympathetic axon terminals. Under stressful conditions requiring increased catecholamine production, axonal L-tyrosine concentration may limit the full expression of the sympathetic effector response and this may be particularly evident in older adults. We hypothesize that oral L-tyrosine supplementation will increase the sympathetic response to whole-body cooling and muscle metaboreflex activation. In a randomized, double-blind design, eleven young (Y = 24 ± 1 years) and eleven older (O = 68 ± 4 years) participants ingested either 150 mg kg−1 of L-tyrosine or placebo prior to commencing 30 minutes of whole-body cooling to induce a gradual decline in skin temperature from 34 to 30.5°C. Laser Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the ventral forearm and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as a percent change from baseline (%ΔCVC). Two minutes of static handgrip exercise (35% MVC) followed by 3 minutes of post-exercise ischaemia was implemented before and toward the end of the cooling bout. Tyrosine supplementation did not affect blood pressure or heart rate responses to exercise or post-exercise ischaemia. However, the blunted VC response to whole-body cooling in older adults (Placebo: Y = 39 ± 5; O = 16 ± 2 %ΔCVC; P < 0.05) was augmented after tyrosine supplementation (Tyrosine: Y = 40 ± 4; O = 32 ± 5 %ΔCVC; P < 0.05). These results suggest that L-tyrosine bioavailability may limit thermoregulatory function in an older population.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Femoral and Lumbar Fractures During Rehabilitation for a Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is one of the most common inherited bone disorders. These individuals are high-risk for developing fractures during their lifetime secondary to bone fragility. This case presents a female with Type I OI involved in a high speed motor vehicle accident resulting in a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and paraplegia. Inpatient rehabilitation was complicated by fractures of the femur and lumbar spine which impacted her level of independence upon discharge to prevent additional fractures and maintain safety.

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Persistent Hiccups after an Epidural Steroid Injection Successfully Treated with Baclofen: A Case Report

Persistent hiccups are an established adverse reaction to epidural steroid injections. While oral baclofen has been used to treat hiccups in various clinical settings, none of the prior reported studies utilizing baclofen were related to hiccups occurring after spinal injections/procedures. We report a case of a male who developed persistent hiccups following a transforaminal epidural steroid injection that was successfully treated with oral baclofen.

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Effects of Low-Load Exercise on Post-needling Induced Pain After Dry Needling of Active Trigger Point in Individuals with Subacromial Pain Syndrome

Application of dry needling is usually associated to post-needling induced-pain. Development of post-needling intervention targeting to reduce this adverse event is needed.

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Detection of Botulinum Toxin Muscle Effect in Humans Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Case Series

Although important for dosing and dilution, there are few data describing botulinum toxin (BT) movement in human muscle. Objective: To better understand BT movement within human muscle

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Clinical classification criteria for radicular pain caused by lumbar disc herniation: the RAPIDH criteria (RAdicular PaIn caused by Disc Herniation)

Classification criteria are recommended for diseases that lack specific biomarkers in order to improve homogeneity in clinical research studies. Since imaging evidence of lumbar disc herniations (LDH) may not be associated with symptoms, clinical classification criteria based upon patient symptoms and physical examination findings are required.

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Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery

During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TES-MEP) to prevent injury. TES-MEP involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials (CMAPs). We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation in patients undergoing spine surgery.

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Early vertebroplasty associated with a lower risk of mortality and respiratory failure in aged patients with painful vertebral compression fractures: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan

Whether early vertebroplasty (VP) (within 3 months) offers extra benefit to aged patients older than 70 years with painful vertebral compression fractures (PVCF) in terms of mortality and respiratory-related morbidity remains unknown, given that the elderly is associated with higher surgical risks.

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Correction to: Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2017;32(3):101–110

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Correction to: Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2017;32(3):101–110

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Math anxiety: Brain cortical network changes in anticipation of doing mathematics

Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Manousos A. Klados, Niki Pandria, Sifis Micheloyannis, Daniel Margulies, Panagiotis D. Bamidis
Following our previous work regarding the involvement of math anxiety (MA) in math-oriented tasks, this study tries to explore the differences in the cerebral networks' topology between self-reported low math-anxious (LMA) and high math-anxious (HMA) individuals, during the anticipation phase prior to a mathematical related experiment. For this reason, multichannel EEG recordings were adopted, while the solution of the inverse problem was applied in a generic head model, in order to obtain the cortical signals. The cortical networks have been computed for each band separately, using the magnitude square coherence metric. The main graph theoretical parameters, showed differences in segregation and integration in almost all EEG bands of the HMAs in comparison to LMAs, indicative of a great influence of the anticipatory anxiety prior to mathematical performance.



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A New Reference Genome Assembly for the Microcrustacean Daphnia pulex

Comparing genomes of closely related genotypes from populations with distinct demographic histories can help reveal the impact of effective population size on genome evolution. For this purpose, we present a high quality genome assembly of Daphnia pulex (PA42), and compare this with the first sequenced genome of this species (TCO), which was derived from an isolate from a population with >90% reduction in nucleotide diversity. PA42 has numerous similarities to TCO at the gene level, with an average amino acid sequence identity of 98.8 and >60% of orthologous proteins identical. Nonetheless, there is a highly elevated number of genes in the TCO genome annotation, with ~7000 excess genes appearing to be false positives. This view is supported by the high GC content, lack of introns, and short length of these suspicious gene annotations. Consistent with the view that reduced effective population size can facilitate the accumulation of slightly deleterious genomic features, we observe more proliferation of transposable elements (TEs) and a higher frequency of gained introns in the TCO genome.



