Δευτέρα, 10 Ιουλίου 2017

Adsorption Process of Vanadium (V) with Melamine

Abstract

Melamine, which has three free amino groups and three aromatic nitrogen atoms in its molecule, can be potentially used as an adsorbent for metal ions. Factors associated with adsorption efficiency of vanadium by melamine were systematically investigated, including initial pH value of solution, temperature, contact time, and dosage of melamine. The optimal operation conditions for adsorption performance of vanadium with melamine were obtained. The adsorption efficiency was over 99.97% at the initial pH value of 1.18, molar ratio of n (melamine)/n (vanadium) = 1.0 for 60 min. The kinetic data for the adsorption followed well the pseudo second-order kinetic model.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v65b5o
via IFTTT

JMJD2A promotes the Warburg effect and nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression by transactivating LDHA expression

Abstract

Background

Jumonji C domain 2A (JMJD2A), as a histone demethylases, plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and progression. But, its functions and underlying mechanisms of JMJD2A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metabolism are remained to be clarified. In this study, we investigated glycolysis regulation by JMJD2A in NPC and the possible mechanism.

Methods

JMJD2A expression was detected by Western blotting and Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then, we knocked down and ectopically expressed JMJD2A to detect changes in glycolytic enzymes. We also evaluated the impacts of JMJD2A-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) signaling on NPC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ChIP assays were used to test whether JMJD2A bound to the LDHA promoter. Finally, IHC was used to verify JMJD2A and LDHA expression in NPC tissue samples and analyze their correlation between expression and clinical features.

Results

JMJD2A was expressed at high levels in NPC tumor tissues and cell lines. Both JMJD2A and LDHA expression were positively correlated with the tumor stage, metastasis and clinical stage. Additionally, the level of JMJD2A was positively correlated with LDHA expression in NPC patients, and higher JMJD2A and LDHA expression predicted a worse prognosis. JMJD2A alteration did not influence most of glycolytic enzymes expression, with the exception of PFK-L, PGAM-1, LDHB and LDHA, and LDHA exhibited the greatest decrease in expression. JMJD2A silencing decreased LDHA expression and the intracellular ATP level and increased LDH activity, lactate production and glucose utilization, while JMJD2A overexpression produced the opposite results. Furthermore, JMJD2A could combine to LDHA promoter region and regulate LDHA expression at the level of transcription. Activated JMJD2A-LDHA signaling pathway promoted NPC cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Conclusions

JMJD2A regulated aerobic glycolysis by regulating LDHA expression. Therefore, the novel JMJD2A-LDHA signaling pathway could contribute to the Warburg effects in NPC progression.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v6fg2q
via IFTTT

High cancer mortality for US-born Latinos: evidence from California and Texas

Abstract

Background

Latinos born in the US, 36 million, comprise 65% of all US Latinos. Yet their cancer experience is nearly always analyzed together with their foreign-born counterparts, 19 million, who constitute a steady influx of truly lower-risk populations from abroad. To highlight specific cancer vulnerabilities for US-born Latinos, we compare their cancer mortality to the majority non-Latino white (NLW) population, foreign-born Latinos, and non-Latino blacks.

Methods

We analyzed 465,751 cancer deaths from 2008 to 2012 occurring among residents of California and Texas, the two most populous states, accounting for 47% of US Latinos. This cross-sectional analysis, based on granular data obtained from death certificates on cause of death, age, race, ethnicity and birthplace, makes use of normal standardization techniques and negative binomial regression models.

Results

While Latinos overall have lower all-cancers-combined mortality rates than NLWs, these numbers were largely driven by low rates among the foreign born while mortality rates for US-born Latinos approach those of NLWs. Among Texas males, rates were 210 per 100,000 for NLWs and 166 for Latinos combined, but 201 per 100,000 for US-born Latinos and 125 for foreign-born Latinos. Compared to NLWs, US-born Latino males in California had mortality rate ratios of 2.83 (95% CI: 2.52–3.18) for liver cancer, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.30–1.61) for kidney cancer, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17–1.34) for colorectal cancer (CRC). Texas results showed a similar site-specific pattern.

Conclusions

Specific cancer patterns for US-born Latinos, who have relatively high cancer mortality, similar overall to NLWs, are masked by aggregation of all Latinos, US-born and foreign-born. While NLWs had high mortality for lung cancer, US-born Latinos had high mortality for liver, kidney and male colorectal cancers. HCV testing and reinforcement of the need for CRC screening should be a priority in this specific and understudied population. The unprecedented proximity of overall rates between NLWs and US-born Latino populations runs counter to the prevailing narrative of Latinos having significantly lower cancer risk and mortality. Birthplace data are critical in detecting meaningful differences among Latinos; these findings merit not only clinical but also public health attention.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u7lQbr
via IFTTT

Joint quantitative measurement of hTERT mRNA in both peripheral blood and circulating tumor cells of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its clinical significance

Abstract

Background

The study was aimed to quantitatively detect mRNA levels of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) in both peripheral blood and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explore its significance in early diagnosis and treatment of NPC.

Methods

hTERT mRNA levels in peripheral blood and CTCs of 33 NPC patients before and after treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or/and chemotherapy and 24 healthy controls were measured using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and their correlations to clinic pathological factors of NPC were analyzed.

Results

Peripheral hTERT mRNA content was 10.75 ± 4.29 in NPC patients and 0.95 ± 0.37 in control subjects (P < 0.05), and had a significant correlation with patients’ clinical stage, T stage, and N stage (P < 0.05). Treatment of NPC patients at stages I and II with simple IMRT significantly reduced hTERT mRNA level from 5.60 ± 2.33 to 3.43 ± 1.42 (P < 0.05) and treatment of patients at advanced stage (III and IV) with induction chemotherapy followed by IMRT significantly reduced hTERT mRNA levels from 12.68 ± 3.08 to 10.68 ± 2.48 to 3.13 ± 1.69 (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition, the study also showed that hTERT mRNA content in CTCs of NPC patients was 10.65 ± 4.28, evidently higher than that of 1.09 ± 0.40 in control subjects (P < 0.05) and hTERT mRNA level in CTCs of NPC patients was obviously correlated to patients’ clinical stage, T stage and N stage (P < 0.05). After treatment, hTERT mRNA level in CTCs of NPC patients lowered from 10.65 ± 4.28 to 5.59 ± 2.32 (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis found that hTERT mRNA level in peripheral blood and CTCs of NPC patients were highly correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.981.