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From Pine Cones to Read Clouds: Rescaffolding the Megagenome of Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana)

We investigate the utility and scalability of new read cloud technologies to improve the draft genome assemblies of the colossal, and largely repetitive, genomes of conifers. Synthetic long read technologies have existed in various forms as a means of reducing complexity and resolving repeats since the outset of genome assembly. Recently, technologies that combine subhaploid pools of high molecular weight DNA with barcoding on a massive scale have brought new efficiencies to sample preparation and data generation. When combined with inexpensive light shotgun sequencing, the resulting data can be used to scaffold large genomes. The protocol is efficient enough to consider routinely for even the largest genomes. Conifers represent the largest reference genome projects executed to date. The largest of these is that of the conifer Pinus lambertiana (sugar pine), with a genome size of 31 billion bp. In this paper, we report on the molecular and computational protocols for scaffolding the P. lambertiana genome using the library technology from 10x Genomics. At 247,000 bp, the NG50 of the existing reference sequence is the highest scaffold contiguity among the currently published conifer assemblies; this new assembly's NG50 is 1.94 million bp, an eightfold increase.



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Genotype Calling from Population-Genomic Sequencing Data

Genotype calling plays important roles in population-genomic studies, which have been greatly accelerated by sequencing technologies. To take full advantage of the resultant information, we have developed maximum-likelihood (ML) methods for calling genotypes from high-throughput sequencing data. As the statistical uncertainties associated with sequencing data depend on depths of coverage, we have developed two types of genotype callers. One approach is appropriate for low-coverage sequencing data, and incorporates population-level information on genotype frequencies and error rates pre-estimated by an ML method. Performance evaluation using computer simulations and human data shows that the proposed framework yields less biased estimates of allele frequencies and more accurate genotype calls than current widely used methods. Another type of genotype caller applies to high-coverage sequencing data, requires no prior genotype-frequency estimates, and makes no assumption on the number of alleles at a polymorphic site. Using computer simulations, we determine the depth of coverage necessary to accurately characterize polymorphisms using this second method. We applied the proposed method to high-coverage (mean 18x) sequencing data of 83 clones from a population of Daphnia pulex. The results show that the proposed method enables conservative and reasonably powerful detection of polymorphisms with arbitrary numbers of alleles. We have extended the proposed method to the analysis of genomic data for polyploid organisms, showing that calling accurate polyploid genotypes requires much higher coverage than diploid genotypes.



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Modulating Crossover Frequency and Interference for Obligate Crossovers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meiosis

Meiotic crossover frequencies show wide variation among organisms. But most organisms maintain at least one crossover per homolog pair (obligate crossover). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies have shown crossover frequencies are reduced in the mismatch repair related mutant mlh3 and enhanced in a meiotic checkpoint mutant pch2 by up to twofold at specific chromosomal loci, but both mutants maintain high spore viability. We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3, pch2, and mlh3 pch2 mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers. mlh3 showed ~30% genome-wide reduction in crossovers (64 crossovers per meiosis) and loss of the obligate crossover, but nonexchange chromosomes were efficiently segregated. pch2 showed ~50% genome-wide increase in crossover frequency (137 crossovers per meiosis), elevated noncrossovers as well as loss of chromosome size dependent double-strand break formation. Meiotic defects associated with pch2 did not cause significant increase in nonexchange chromosome frequency. Crossovers were restored to wild-type frequency in the double mutant mlh3 pch2 (100 crossovers per meiosis), but obligate crossovers were compromised. Genetic interference was reduced in mlh3, pch2, and mlh3 pch2. Triple mutant analysis of mlh3 pch2 with other resolvase mutants showed that most of the crossovers in mlh3 pch2 are made through the Mus81-Mms4 pathway. These results are consistent with a requirement for increased crossover frequencies in the absence of genetic interference for obligate crossovers. In conclusion, these data suggest crossover frequencies and the strength of genetic interference in an organism are mutually optimized to ensure obligate crossovers.



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A Bayesian Poisson-lognormal Model for Count Data for Multiple-Trait Multiple-Environment Genomic-Enabled Prediction

When a plant scientist wishes to make genomic-enabled predictions of multiple traits measured in multiple individuals in multiple environments, the most common strategy for performing the analysis is to use a single trait at a time taking into account genotype x environment interaction (G x E), because there is a lack of comprehensive models that simultaneously take into account the correlated counting traits and G x E. For this reason, in this study we propose a multiple-trait and multiple-environment model for count data. The proposed model was developed under the Bayesian paradigm for which we developed a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with noninformative priors. This allows obtaining all required full conditional distributions of the parameters leading to an exact Gibbs sampler for the posterior distribution. Our model was tested with simulated data and a real data set. Results show that the proposed multi-trait, multi-environment model is an attractive alternative for modeling multiple count traits measured in multiple environments.



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Dynamic Notch Signaling Specifies Each Cell Fate in Drosophila Spermathecal Lineage

Spermathecae are glandular organs in the insect female reproductive tract that play essential roles in insect reproduction; however, the molecular mechanism involved in their development is largely unknown. Drosophila spermathecae consist of class-III secretory units, in which each secretory cell (SC) discharges its products to the central lumen through an end-apparatus and a canal. Secretory unit formation in Drosophila spermathecae utilizes a fixed cell lineage, in which each secretory unit precursor (SUP) divides to produce one pIIb cell and one pIIa cell. The former differentiates into an apical cell (AC), whereas the latter divides again to produce an SC and a basal cell (BC). It is unclear how each cell acquires its identity and contributes to secretory unit formation. Here, we demonstrate that Notch signaling is required and sufficient for the specification of lumen epithelial precursors (LEPs; vs. SUPs), pIIb (vs. pIIa), and SCs (vs. BCs) sequentially. To our surprise, Notch activation in LEPs and SCs apparently utilizes different ligand mechanisms. In addition, Notch signaling both suppresses and activates transcription factors Hindsight (Hnt) and Cut during spermathecal lineage specification, supporting the notion that Notch signaling can have opposite biological outcomes in different cellular environments. Furthermore, LEP-derived epithelial cells (ECs) and ACs show distinct cellular morphology and are essential for securing secretory units to the epithelial lumen. Our work demonstrates, for the first time, the dynamic role of Notch signaling in binary cell fate determination in Drosophila spermathecae and the role of ECs and ACs in secretory unit formation.