Conclusions

hTERT mRNA levels in peripheral blood and CTCs of NPC patients were significantly enhanced compared to that in healthy controls and highly correlated. Changes in hTERT mRNA level was closely correlated to patients’ clinical stage and T stage. Radiochemotherapy could effectively reduce hTERT mRNA level in peripheral blood and CTCs. Thus, it is possible using the joint detection of hTERT mRNA level in peripheral blood and CTCs as a new biomarker for early diagnosis, treatment efficacy and prognosis of NPC.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v61r3L
via IFTTT

Müller glia and phagocytosis of cell debris in retinal tissue

Abstract

Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina of vertebrates. They play a wide variety of roles in both the developing and the mature retina that have been widely reported in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to their role in phagocytosis of cell debris under physiological, pathological or experimental conditions. Müller glia have been shown to phagocytose apoptotic cell bodies originated during development of the visual system. They also engulf foreign molecules that are injected into the eye, cone outer segments and injured photoreceptors. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor cell debris in the light-damaged teleost retina is primarily carried out by Müller cells. Once the microglial cells become activated and migrate to the photoreceptor cell layer, the phagocytic activity of Müller cells progressively decreases, suggesting a possible mechanism of communication between Müller cells and neighbouring microglia and photoreceptors. Additionally, it has been shown that phagocytic Müller cells acquire proliferating activity in the damaged teleost retina, suggesting that engulfment of apoptotic photoreceptor debris might stimulate the Müller glia to proliferate during the regenerative response. These findings highlight Müller glia phagocytosis as an underlying mechanism contributing to degeneration and regeneration under pathological conditions.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYAfYr
via IFTTT

Rare bacterial isolates causing bloodstream infections in Ethiopian patients with cancer

Abstract

Background

In recent years, saprophytic bacteria have been emerging as potential human pathogens causing life-threatening infections in patients with malignancies. However, evidence is lacking concerning such bacteria, particularly in sub-Saharan countries. This study was designed to determine the spectrum and drug resistance profile of the rare bacterial pathogens causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in febrile cancer patients at a referral hospital in Ethiopia.

Methods

Between December 2011 and June 2012, blood samples were collected from 107 patients with cancer in Tikur Anbessa hospital. Culturing was performed using the blood culture bottles and solid media and the microorganisms were identified using the gram staining and APINE identification kits (Biomerieux, France). The disk diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Results

Overall, 13 (12.2%) rare human pathogens were isolated from 107 adult febrile cancer patients investigated. Aeromonas hydrophilia species (a fermentative gram-negative rod) was the predominant isolate, 30.8% (4/13), followed by Chryseomonas luteola 15.4% (2/13), Sphignomonas poucimobilis 15.4% (2/13), and Pseudomonas fluorescens 15.4% (2/13). Of the nine isolates tested for a nine set of antibiotics, 89% were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

Conclusions

This study revealed the emergence of saprophytic bacteria as potential drug-resistant nosocomial pathogens in Ethiopian patients with cancer. As these pathogens are ubiquitous in the environment, infection prevention actions should be strengthened in the hospital and early diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are warranted for those already infected.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYm99m
via IFTTT

Regional differences in the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in Finland

Abstract

Background

Over the years, the consensus has generally been that Finland is a country with a significantly high incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) when compared to the rest of the world, excluding Japan. Most of the traditionally cited Finnish incidence studies are several decades old and have clear differences in their methodology and study design. The objective of this study was to determine the hospital-admitted incidence of aneurysmal SAH at Tampere University Hospital between 1990 and 2014. We also compared the incidence to other geographical regions in Finland.

Methods

The material for this study consists of patients admitted to Tampere University Hospital between 1990 and 2014 with the presentation of aneurysmal SAH. There was a total of 1965 patients with aneurysmal SAH in our data.

Results

The mean hospital-admitted aneurysmal SAH incidence over the period was 7.41 per 100,000 person-years. The hospital-admitted aneurysmal SAH incidence in the Eastern Finland region was two-thirds greater than in the Tampere University Hospital region.

Conclusions

We observed a relatively steady hospital-admitted incidence of aneurysmal SAH (7.41 per 100,000 person-years) in the Tampere University Hospital region. This result is parallel to a recent study looking into the incidence of aneurysmal SAH for the whole of Finland. Compared to the Tampere University Hospital region, the incidence was 64% greater in the Eastern Finland region.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u2uA2Z
via IFTTT

Tc-99m tilmanocept versus Tc-99m sulfur colloid in breast cancer sentinel lymph node identification: Results from a randomized, blinded clinical trial

Introduction

No prior trials have compared sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification outcomes between Tc-99m tilmanocept (TcTM) and Tc-99m sulfur colloid (TcSC) in breast cancer (BC).

Methods

We report on the secondary outcomes from a randomized, double-blinded, single surgeon clinical trial comparing post-injection site pain between TcTM and TcSC. Patients were randomized to receive a preoperative single, peritumoral intradermal injection of TcTM or TcSC. The number of total, “hot”, and blue nodes detected and removed were compared between groups.

Results

Fifty-two (27-TcSC and 25-TcTM) patients were enrolled and underwent definitive surgical treatment. At least one “hot” SLN was detected in all patients. Three (5.8%) patients had a disease positive-SLN. The total number of SLNs removed was 61 (mean 2.26 (standard deviation (SD) 0.90)) in the TcSC group and 54 (mean 2.16 (SD 0.90)) in the TcTM group, P = 0.69. The total number of “hot” nodes in the TcSC group was 1.96 (SD 0.76) compared to 2.04 (SD 0.73) in the TcTM group, P = 0.71.