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TheCellMap.org: A Web-Accessible Database for Visualizing and Mining the Global Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

Providing access to quantitative genomic data is key to ensure large-scale data validation and promote new discoveries. TheCellMap.org serves as a central repository for storing and analyzing quantitative genetic interaction data produced by genome-scale Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) experiments with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, TheCellMap.org allows users to easily access, visualize, explore, and functionally annotate genetic interactions, or to extract and reorganize subnetworks, using data-driven network layouts in an intuitive and interactive manner.



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Reliable CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Engineering in Caenorhabditis elegans Using a Single Efficient sgRNA and an Easily Recognizable Phenotype

CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering strategies allow the directed modification of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome to introduce point mutations, generate knock-out mutants, and insert coding sequences for epitope or fluorescent tags. Three practical aspects, however, complicate such experiments. First, the efficiency and specificity of single-guide RNAs (sgRNA) cannot be reliably predicted. Second, the detection of animals carrying genome edits can be challenging in the absence of clearly visible or selectable phenotypes. Third, the sgRNA target site must be inactivated after editing to avoid further double-strand break events. We describe here a strategy that addresses these complications by transplanting the protospacer of a highly efficient sgRNA into a gene of interest to render it amenable to genome engineering. This sgRNA targeting the dpy-10 gene generates genome edits at comparatively high frequency. We demonstrate that the transplanted protospacer is cleaved at the same time as the dpy-10 gene. Our strategy generates scarless genome edits because it no longer requires the introduction of mutations in endogenous sgRNA target sites. Modified progeny can be easily identified in the F1 generation, which drastically reduces the number of animals to be tested by PCR or phenotypic analysis. Using this strategy, we reliably generated precise deletion mutants, transcriptional reporters, and translational fusions with epitope tags and fluorescent reporter genes. In particular, we report here the first use of the new red fluorescent protein mScarlet in a multicellular organism. wrmScarlet, a C. elegans-optimized version, dramatically surpassed TagRFP-T by showing an eightfold increase in fluorescence in a direct comparison.



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Distinct Patterns of Gene Gain and Loss: Diverse Evolutionary Modes of NBS-Encoding Genes in Three Solanaceae Crop Species

Plant resistance conferred by nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance genes plays a key role in the defense against various pathogens throughout the entire plant life cycle. However, comparative analyses for the systematic evaluation and determination of the evolutionary modes of NBS-encoding genes among Solanaceae species are rare. In this study, 447, 255, and 306 NBS-encoding genes were identified from the genomes of potato, tomato, and pepper, respectively. These genes usually clustered as tandem arrays on chromosomes; few existed as singletons. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three subclasses [TNLs (TIR-NBS-LRR), CNLs (CC-NBS-LRR), and RNLs (RPW8-NBS-LRR)] each formed a monophyletic clade and were distinguished by unique exon/intron structures and amino acid motif sequences. By comparing phylogenetic and systematic relationships, we inferred that the NBS-encoding genes in the present genomes of potato, tomato, and pepper were derived from 150 CNL, 22 TNL, and 4 RNL ancestral genes, and underwent independent gene loss and duplication events after speciation. The NBS-encoding genes therefore exhibit diverse and dynamic evolutionary patterns in the three Solanaceae species, giving rise to the discrepant gene numbers observed today. Potato shows a "consistent expansion" pattern, tomato exhibits a pattern of "first expansion and then contraction," and pepper presents a "shrinking" pattern. The earlier expansion of CNLs in the common ancestor led to the dominance of this subclass in gene numbers. However, RNLs remained at low copy numbers due to their specific functions. Along the evolutionary process of NBS-encoding genes in Solanaceae, species-specific tandem duplications contributed the most to gene expansions.



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The Interaction of Genetic Background and Mutational Effects in Regulation of Mouse Craniofacial Shape

Inbred genetic background significantly influences the expression of phenotypes associated with known genetic perturbations and can underlie variation in disease severity between individuals with the same mutation. However, the effect of epistatic interactions on the development of complex traits, such as craniofacial morphology, is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of three inbred backgrounds (129X1/SvJ, C57BL/6J, and FVB/NJ) on the expression of craniofacial dysmorphology in mice (Mus musculus) with loss of function in three members of the Sprouty family of growth factor negative regulators (Spry1, Spry2, or Spry4) in order to explore the impact of epistatic interactions on skull morphology. We found that the interaction of inbred background and the Sprouty genotype explains as much craniofacial shape variation as the Sprouty genotype alone. The most severely affected genotypes display a relatively short and wide skull, a rounded cranial vault, and a more highly angled inferior profile. Our results suggest that the FVB background is more resilient to Sprouty loss of function than either C57 or 129, and that Spry4 loss is generally less severe than loss of Spry1 or Spry2. While the specific modifier genes responsible for these significant background effects remain unknown, our results highlight the value of intercrossing mice of multiple inbred backgrounds to identify the genes and developmental interactions that modulate the severity of craniofacial dysmorphology. Our quantitative results represent an important first step toward elucidating genetic interactions underlying variation in robustness to known genetic perturbations in mice.



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Accurate Classification of Protein Subcellular Localization from High-Throughput Microscopy Images Using Deep Learning

High-throughput microscopy of many single cells generates high-dimensional data that are far from straightforward to analyze. One important problem is automatically detecting the cellular compartment where a fluorescently-tagged protein resides, a task relatively simple for an experienced human, but difficult to automate on a computer. Here, we train an 11-layer neural network on data from mapping thousands of yeast proteins, achieving per cell localization classification accuracy of 91%, and per protein accuracy of 99% on held-out images. We confirm that low-level network features correspond to basic image characteristics, while deeper layers separate localization classes. Using this network as a feature calculator, we train standard classifiers that assign proteins to previously unseen compartments after observing only a small number of training examples. Our results are the most accurate subcellular localization classifications to date, and demonstrate the usefulness of deep learning for high-throughput microscopy.



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Aging Effects of Caenorhabditis elegans Ryanodine Receptor Variants Corresponding to Human Myopathic Mutations

Delaying the decline in skeletal muscle function will be critical to better maintenance of an active lifestyle in old age. The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor, the major intracellular membrane channel through which calcium ions pass to elicit muscle contraction, is central to calcium ion balance and is hypothesized to be a significant factor for age-related decline in muscle function. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a key model system for the study of human aging, and strains were generated with modified C. elegans ryanodine receptors corresponding to human myopathic variants linked with malignant hyperthermia and related conditions. The altered response of these strains to pharmacological agents reflected results of human diagnostic tests for individuals with these pathogenic variants. Involvement of nerve cells in the C. elegans responses may relate to rare medical symptoms concerning the central nervous system that have been associated with ryanodine receptor variants. These single amino acid modifications in C. elegans also conferred a reduction in lifespan and an accelerated decline in muscle integrity with age, supporting the significance of ryanodine receptor function for human aging.



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Genomic Comparison of Indigenous African and Northern European Chickens Reveals Putative Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance Related to Environmental Selection Pressure

Global climate change is increasing the magnitude of environmental stressors, such as temperature, pathogens, and drought, that limit the survivability and sustainability of livestock production. Poultry production and its expansion is dependent upon robust animals that are able to cope with stressors in multiple environments. Understanding the genetic strategies that indigenous, noncommercial breeds have evolved to survive in their environment could help to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying biological traits of environmental adaptation. We examined poultry from diverse breeds and climates of Africa and Northern Europe for selection signatures that have allowed them to adapt to their indigenous environments. Selection signatures were studied using a combination of population genomic methods that employed FST, integrated haplotype score (iHS), and runs of homozygosity (ROH) procedures. All the analyses indicated differences in environment as a driver of selective pressure in both groups of populations. The analyses revealed unique differences in the genomic regions under selection pressure from the environment for each population. The African chickens showed stronger selection toward stress signaling and angiogenesis, while the Northern European chickens showed more selection pressure toward processes related to energy homeostasis. The results suggest that chromosomes 2 and 27 are the most diverged between populations and the most selected upon within the African (chromosome 27) and Northern European (chromosome 2) birds. Examination of the divergent populations has provided new insight into genes under possible selection related to tolerance of a population's indigenous environment that may be baselines for examining the genomic contribution to tolerance adaptions.



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Schizosaccharomyces pombe MutS{alpha} and MutL{alpha} Maintain Stability of Tetra-Nucleotide Repeats and Msh3 of Hepta-Nucleotide Repeats

Defective mismatch repair (MMR) in humans is associated with colon cancer and instability of microsatellites, that is, DNA sequences with one or several nucleotides repeated. Key factors of eukaryotic MMR are the heterodimers MutSα (Msh2-Msh6), which recognizes base-base mismatches and unpaired nucleotides in DNA, and MutLα (Mlh1-Pms1), which facilitates downstream steps. In addition, MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3) recognizes DNA loops of various sizes, although our previous data and the data presented here suggest that Msh3 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not play a role in MMR. To test microsatellite stability in S. pombe and hence DNA loop repair, we have inserted tetra-, penta-, and hepta-nucleotide repeats in the ade6 gene and determined their Ade+ reversion rates and spectra in wild type and various mutants. Our data indicate that loops with four unpaired nucleotides in the nascent and the template strand are the upper limit of MutSα- and MutLα-mediated MMR in S. pombe. Stability of hepta-nucleotide repeats requires Msh3 and Exo1 in MMR-independent processes as well as the DNA repair proteins Rad50, Rad51, and Rad2FEN1. Most strikingly, mutation rates in the double mutants msh3 exo1 and msh3 rad51 were decreased when compared to respective single mutants, indicating that Msh3 prevents error prone processes carried out by Exo1 and Rad51. We conclude that Msh3 has no obvious function in MMR in S. pombe, but contributes to DNA repeat stability in MMR-independent processes.