Conclusions

The number of identified SLNs did not differ significantly between TcTM and TcSC. Given that no significant technical advantages exist between the two agents, surgeons should choose a radiopharmaceutical based on cost and side effect profile.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v5Rbc3
via IFTTT

DNA mismatch repair and its many roles in eukaryotic cells

Publication date: Available online 9 July 2017
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Author(s): Dekang Liu, Guido Keijzers, Lene Juel Rasmussen
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an important DNA repair pathway that plays critical roles in DNA replication fidelity, mutation avoidance and genome stability, all of which contribute significantly to the viability of cells and organisms. MMR is widely-used as a diagnostic biomarker for human cancers in the clinic, and as a biomarker of cancer susceptibility in animal model systems. Prokaryotic MMR is well-characterized at the molecular and mechanistic level; however, MMR is considerably more complex in eukaryotic cells than in prokaryotic cells, and in recent years, it has become evident that MMR plays novel roles in eukaryotic cells, several of which are not yet well-defined or understood. Many MMR-deficient human cancer cells lack mutations in known human MMR genes, which strongly suggests that essential eukaryotic MMR components/cofactors remain unidentified and uncharacterized. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the eukaryotic MMR machinery discriminates between the parental (template) and the daughter (nascent) DNA strand is incompletely understood and how cells choose between the EXO1-dependent and the EXO1–independent subpathways of MMR is not known. This review summarizes recent literature on eukaryotic MMR, with emphasis on the diverse cellular roles of eukaryotic MMR proteins, the mechanism of strand discrimination and cross-talk/interactions between and co-regulation of MMR and other DNA repair pathways in eukaryotic cells. The main conclusion of the review is that MMR proteins contribute to genome stability through their ability to recognize and promote an appropriate cellular response to aberrant DNA structures, especially when they arise during DNA replication. Although the molecular mechanism of MMR in the eukaryotic cell is still not completely understood, increased used of single-molecule analyses in the future may yield new insight into these unsolved questions.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uL8waH
via IFTTT

Table of Contents

gnw238.pdf.gif?Expires=1499839000&Signat



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tCLfJB

Combining the sick lobe theory with markers of field cancerization for refinement of a personalized surgical margin



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u7ezsl
via IFTTT

Integration of ‘sick lobe hypothesis’ with concept of field cancerisation for a personalised surgical margin for breast conserving surgery



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v602dL
via IFTTT

Portal vein territory identification using indocyanine green fluorescence imaging: Technical details and short-term outcomes

Background and Objectives

Portal vein (PV) territory identification during liver resection may be performed using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging technique. However, the technical details of the fluorescence staining technique have not been fully elucidated. This study was performed to demonstrate the technical details of PV territory identification using fluorescence imaging and evaluates the short-term outcomes.

Methods

From 2011 to 2015, 105 underwent liver resection at the University of Tokyo Hospital with one of the following fluorescence staining techniques by transhepatic PV injection or intravenous injection of ICG: single staining (n = 36), multiple staining (n = 31), counterstaining (n = 22), negative staining (n = 13), or paradoxical negative staining (n = 3).

Results

The PV territory was identified as a region with fluorescence or a defect of fluorescence using one of the five staining techniques. ICG was administered by transhepatic PV injection in all but the negative staining technique, which employed intravenous injection. No adverse events associated with the ICG administration occurred. The mortality, postoperative total morbidity, and the major complication (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III) rates were 0.0%, 14.3%, and 7.6%.

Conclusions

We have demonstrated the technical details of five types of fluorescence staining techniques. These techniques are safe to perform and facilitate clear visualization of the PV territory in real time, enhancing the efficacy of anatomical removal of such territories.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u76nIu
via IFTTT

Comparison of long-term clinical outcomes among different vascularized lymph node transfers: 6-year experience of a single center's approach to the treatment of lymphedema

Background

This study evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes among different vascularized lymph node transfers (VLNT) used at our institution.

Methods

Between July 2010 and July 2016, all patients with International Society of Lymphology (ISL) stages II-III who underwent VLNT were evaluated. Demographic and clinical data (limb circumference, infectious episodes, lymphoscintigraphic studies) were recorded pre-operatively. Clinical outcomes, complications, and additional excisional procedures were analyzed post-operatively. At least 2-year follow-up was required for inclusion.

Results

Overall, 83 patients (Stage II:47, Stage III:36) met the inclusion criterion. Mean follow-up was 32.8 months (range, 24-49). Lymph node flaps used were groin (n = 13), supraclavicular (n = 25), gastroepiploic (n = 42), ileocecal (n = 2), and appendicular (n = 1). Total mean circumference reduction rate was 29.1% (Stage II) and 17.9% (Stage III) (P < 0.05). A paired t-test showed that VLNT significantly decreased the number of infections (P < 0.05). Three patients reported no improvement of the symptoms. Major complications included one flap loss and one donor site hematoma. After the period of follow-up, 18 patients (21.7%) underwent additional excisional procedures.

Conclusion

VLNT is a promising technique used for the treatment of lymphedema and appears to be more effective in moderate stages (Stage II). Patients with advanced stage lymphedema (Stage III) may benefit from additional excisional procedures.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v63g0y
via IFTTT

Favorable factors for preserving bladder function after nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy: A protocol-based validation study

Objectives

To investigate favorable factors of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) for preserving the pelvic autonomic nerves and subsequent bladder function and to compare the safety between NSRH and conventional radical hysterectomy (CRH) for cervical cancer.

Methods

We recruited 87 consecutive patients with IB1-IIA cervical cancer who underwent NSRH, and reviewed the information of 81 patients who received CRH for historical comparisons. One gynaecologic oncologist performed all operations.

Results

IB1 disease was the only favorable factor for unilateral or bilateral preservation (adjusted OR, 0.245; 95% CI, 0.077-0.774), whereas IB1 disease and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) were favorable for bilateral preservation (adjusted ORs, 0.336 and 0.116; 95% CIs, 0.162-0.982 and 0.023-0.581). The median duration of postoperative catheterization (DPC) was different among bilateral, unilateral and failed preservation (median 6 vs 18 vs 90 days; P < 0.001). The median DPC was shorter in NSRH patients with stage IB1 disease or SqCC (7 vs 14 days; P < 0.05) despite no difference between NSRH and CRH in those with IB2-IIA disease or non-SqCC. Survival was not different between NSRH and CRH patients.

Conclusions

IB1 disease and SqCC are favorable for preserving the pelvic autonomic nerves and subsequent bladder function without compromising survival outcomes in patients treated with NSRH.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u79kcc
via IFTTT

High-flow paediatric mandibular arteriovenous malformations: case reports and a review of current management

High-flow vascular malformations in the paediatric population are potentially life-threatening and are challenging to treat. This paper describes the management of three cases of mandibular arteriovenous malformations and reviews the contemporary management options for these serious lesions.