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Genotyping-by-Sequencing Facilitates a High-Density Consensus Linkage Map for Aegilops umbellulata, a Wild Relative of Cultivated Wheat

High-density genetic maps are useful to precisely localize QTL or genes that might be used to improve traits of nutritional and/or economical importance in crops. However, high-density genetic maps are lacking for most wild relatives of crop species, including wheat. Aegilops umbellulata is a wild relative of wheat known for its potential as a source of biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes. In this work, we have developed a framework consensus genetic map using two biparental populations derived from accessions PI 298905, PI 542369, PI 5422375, and PI 554395. The framework map comprised 3009 genotype-by-sequence SNPs with a total map size of 948.72 cM. On average, there were three SNPs per centimorgan for each chromosome. Chromosome 1U was the shortest (66.5 cM), with only 81 SNPs, whereas the remaining chromosomes had between 391 and 591 SNP markers. A total of 2395 unmapped SNPs were added to the linkage maps through a recombination frequency approach, and increased the number of SNPs placed on the consensus map to a total of 5404 markers. Segregation distortion was disproportionally high for chromosome 1U for both populations used to construct component linkage maps, and thus segregation distortion could be one of the probable reasons for the exceptionally reduced linkage size for chromosome 1U. From comparative analysis, Ae. umbellulata chromosomes except 4U showed moderate to strong collinearity with corresponding homeologous chromosomes of hexaploid wheat and barley. The present consensus map may serve as a reference map in QTL mapping and validation projects, and also in genome assembly to develop a reference genome sequence for Ae. umbellulata.



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Extensive Copy Number Variation in Fermentation-Related Genes Among Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strains

Due to the importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine-making, the genomic variation of wine yeast strains has been extensively studied. One of the major insights stemming from these studies is that wine yeast strains harbor low levels of genetic diversity in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic structural variants, such as copy number (CN) variants, are another major type of variation segregating in natural populations. To test whether genetic diversity in CN variation is also low across wine yeast strains, we examined genome-wide levels of CN variation in 132 whole-genome sequences of S. cerevisiae wine strains. We found an average of 97.8 CN variable regions (CNVRs) affecting ~4% of the genome per strain. Using two different measures of CN diversity, we found that gene families involved in fermentation-related processes such as copper resistance (CUP), flocculation (FLO), and glucose metabolism (HXT), as well as the SNO gene family whose members are expressed before or during the diauxic shift, showed substantial CN diversity across the 132 strains examined. Importantly, these same gene families have been shown, through comparative transcriptomic and functional assays, to be associated with adaptation to the wine fermentation environment. Our results suggest that CN variation is a substantial contributor to the genomic diversity of wine yeast strains, and identify several candidate loci whose levels of CN variation may affect the adaptation and performance of wine yeast strains during fermentation.



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asymptoticMK: A Web-Based Tool for the Asymptotic McDonald-Kreitman Test

The McDonald–Kreitman (MK) test is a widely used method for quantifying the role of positive selection in molecular evolution. One key shortcoming of this test lies in its sensitivity to the presence of slightly deleterious mutations, which can severely bias its estimates. An asymptotic version of the MK test was recently introduced that addresses this problem by evaluating polymorphism levels for different mutation frequencies separately, and then extrapolating a function fitted to that data. Here, we present asymptoticMK, a web-based implementation of this asymptotic MK test. Our web service provides a simple R-based interface into which the user can upload the required data (polymorphism and divergence data for the genomic test region and a neutrally evolving reference region). The web service then analyzes the data and provides plots of the test results. This service is free to use, open-source, and available at http://ift.tt/2oZqczP. We provide results from simulations to illustrate the performance and robustness of the asymptoticMK test under a wide range of model parameters.



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Paternal Induction of Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster Is Weakly Correlated with Both P-Element and hobo Element Dosage

Transposable elements (TEs) are virtually ubiquitous components of genomes, yet they often impose significant fitness consequences on their hosts. In addition to producing specific deleterious mutations by insertional inactivation, TEs also impose general fitness costs by inducing DNA damage and participating in ectopic recombination. These latter fitness costs are often assumed to be dosage-dependent, with stronger effects occurring in the presence of higher TE copy numbers. We test this assumption in Drosophila melanogaster by considering the relationship between the copy number of two active DNA transposons, P-element and hobo element, and the incidence of hybrid dysgenesis, a sterility syndrome associated with transposon activity in the germline. By harnessing a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), a group of fully-sequenced D. melanogaster strains, we describe quantitative and structural variation in P-elements and hobo elements among wild-derived genomes and associate these factors with hybrid dysgenesis. We find that the incidence of hybrid dysgenesis is associated with both P-element and hobo element copy number in a dosage-dependent manner. However, the relationship is weak for both TEs, suggesting that dosage alone explains only a small part of TE-associated fitness costs.



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Identification of QTLs for 14 Agronomically Important Traits in Setaria italica Based on SNPs Generated from High-Throughput Sequencing

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important crop possessing C4 photosynthesis capability. The S. italica genome was de novo sequenced in 2012, but the sequence lacked high-density genetic maps with agronomic and yield trait linkages. In the present study, we resequenced a foxtail millet population of 439 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and developed high-resolution bin map and high-density SNP markers, which could provide an effective approach for gene identification. A total of 59 QTL for 14 agronomic traits in plants grown under long- and short-day photoperiods were identified. The phenotypic variation explained ranged from 4.9 to 43.94%. In addition, we suggested that there may be segregation distortion on chromosome 6 that is significantly distorted toward Zhang gu. The newly identified QTL will provide a platform for sequence-based research on the S. italica genome, and for molecular marker-assisted breeding.



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Evaluating Methods of Updating Training Data in Long-Term Genomewide Selection

Genomewide selection is hailed for its ability to facilitate greater genetic gains per unit time. Over breeding cycles, the requisite linkage disequilibrium (LD) between quantitative trait loci and markers is expected to change as a result of recombination, selection, and drift, leading to a decay in prediction accuracy. Previous research has identified the need to update the training population using data that may capture new LD generated over breeding cycles; however, optimal methods of updating have not been explored. In a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding simulation experiment, we examined prediction accuracy and response to selection when updating the training population each cycle with the best predicted lines, the worst predicted lines, both the best and worst predicted lines, random lines, criterion-selected lines, or no lines. In the short term, we found that updating with the best predicted lines or the best and worst predicted lines resulted in high prediction accuracy and genetic gain, but in the long term, all methods (besides not updating) performed similarly. We also examined the impact of including all data in the training population or only the most recent data. Though patterns among update methods were similar, using a smaller but more recent training population provided a slight advantage in prediction accuracy and genetic gain. In an actual breeding program, a breeder might desire to gather phenotypic data on lines predicted to be the best, perhaps to evaluate possible cultivars. Therefore, our results suggest that an optimal method of updating the training population is also very practical.



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Response of women using oral contraception to exercise in the heat

Abstract

Purpose

To compare the response of long-term oral contraceptive users (WomenOC; n = 8) to naturally menstruating women (WomenNM; n = 8) at rest and during exercise in temperate (TEMP; 22 °C) and hot (HEAT; 35 °C) conditions.

Methods

Participants performed a three-stage cycling trial in each condition at 90, 135, and 180% of lactate threshold 1 (total = 52.5 min). Heart rate (HR) and core temperature (T c) were recorded continuously, whereas blood pressure (BP), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate [La], and skin blood flow (BFsk) were recorded every 7.5 min.

Results

Baseline T c was higher in WomenOC (37.5 ± 0.2, 37.6 ± 0.3 °C) than WomenNM (37.2 ± 0.2, 37.0 ± 0.4 °C) before the TEMP (p = 0.03) and HEAT (p < 0.01) trials, respectively. This difference remained for 22.5 min into both trials (p ≤ 0.05), after which time no between-group differences were found (p > 0.05). BFsk measured in WomenNM plateaued from 7.5 min in the HEAT, whereas BFsk measured in WomenOC increased for 15.0 min (p = 0.02) before plateauing. There were no between-group differences in HR, BP, or blood [La] before or throughout either trial (p > 0.05). WomenOC had higher (p ≤ 0.04) RPE values than WomenNM in the HEAT, reporting 8 ± 1 and 6 ± 2 at the end of Stage 3, respectively.

Conclusions

WomenOC concluded both trials with a comparable T c to WomenNM, but had a prolonged BFsk response and elevated RPE in the HEAT. Changes to BFsk and RPE observed in women using OC may have implications for exercise tolerance in hot conditions.



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Calif. community paramedicine project results in continued success

UCSF Healthforce Center MODESTO, Calif. — A new independent study of California's Community Paramedicine pilot projects shows encouraging results, demonstrating how specially trained paramedics can safely help improve patient care, reduce unnecessary emergency department transports, and lower health care costs. The study by the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Healthforce Center ...

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Feasibility of the head-mounted display for ultrasound-guided nerve blocks: a pilot simulator study

Abstract

The head-mounted display (HMD) has the potential to improve the quality of ultrasound-guided procedures. The aim of this non-clinical crossover designed study is to evaluate the feasibility of the HMD for ultrasound-guided nerve block. Eight experienced anesthesiologists performed ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks on a training simulator with a standard approach and with an upside-down approach. Each approach was performed with a control conventional method and with an HMD. The ultrasound image and operating field were recorded by video camera. The procedure time and fractional percentage of time with the needle visible on the ultrasound image were determined. The needle insertion times were 10.4 ± 7.2 s with the control method and 6.8 ± 5.3 s with the HMD method for the standard approach (p = 0.03), and 18.1 ± 10.1 with the control method and 11.8 ± 9.5 s with the HMD method for the upside-down approach (p = 0.002). The fractional percentages of time with the needle visible on the ultrasound image were 34.1 ± 20.9 with the control method and 56.5 ± 13.6% with the HMD method for the standard approach (p < 0.001), and 20.1 ± 13.4 with the control method and 38.2 ± 21.2% with the HMD method for the upside-down approach (p = 0.001). In conclusion, this pilot study using a simulation model indicated that the use of an HMD shortened the procedure time and improved the needle visibility on ultrasound.



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Intrathecal morphine for postoperative pain control following robot-assisted prostatectomy: a prospective randomized trial

Abstract

Purpose

Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is minimally invasive surgery, but also causes moderate to severe pain during the immediate postoperative period. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of intrathecal morphine (ITM) for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing RALP.

Methods

Thirty patients scheduled for RALP were randomly assigned into one of two groups. In the ITM group (n = 15), postoperative pain was managed using 300 µg intrathecal morphine with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA). In the IV-PCA group (n = 15), only intravenous patient-controlled analgesia was used. The numerical pain score (NPS; 0 = no pain, 100 = worst pain imaginable), postoperative IV-PCA requirements and opioid-related complications including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache and pruritus were compared between the two groups.

Results

The NPSs on coughing were 20 (IQR 10–50) in the ITM group and 60 (IQR 40–80) in the IV-PCA group at postoperative 24 h (p = 0.001). The NPSs were significantly lower in the ITM group up to postoperative 24 h. The ITM group showed less morphine consumption at postoperative 24 h in the ITM group than in the IV-PCA group [5 (IQR 3–15) mg vs 17 (IQR 11–24) mg, p = 0.001]. Complications associated with morphine were comparable between the two groups and respiratory depression was not reported in either group.

Conclusion

Intrathecal morphine provided more satisfactory analgesia without serious complications during the early postoperative period in patients undergoing RALP.