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uKDM9Z
via IFTTT

Incidence of OXA-23 and OXA-58 Carbapenemases Coexpressed in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in Tunisia

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ucAIX6
via IFTTT

State Regulatory Approaches for Dementia Care in Residential Care and Assisted Living

Abstract
Purpose:
This policy study analyzed states’ residential care and assisted living (RC/AL) regulations for dementia care requirements. Estimates suggest that at least half of RC/AL residents have dementia, and 22% of settings provide or specialize in dementia care. Residents with dementia might benefit from regulations that account for specific behaviors and needs associated with dementia, making states’ RC/AL regulations address dementia care an important policy topic.
Design and Methods:
This study examined RC/AL regulations in all 50 states and the District of Columbia for regulatory requirements on five topics important to the quality of life of RC/AL residents with dementia: pre-admission assessment, consumer disclosure, staffing types and levels, administrator training, and physical environment.
Results:
Sixteen states license or certify dementia care units within RC/AL settings. All states had at least one dementia care requirement, though only four states had requirements for all five of the topics reviewed. Most states addressed administrator training, consumer disclosure, and physical environment, 17 addressed staffing types and levels, and 14 addressed pre-admission assessment for dementia. Thus, most states rely on general RC/AL regulations to cover dementia care policies and practices.
Implications:
This policy study provides a resource for researchers who do cross-state studies of dementia care in RC/AL settings and state policymakers who are updating RC/AL regulations, including those responding to a 2014 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rule change.

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2t83IKk

Favorable factors for preserving bladder function after nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy: A protocol-based validation study

Objectives

To investigate favorable factors of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) for preserving the pelvic autonomic nerves and subsequent bladder function and to compare the safety between NSRH and conventional radical hysterectomy (CRH) for cervical cancer.

Methods

We recruited 87 consecutive patients with IB1-IIA cervical cancer who underwent NSRH, and reviewed the information of 81 patients who received CRH for historical comparisons. One gynaecologic oncologist performed all operations.

Results

IB1 disease was the only favorable factor for unilateral or bilateral preservation (adjusted OR, 0.245; 95% CI, 0.077-0.774), whereas IB1 disease and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) were favorable for bilateral preservation (adjusted ORs, 0.336 and 0.116; 95% CIs, 0.162-0.982 and 0.023-0.581). The median duration of postoperative catheterization (DPC) was different among bilateral, unilateral and failed preservation (median 6 vs 18 vs 90 days; P < 0.001). The median DPC was shorter in NSRH patients with stage IB1 disease or SqCC (7 vs 14 days; P < 0.05) despite no difference between NSRH and CRH in those with IB2-IIA disease or non-SqCC. Survival was not different between NSRH and CRH patients.

Conclusions

IB1 disease and SqCC are favorable for preserving the pelvic autonomic nerves and subsequent bladder function without compromising survival outcomes in patients treated with NSRH.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u79kcc

Recurrent BRAF Gene Rearrangements in Myxoinflammatory Fibroblastic Sarcomas, but Not Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumors.

Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a low grade soft tissue sarcoma with a predilection for acral sites, being associated with a high rate of local recurrence but very infrequent distant metastases. Although a t(1;10) translocation resulting in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion has been reported as a recurrent genetic event in MIFS, this abnormality is seen only in a subset of cases. As no studies to date have investigated the spectrum of alternative genetic alterations in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS, we undertook a genetic analysis of this particular cohort for further molecular classification. Triggered by an index case occurring in the finger of a 37-year-old female and harboring a novel TOM1L2-BRAF fusion by targeted RNA sequencing we investigated potential recurrent BRAF abnormalities by screening a large group of 19 TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS by fluorescence in situ hybridization. There were 6 (32%) additional MIFS with BRAF genetic abnormalities, including 5 gene rearrangements and one showing BRAF amplification. Interestingly, VGLL3 amplification, a recurrent genetic abnormality coexisting with t(1;10) in some MIFS, was also detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 4/6 (67%) BRAF-rearranged MIFS, but not in the BRAF-amplified case. Up-regulated VGLL3 mRNA expression was also demonstrated in the index case by RNA sequencing. The 7 BRAF-rearranged/amplified MIFS arose in the fingers (n=3), and 1 each in wrist, forearm, foot, and knee, of adult patients (36 to 74 y; M:F=4:3). The histologic spectrum ranged from predominantly solid growth of plump histiocytoid to epithelioid tumor cells with focal myxoid change to a predominantly myxoid background with scattered tumor cells. Varying degree of inflammatory infiltrates and large tumor cells with virocyte-like macronucleoli were observed in most cases. Immunohistochemical stains of phosphorylated ERK, a downstream effector of BRAF activation, were positive in all 4 cases tested (2 diffuse strong, 2 focal strong). Unlike t(1;10), BRAF rearrangements were only found in MIFS but not in 6 hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) lacking TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusions (including 2 pure HFLT, 2 hybrid HFLT-MIFS, and 2 associated with pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors). Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uciNzG
via IFTTT

High-flow paediatric mandibular arteriovenous malformations: case reports and a review of current management

High-flow vascular malformations in the paediatric population are potentially life-threatening and are challenging to treat. This paper describes the management of three cases of mandibular arteriovenous malformations and reviews the contemporary management options for these serious lesions.

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uKDM9Z

Recurrent BRAF Gene Rearrangements in Myxoinflammatory Fibroblastic Sarcomas, but Not Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumors.

Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a low grade soft tissue sarcoma with a predilection for acral sites, being associated with a high rate of local recurrence but very infrequent distant metastases. Although a t(1;10) translocation resulting in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion has been reported as a recurrent genetic event in MIFS, this abnormality is seen only in a subset of cases. As no studies to date have investigated the spectrum of alternative genetic alterations in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS, we undertook a genetic analysis of this particular cohort for further molecular classification. Triggered by an index case occurring in the finger of a 37-year-old female and harboring a novel TOM1L2-BRAF fusion by targeted RNA sequencing we investigated potential recurrent BRAF abnormalities by screening a large group of 19 TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS by fluorescence in situ hybridization. There were 6 (32%) additional MIFS with BRAF genetic abnormalities, including 5 gene rearrangements and one showing BRAF amplification. Interestingly, VGLL3 amplification, a recurrent genetic abnormality coexisting with t(1;10) in some MIFS, was also detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 4/6 (67%) BRAF-rearranged MIFS, but not in the BRAF-amplified case. Up-regulated VGLL3 mRNA expression was also demonstrated in the index case by RNA sequencing. The 7 BRAF-rearranged/amplified MIFS arose in the fingers (n=3), and 1 each in wrist, forearm, foot, and knee, of adult patients (36 to 74 y; M:F=4:3). The histologic spectrum ranged from predominantly solid growth of plump histiocytoid to epithelioid tumor cells with focal myxoid change to a predominantly myxoid background with scattered tumor cells. Varying degree of inflammatory infiltrates and large tumor cells with virocyte-like macronucleoli were observed in most cases. Immunohistochemical stains of phosphorylated ERK, a downstream effector of BRAF activation, were positive in all 4 cases tested (2 diffuse strong, 2 focal strong). Unlike t(1;10), BRAF rearrangements were only found in MIFS but not in 6 hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) lacking TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusions (including 2 pure HFLT, 2 hybrid HFLT-MIFS, and 2 associated with pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors). Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uciNzG

Relationship of Lymph Node Micrometastasis and Micropapillary Component and Their Joint Influence on Prognosis of Patients With Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma.

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between lymph node micrometastasis and histologic patterns of adenocarcinoma, with a particular focus on their joint effect on prognosis. We retrospectively reviewed 235 patients with stage I adenocarcinoma from January 2009 to December 2009. Lymph node micrometastasis was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and thyroid transcription factor-1. A logistic regression model was applied to confirm the predictive factors of micrometastasis. Survival analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of micrometastasis on prognosis. Lymph node micrometastasis was observed in 35 patients (15%). Patients with micrometastasis had significantly worse recurrence-free survival (P

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uL5Zxa

Glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat striatum

S03619230.gif

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
Source:Brain Research Bulletin
Author(s): J.D. Neves, D. Aristimunha, A.F. Vizuete, F. Nicola, C. Vanzela, L. Petenuzzo, R.G. Mestriner, E.F. Sanches, C.A. Gonçalves, C.A. Netto
Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed. Secondly, glial cell proportion (GFAP+ and S100B+ astrocytes, CD11+ microglia) in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex and striatum, using flow cytometry were evaluated. ELISA was used to measure GFAP and S100B content in these structures as well as S100B levels in serum and cerebral spinal fluid. Main results revealed that ICH induced a delayed increase in GFAP+ cells in the sensorimotor cortex, as compared to the striatum, although the pattern of GFAP expression was similar in both structures. Interestingly, the time-curve patterns of both S100B and CD11+ microglial cells differed between the cortex and striatum. Altogether, these results suggest a different dynamics of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex, suggesting it is a vulnerable structure and undergoes an independent secondary process of reactive glial plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ucnHfU

The effect of CXCR2 inhibition on seizure activity in the pilocarpine epilepsy mouse model

S03619230.gif

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
Source:Brain Research Bulletin
Author(s): Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Xi Liu, Shu Ou, Yangmei Chen
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is one of the most well characterized chemokine receptors and is a potential target for treating brain pathologies involving inflammatory processes, including epilepsy. However, the role of CXCR2 in epilepsy has not been investigated, and whether CXCR2 modulates seizure activity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of CXCR2 in intractable TLE patients and in pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice. Here, through Western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, we detected that CXCR2 protein expression was up-regulated (by nearly 50%) in the temporal neocortex of TLE patients and in the hippocampus and adjacent temporal cortex of pilocarpine mice model. Double-label immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that CXCR2 was expressed in neurons. To investigate the effect of the CXCR2 selective antagonist SB225002 on seizure activity, SB225002 was i.p. administered during the latency window of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). This treatment increased (by nearly 40%) the latency of SRSs and reduced (by nearly 50%) the frequency of SRSs during the chronic period of epilepsy. This study suggests that CXCR2 plays a critical role in modifying epileptic seizure activity and that CXCR2 blockade could be a potential molecular therapeutic target for epilepsy.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uLt5DR

Habitat Predicts Levels of Genetic Admixture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Genetic admixture can provide material for populations to adapt to local environments, and this process has played a crucial role in the domestication of plants and animals. The model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been domesticated multiple times for the production of wine, sake, beer and bread, but the high rate of admixture between yeast lineages has so far been treated as a complication for population genomic analysis. Here we make use of the low recombination rate at centromeres to investigate admixture in yeast using a classic Bayesian approach and a locus by locus phylogenetic approach. Using both approaches, we find that S. cerevisiae from stable oak woodland habitats are less likely to show recent genetic admixture compared with those isolated from transient habitats such as fruits, wine or human infections. When woodland yeast strains do show recent genetic admixture, the degree of admixture is lower than in strains from other habitats. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae populations from oak woodlands are genetically isolated from each other, with only occasional migration between woodlands and local fruit habitats. Application of the phylogenetic approach suggests that there is a previously undetected population in North Africa that is the closest outgroup to the European S. cerevisiae, including the domesticatedWine population. Careful testing for admixture in S. cerevisiae leads to a better understanding of the underlying population structure of the species and will be important for understanding the selective processes underlying domestication in this economically important species.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u2JPct

Relationship of Lymph Node Micrometastasis and Micropapillary Component and Their Joint Influence on Prognosis of Patients With Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma.

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between lymph node micrometastasis and histologic patterns of adenocarcinoma, with a particular focus on their joint effect on prognosis. We retrospectively reviewed 235 patients with stage I adenocarcinoma from January 2009 to December 2009. Lymph node micrometastasis was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and thyroid transcription factor-1. A logistic regression model was applied to confirm the predictive factors of micrometastasis. Survival analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of micrometastasis on prognosis. Lymph node micrometastasis was observed in 35 patients (15%). Patients with micrometastasis had significantly worse recurrence-free survival (P

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uL5Zxa
via IFTTT

Unusual presentation of primary cutaneous follicle centre B-Cell Lymphoma (PC-FCL) of the nose

Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center B-cell Lymphoma (PC-FCL) is an indolent lymphoma with progressive growth and rare dissemination to extracutaneous sites and usually affects the skin of the scalp, forehead, and trunk. PC-FCL clinically mimicking other dermatologic diseases are extremely rare but could hinder a correct diagnosis. In this experimental work we describe two unusual cases of follicle centre B-Cell Lymphoma (PC-FCL) of the nose. The divulgation of such cases could assist clinicians in the differential diagnosis of nodular lesions of the nose.