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A matched case–control comparison of hospital costs and outcomes for knee replacement patients admitted postoperatively to acute care versus rehabilitation

Abstract

For select total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients, we have established an alternative pathway to bypass the acute care surgical ward and directly admit patients from the post-anesthesia care unit to on-campus rehabilitation. We retrospectively examined whether this 'fast track' pathway decreased costs and improved patient outcomes. After reviewing records of consecutive primary unilateral TKA patients over a 15-month period, each patient admitted to rehabilitation was matched with a control admitted to the acute care ward. The primary outcome was estimated total hospitalization cost (length of stay in days multiplied by the average cost per day). Secondary outcomes were length of stay, in-hospital pain scores, opioid use, maximum ambulatory distance and 30-day readmission, morbidity, and mortality. Of the 262 TKA patients during the study period, 14 were admitted to rehabilitation and were matched to 14 patients admitted to acute care. Estimated total hospitalization cost [median (10th–90th percentiles)] was US$30,755 (US$23,066–38,444) for ward patients compared to US$17,620 (US$13,215–33,918) for rehabilitation patients (P = 0.006). This difference [mean (95% CI)] was US$10,143 (US$2174–18,112). There were no other differences. For facilities similar to ours, direct postoperative admission of select TKA patients to subacute rehabilitation may be less costly than acute care and may not negatively affect outcomes.



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Reply to: Could superimposed electromyostimulation be an effective training to improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity? Methodological considerations for its development

Abstract

In the present reply, we would like to put forward our perspective on the points raised by Amaro-Gahete et al. The main concerns addressed by the authors deal with the stimulation modalities applied in our study, compared to the results of Miyamoto et al. (Eur J Sports Sci 16(8):1104–1110, 2016), who showed an increase in the first ventilatory threshold and VO2peak after 16 × 30 min low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). We have to emphasize that both mentioned studies generally follow different approaches, and that the different outcomes might not only be related to stimulation modalities. Even the results of different studies, which used sole NMES is not consistent. Especially the relevance of local metabolic and ultrastructural adaptations in skeletal muscle for the translation to functional performance, that is particularly important for sport and activities, is not always investigated in these studies.



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Could superimposed electromyostimulation be an effective training to improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity? Methodological considerations for its development



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Whole exome sequencing of families with 1q21.1 microdeletion or microduplication

Recurrent microduplications/microdeletions of 1q21.1 are characterized by variable phenotypes ranging from normal development to developmental delay (DD) and congenital anomalies. Their interpretation is challenging especially in families with affected and unaffected carriers. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to look for sequence variants in two male probands with inherited 1q21.1 CNVs that could explain their more severe phenotypes. One proband had a 1q21.1 deletion transmitted from maternal grandmother, while the other had a paternal duplication. We found mutations in five genes (SMPD1, WNK3, NOS1, ATF6, and EFHC1) that could contribute to the more severe phenotype in the probands in comparison to their mildly affected or unaffected 1q21.1 CNV carrying relatives. Interestingly, all genes have roles in stress responses (oxidative/Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)/osmotic). One of the variants was in an X-linked gene WNK3 and segregated with the developmental features and X inactivation pattern in the family with 1q21.1 deletion transmitted from maternal grandmother. In silico analysis of all rare deleterious variants in both probands identified enrichment in nervous system diseases, metabolic pathways, protein processing in the ER and protein export. Our studies suggest that rare deleterious variants outside of the 1q21.1 CNV, individually or as a pool, could contribute to phenotypic variability in carriers of this CNV. Rare deleterious variants in stress response genes are of interest and raise the possibility of susceptibility of carriers to variable environmental influences. Next generation sequencing of additional familial cases with 1q21.1 CNV could further help determine the possible causes of phenotypic variability in carriers of this CNV.



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Response to: Milosavljevic et al. “Two cases of RIT1 associated Noonan syndrome: Further delineation of the clinical phenotype and review of the literature”



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Nomenclature and definition in asymmetric regional body overgrowth

We designate a novel term "isolated lateralized overgrowth" (ILO) for the findings previously described as "isolated hemihypertrophy" and "isolated hemihyperplasia." ILO is defined as lateralized overgrowth in the absence of a recognized pattern of malformations, dysplasia, or morphologic variants. ILO is likely genetically heterogeneous. Further study is required to determine more of the underlying genetic etiologies and potential associations with currently unrecognized patterns of malformation.



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Novel features of Helsmoortel–Van der Aa/ADNP syndrome in a boy with a known pathogenic mutation in the ADNP gene detected by exome sequencing



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The angiotensin II receptor type 1b is the primary sensor of intraluminal pressure in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells

Abstract

Myogenic vasoconstriction, which reflects the intrinsic ability of smooth muscle cells to contract in response to increases in intraluminal pressure, is critically important for the autoregulation of blood flow. In SMC from cerebral arteries, increasing intraluminal pressure engages a signalling cascade that stimulates cation influx through transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels to cause membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction. Substantial evidence indicates that the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) is inherently mechanosensitive and initiates this signalling pathway. Rodents express two types of AT1R—AT1Ra and AT1Rb—and conflicting studies provide support for either isoform as the primary sensor of intraluminal pressure in peripheral arteries. We hypothesized that mechanical activation of AT1Ra increases TRPM4 currents to induce myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. However, we found that development of myogenic tone was greater in arteries from AT1Raknockoutanimals compared with controls. In patch-clamp experiments using native cerebral arterial myocytes, membrane stretch-induced cation currents were blocked by the TRPM4 inhibitor 9-phenanthrol in both groups. Further, the AT1R blocker losartan (1 μm) diminished myogenic tone and blocked stretch-induced cation currents in cerebral arteries from both groups. Activation of AT1R with angiotensin II (30 nm) also increased TRPM4 currents in SMC and constricted cerebral arteries from both groups. Expression of AT1Rb mRNA was ∼30-fold greater than AT1Ra in cerebral arteries, and knockdown of AT1Rb selectively diminished myogenic constriction. We conclude that AT1Rb, acting upstream of TRPM4 channels, is the primary sensor of intraluminal pressure in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Report reveals S.F. 911 dispatch center staffing shortage