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uckbST
via IFTTT

Inhibiting 4EBP1 in glioblastoma

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive adult brain cancer. Tumors show frequent dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway. While a number of small molecules target the PI3K-AKT-mTOR axis, their preclinical and clinical efficacy has been limited. Reasons for treatment failure include poor penetration of agents into the brain, and observations that blockade of PI3K or AKT minimally affects downstream mTOR activity in glioma. Clinical trials using allosteric mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin and rapalogs) to treat glioblastoma patients have also been unsuccessful or uncertain, in-part because rapamycin inefficiently blocks the mTORC1 target 4EBP1, and also feeds back to activate PI3K-AKT signaling. Inhibitors of the mTOR kinase (TORKi) such as TAK-228/MLN0128 interact orthosterically with the ATP and substrate-binding pocket of mTOR kinase, efficiently block 4EBP1 in-vitro, and are currently being investigated in the clinical trials. Preclinical studies suggest that TORKi have poor residence times of mTOR kinase, and our data suggests that this poor pharmacology translates into disappointing efficacy in glioblastoma xenografts. RapaLink-1, a TORKi linked to rapamycin, represents a drug with improved pharmacology against 4EBP1. In this review, we clarify the importance of 4EBP1 as a biomarker for the efficacy of PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma. We also review mechanistic data by which RapaLink-1 blocks p-4EBP1, and discuss future clinical strategies for 4EBP1 inhibition in glioblastoma.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u29QZg
via IFTTT

Molecular Dyads and Triads Based on Phenothiazine and π-extended Tetrathiafulvalene Donors, Ruthenium(II) Bisterpyridine Complexes and Polyoxometalates

Molecular dyads were prepared by the functionalization of organic electron donor units, i.e., a phenothiazine (PTZ) moiety and a π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) moiety with Ru(II) bisterpyridine complexes. In addition, the complexes were equipped with a terminal alkyne group, which was used for the coupling with a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM). In this regard, molecular triads were prepared whereby the central Ru(II) complex should act as photosensitizer and the POM as electron acceptor. Certain spectral changes were observed upon attachment of the donors and the POM framework to the Ru(II) complexes. In particular, the emission of the Ru(II) complex became reduced significantly with increasing donor strength, which suggested an intramolecular electron transfer via reductive emission quenching. The introduction of the POM framework revealed no further quenching of the emission and is tentatively ascribed to minor influence of the electron acceptor on the excited states of the Ru(II) complex.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tI4Syf

Is peanut causing food allergy in Cuba? Preliminary assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients

Peanut allergy is increasing at an alarming pace in developed countries. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a common food in Cuba. Nevertheless, reported values of sensitization and symptom severity are usually low. As...

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u7mNAu
via IFTTT

Unusual osteolytic lesion of the jaw

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Karine Duarte da Silva, Isadora Luana Flores, Adriana Etges, Ana Carolina Uchoa Vasconcelos, Ricardo Alves Mesquita, Ana Paula Neutzling Gomes, Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio




from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2t7pjms
via IFTTT

Seasonal variations in the NO2 artifact from chemiluminescence measurements with a molybdenum converter at a suburban site in Korea (downwind of the Asian continental outflow) during 2015–2016

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 165
Author(s): Jinsang Jung, JaeYong Lee, ByungMoon Kim, SangHyub Oh
This paper investigates the NO2 artifact associated with the chemiluminescence measurement technique that uses a molybdenum converter by applying the same technique but with a photolytic converter at a site downwind of the Asian continental outflow (Daejeon, Korea). The NO2 to NO conversion efficiencies of the molybdenum and photolytic converters were found to be 100% and 95%, respectively, at an ambient level of NO2 (<100 ppbv). Two NO2 monitors equipped with molybdenum and photolytic converters were deployed for ambient NO2 measurements in Daejeon, Korea between the fall of 2015 and the summer of 2016. It was found that the monitor equipped with the molybdenum converter overestimated NO2 levels by 20.4 ± 14.7% when compared with the actual NO2 level in the Daejeon atmosphere over the entire measurement period. This NO2 artifact (ΔNO2), defined as the difference between molybdenum NO2 and photolytic NO2 values, correlated well with the PM2.5 mass concentration during the fall and winter seasons. Based on these findings, this study develops a simple correction model for ΔNO2 using the PM2.5 mass concentration during the fall and winter seasons. The model-corrected NO2 concentration correlated well with the actual NO2 values with a slope of approximately 1.0 and R2 value of 0.98 during the fall and winter seasons.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYHRKj
via IFTTT

Influence of the sampling period and time resolution on the PM source apportionment: Study based on the high time-resolution data and long-term daily data

S13522310.gif

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 165
Author(s): Yingze Tian, Zhimei Xiao, Haiting Wang, Xing Peng, Liao Guan, Yanqi Huangfu, Guoliang Shi, Kui Chen, Xiaohui Bi, Yinchang Feng
When planning short-term and long-term measurement campaigns of particulate matter (PM), parameters such as sampling period, time resolution, sampling number, etc. are vital. To study their influence and to provide suggestion for the sampling plan of PM source apportionment (SA), ambient and synthetic speciated datasets (including a high time-resolution dataset and a long-term daily dataset) were studied. First, aiming at studying the sampling period required to generate representative and reliable results for SA, high time-resolution ambient samples were collected by online instruments in a megacity in China. Datasets with different sampling periods (four months, two months, one month, two weeks and one week) were modeled by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Compared with four month results, AAEs (percent absolute errors between true and estimated contributions) ranged from 11.2 to 27.2% (two months), 19.8–44.5% (one month), 21.0–45.9% (two weeks) and 23.9–44.6% (one week), indicating that divergence increased with decreasing sampling periods. To systematically evaluate this problem and investigate if the increasing time resolutions in a short period could enhance the modeling performance, synthetic datasets were constructed. Results revealed that a sufficient sampling period is required to ensure stable results; without sufficient sampling period, the contributions cannot be reliably estimated, even if the number of samples is large. Then, to explore the influence of variability absences, long-term daily datasets with various variability absences were apportioned and compared. The summed AAEs were 102.2% (no winter), 73.6% (no weekend), 138.7% (no weekday) and 165.6% (no autumn, winter or weekends). This general increase of AAEs can indicate that uncertainty enhanced with the increase in variability absences. When planning short-term measurement campaigns, except for number of samples, sampling period that involves sufficient source cycles has significant implications; when planning long-term sampling, more intensive sampling would increase the model performance.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tI0pM8
via IFTTT