A report found that 206 people hung up before their calls were answered in the first hour of a massive power outage

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Issue Information



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Safety of antifibrinolytics in cranial vault reconstructive surgery: a report from the pediatric craniofacial collaborative group



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Bedside Entertainment and Relaxation Theater: size and novelty does matter when using video distraction for perioperative pediatric anxiety



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In this issue: June 2017



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Costs and inconvenience to parents of children requiring minor ear surgery



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Use of anesthetics in young children Consensus statement of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA), the European Society for Paediatric Anaesthesiology (ESPA), the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA), and the European Safe Tots Anaesthesia Research Initiative (EuroSTAR)



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Analysis of electroencephalogram characteristics of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients in China

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Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Yan Zhang, Gang Liu, Meng Di Jiang, Li Ping Li, Ying Ying Su
ObjectiveTo explore the characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis.MethodsAnti-NMDAR encephalitis patients admitted to the Department of Neurology between January 2012 and June 2016 were enrolled. All patients underwent electroencephalogram (EEG) at least once in the disease peak stage, and received tumor screening, symptomatic therapy, and immunotherapy. Patients received outcome evaluation every 6 months after the immunotherapy, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-2 was defined as favorable outcome.ResultsThis study enrolled 62 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, including 29 males (46.8%) and 33 females (53.2%). The patient ages were between 10 and 59 (mean 26.3 ± 11.3) years. A total of 93 instances of EEG monitoring were performed on 62 patients. At the peak stage, EEG presentations showed 61 cases (98.4%) were abnormal, cranial MRI showed 29 cases (46.8%) were abnormal among all 62 patients. The main presentations of abnormal EEG were diffuse slowing (25 cases, 40.3%), epileptiform discharges (11 cases, 17.7%), extreme delta brush (EDB) (10 cases, 16.1%), polymorphic delta rhythm (6 cases, 9.7%), focal slowing (5 cases, 8.1%), and diffuse beta activities (4 cases, 6.5%). Patients with normal background, epileptiform discharges, polymorphic delta rhythm, and diffuse beta activity in EEG all had favorable long-term outcome.ConclusionsThe majority of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients had abnormal EEG. EEG could sensitively reflect the abnormal brain functions of patients and could assist with early clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction.SignificanceDiffuse slowing was the most common presentation on the EEG in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The EEG pattern of normal background, epileptiform discharges, polymorphic delta rhythm, and diffuse beta activities at the peak stage might suggest favorable long-term prognosis.



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A Novel Scheme for the Validation of an Automated Classification Method for Epileptic Spikes by Comparison with Multiple Observers

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Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Niraj Sharma, Carlos Pedreira, Maria Centeno, Umair J. Chaudhary, Tim Wehner, Lucas G.S. França, Tinonkorn Yadee, Teresa Murta, Marco Leite, Sjoerd B. Vos, Sebastien Ourselin, Beate Diehl, Louis Lemieux
ObjectiveTo validate the application of an automated neuronal spike classification algorithm, Wave_clus (WC), on interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) obtained from human intracranial EEG (icEEG) data.MethodFive 10-minute segments of icEEG recorded in 5 patients were used. WC and three expert EEG reviewers independently classified one hundred IED events into IED classes or non-IEDs. First, we determined whether WC-human agreement variability falls within inter-reviewer agreement variability by calculating the variation of information for each classifier pair and quantifying the overlap between all WC-reviewer and all reviewer-reviewer pairs. Second, we compared WC and EEG reviewers' spike identification and individual spike class labels visually and quantitatively.ResultsThe overlap between all WC-human pairs and all human pairs was >80% for 3/5 patients and >58% for the other 2 patients demonstrating WC falling within inter-human variation. The average sensitivity of spike marking for WC was 91% and >87% for all three EEG reviewers. Finally, there was a strong visual and quantitative similarity between WC and EEG reviewers.ConclusionsWC performance is indistinguishable to that of EEG reviewers' suggesting it could be a valid clinical tool for the assessment of IEDs.SignificanceWC can be used to provide quantitative analysis of epileptic spikes.



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Spatial interpolation and radiological mapping of ambient gamma dose rate by using artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 175–176
Author(s): Cafer Mert Yeşilkanat, Yaşar Kobya, Halim Taşkın, Uğur Çevik
The aim of this study was to determine spatial risk dispersion of ambient gamma dose rate (AGDR) by using both artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic (FL) methods, compare the performances of methods, make dose estimations for intermediate stations with no previous measurements and create dose rate risk maps of the study area. In order to determine the dose distribution by using artificial neural networks, two main networks and five different network structures were used; feed forward ANN; Multi-layer perceptron (MLP), Radial basis functional neural network (RBFNN), Quantile regression neural network (QRNN) and recurrent ANN; Jordan networks (JN), Elman networks (EN). In the evaluation of estimation performance obtained for the test data, all models appear to give similar results. According to the cross-validation results obtained for explaining AGDR distribution, Pearson's r coefficients were calculated as 0.94, 0.91, 0.89, 0.91, 0.91 and 0.92 and RMSE values were calculated as 34.78, 43.28, 63.92, 44.86, 46.77 and 37.92 for MLP, RBFNN, QRNN, JN, EN and FL, respectively. In addition, spatial risk maps showing distributions of AGDR of the study area were created by all models and results were compared with geological, topological and soil structure.

Graphical abstract

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