Habitat Predicts Levels of Genetic Admixture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Genetic admixture can provide material for populations to adapt to local environments, and this process has played a crucial role in the domestication of plants and animals. The model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been domesticated multiple times for the production of wine, sake, beer and bread, but the high rate of admixture between yeast lineages has so far been treated as a complication for population genomic analysis. Here we make use of the low recombination rate at centromeres to investigate admixture in yeast using a classic Bayesian approach and a locus by locus phylogenetic approach. Using both approaches, we find that S. cerevisiae from stable oak woodland habitats are less likely to show recent genetic admixture compared with those isolated from transient habitats such as fruits, wine or human infections. When woodland yeast strains do show recent genetic admixture, the degree of admixture is lower than in strains from other habitats. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae populations from oak woodlands are genetically isolated from each other, with only occasional migration between woodlands and local fruit habitats. Application of the phylogenetic approach suggests that there is a previously undetected population in North Africa that is the closest outgroup to the European S. cerevisiae, including the domesticatedWine population. Careful testing for admixture in S. cerevisiae leads to a better understanding of the underlying population structure of the species and will be important for understanding the selective processes underlying domestication in this economically important species.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u2JPct
via IFTTT

Mouse Chromosome 4 Is Associated with the Baseline and Allergic IgE Phenotypes

Regulation of IgE concentration in the blood is a complex trait, with high concentrations associated with parasitic infections as well as allergic diseases. A/J strain mice have significantly higher plasma concentrations of IgE both at baseline and after ovalbumin antigen exposure when compared to C57BL/6J strain mice. Our objective was to determine the genomic regions associated with this difference in phenotype. To achieve this, we used a panel of recombinant congenic strains (RCS) derived from A/J and C57BL/6J strains. We measured IgE in the RCS panel at baseline and following allergen exposure. Using marker by marker analysis of the RCS genotype and phenotype data, we identified multiple regions associated with the IgE phenotype. A single region was identified to be associated with baseline IgE level, while multiple regions were associated with the phenotype after allergen exposure. The most significant region was found on Chromosome 4 from 81.46 - 86.17 Mbp. Chromosome 4 substitution strain mice had significantly higher concentration of IgE than their background parental strain mice, C57BL/6J. Our data presents multiple candidate regions associated with plasma IgE concentration at baseline and following allergen exposure, with the most significant one located on Chromosome 4.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sJVQzu
via IFTTT

The SEK-1 p38 MAP Kinase Pathway Modulates Gq Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

Gq is a heterotrimeric G protein that is widely expressed in neurons and regulates neuronal activity. To identify pathways regulating neuronal Gq signaling we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for suppressors of activated Gq. One of the suppressors is an allele of sek-1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) in the p38 MAPK pathway. Here we show that sek-1 mutants have a slow locomotion rate and that sek-1 acts in acetylcholine neurons to modulate both locomotion rate and Gq signaling. Furthermore, we find that sek-1 acts in mature neurons to modulate locomotion. Using genetic and behavioral approaches we demonstrate that other components of the p38 MAPK pathway also play a positive role in modulating locomotion and Gq signaling. Finally, we find that mutants in the SEK-1 p38 MAPK pathway partially suppress an activated mutant of the sodium leak channel NCA-1/NALCN, a downstream target of Gq signaling. Our results suggest that the SEK-1 p38 pathway may modulate the output of Gq signaling through NCA-1.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u2o4t6
via IFTTT

Functional Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes in Neurospora crassa

Regulation of gene expression by DNA-binding transcription factors is essential for proper control of growth and development in all organisms. In this study, we annotate and characterize growth and developmental phenotypes for transcription factor genes in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We identified 312 transcription factor genes, corresponding to 3.2% of the protein coding genes in the genome. The largest class was the fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 (C6) binuclear cluster, with 135 members, followed by the highly conserved C2H2 zinc finger group, with 61 genes. Viable knockout mutants were produced for 273 genes and complete growth and developmental phenotypic data is available for 242 strains, with 64% possessing at least one defect. The most prominent defect observed was in growth of basal hyphae (43% of mutants analyzed), followed by asexual sporulation (38%) and the various stages of sexual development (19%). Two growth or developmental defects were observed for 21% of the mutants, while 8% were defective in all three major phenotypes tested. Analysis of available mRNA expression data for a time course of sexual development revealed mutants with sexual phenotypes that correlate with transcription factor transcript abundance in wild type. Inspection of this data also implicated cryptic roles in sexual development for several co-transcribed transcription factor genes that do not produce a phenotype when mutated.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sJKEmk
via IFTTT

Whole Genome Sequence of the Heterozygous Clinical Isolate Candida krusei 81-B-5

Candida krusei is a diploid, heterozygous yeast that is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. This species also is utilized for fermenting cocoa beans during chocolate production. One major concern in the clinical setting is the innate resistance of this species to the most commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here we report a high-quality genome sequence and assembly for the first clinical isolate of C. krusei, strain 81-B-5, into 11 scaffolds generated with PacBio sequencing technology. Gene annotation and comparative analysis revealed a unique profile of transporters that could play a role in drug resistance or adaptation to different environments. In addition, we show that while 82% of the genome is highly heterozygous, a 2.0 Mb region of the largest scaffold has undergone loss of heterozygosity. This genome will serve as a reference for further genetic studies of this pathogen.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u2fb2K
via IFTTT

ASPsiRNA: A Resource of ASP-siRNAs Having Therapeutic Potential for Human Genetic Disorders and Algorithm for Prediction of Their Inhibitory Efficacy

Allele-specific siRNAs (ASP-siRNAs) have emerged as promising therapeutic molecules owing to their selectivity to inhibit the mutant allele or associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sparing the expression of the wild-type counterpart. Thus, a dedicated bioinformatics platform encompassing updated ASP-siRNAs and an algorithm for the prediction of their inhibitory efficacy will be helpful in tackling currently intractable genetic disorders. In the present study, we have developed the ASPsiRNA resource (http://ift.tt/2u2r5cV) covering three components viz (i) ASPsiDb (ii) ASPsiPred and (iii) analysis tools like ASP-siOffTar. ASPsiDb is a manually curated database harboring 4543 (including 422 chemically modified) ASP-siRNAs targeting 78 unique genes involved in 51 different diseases. It furnishes comprehensive information from experimental studies on ASP-siRNAs along with multidimensional genetic and clinical information for numerous mutations. ASPsiPred is a two-layered algorithm to predict efficacy of ASP-siRNAs for fully complementary mutant (Effmut) and wild-type allele (Effwild) with one mismatch by ASPsiPredSVM and ASPsiPredmatrix respectively. In ASPsiPredSVM, 922 unique ASP-siRNAs with experimentally validated quantitative Effmut were used. During 10-fold cross-validation (10nCV) employing various sequence features on training/testing dataset (T737), the best predictive model achieved a maximum Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.71. Further, the accuracy of the classifier to predict Effmut against novel genes was assessed by leave one target out cross-validation approach (LOTOCV). ASPsiPredmatrix was constructed from rule-based studies describing the effect of single siRNA:mRNA mismatches on the efficacy at 19-different locations of siRNA. Thus, ASPsiRNA encompasses the first database, prediction algorithm and off-target analysis tool that is expected to accelerate research in the field of RNAi based therapeutics for human genetic diseases.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sK3hGW
via IFTTT

Methane emissions from global wetlands: An assessment of the uncertainty associated with various wetland extent data sets

S13522310.gif

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 165
Author(s): Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, Guangsheng Chen, Shufen Pan, Christopher Anderson, Benjamin Poulter
A wide range of estimates on global wetland methane (CH4) fluxes has been reported during the recent two decades. This gives rise to urgent needs to clarify and identify the uncertainty sources, and conclude a reconciled estimate for global CH4 fluxes from wetlands. Most estimates by using bottom-up approach rely on wetland data sets, but these data sets show largely inconsistent in terms of both wetland extent and spatiotemporal distribution. A quantitative assessment of uncertainties associated with these discrepancies among wetland data sets has not been well investigated yet. By comparing the five widely used global wetland data sets (GISS, GLWD, Kaplan, GIEMS and SWAMPS-GLWD), it this study, we found large differences in the wetland extent, ranging from 5.3 to 10.2 million km2, as well as their spatial and temporal distributions among the five data sets. These discrepancies in wetland data sets resulted in large bias in model-estimated global wetland CH4 emissions as simulated by using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The model simulations indicated that the mean global wetland CH4 emissions during 2000–2007 were 177.2 ± 49.7 Tg CH4 yr−1, based on the five different data sets. The tropical regions contributed the largest portion of estimated CH4 emissions from global wetlands, but also had the largest discrepancy. Among six continents, the largest uncertainty was found in South America. Thus, the improved estimates of wetland extent and CH4 emissions in the tropical regions and South America would be a critical step toward an accurate estimate of global CH4 emissions. This uncertainty analysis also reveals an important need for our scientific community to generate a global scale wetland data set with higher spatial resolution and shorter time interval, by integrating multiple sources of field and satellite data with modeling approaches, for cross-scale extrapolation.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYCZ7U
via IFTTT

Effects of Four Weeks of Strength Training on the Corticomotoneuronal Pathway.

Purpose: Neural adaptations to strength training have long been recognized, but knowledge of mechanisms remains incomplete. Using novel techniques and a design which limited experimental bias, this study examined if 4 weeks of strength training alters voluntary activation and corticospinal transmission. Methods: Twenty-one subjects were randomized into strength training (n = 10; 7 females, 3 males; 23.5 +/- 7.5 yr; mean +/- SD) and control groups (n = 11; 2 females, 9 males; 23.0 +/- 4.2 yr). Strength training involved 12 sessions of high-force isometric contractions of the elbow flexors. Before and after training, voluntary activation of the elbow flexors was assessed via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Also, for the first time, magnetic stimulation of corticospinal axons was used to examine spinal-level adaptations to training. The evoked responses, termed cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), were acquired in resting biceps brachii in 3 arm postures. Muscle adaptations were assessed via electrical stimulation of biceps. Results: Compared to the control group, the strength training group exhibited greater increases in maximal strength (12.8 +/- 6.8% vs 0.0 +/- 2.7%; p

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYyiet
via IFTTT

Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

Purpose: Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in non-active adult males. Methods: Six females (21.2 +/- 0.8 y, 68.8 +/- 4.1 kg, 47.1 +/- 1.2 ml O2[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]min-1; mean +/- SE) completed 5-7 metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test prior to consuming 8 hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1), 6 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1 carbohydrate, and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acids modeling egg protein with [13C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [13C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2) was analyzed using mixed effects bi-phase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% CI approximating the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively. Results: Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 +/- 7.3 [mu]mol[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]h-1; mean +/- SE). F13CO2 displayed a robust bi-phase response (R2 = 0.66) with an EAR of 1.41 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1and RDA of 1.71 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1. Conclusions: The protein requirement estimate of 1.41and 1.71 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1 for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1) and at the upper range of the ACSM athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1). (C) 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sJI3Zy
via IFTTT

High Habitual Physical Activity Improves Acute Energy Compensation in Nonobese Adults.

Purpose: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads. Methods: Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low: LoMVPA; moderate: ModMVPA; high: HiMVPA), similar in age, sex and BMI. Following a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner and evening snack box meals) was determined during three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP: 699 kcal, LEP: 258 kcal, control: 0 kcal) were consumed prior to the lunch meal. Liking and wanting were assessed pre- and post-preload consumption (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and appetite ratings were taken throughout the day. Results: Relative to control, EI at lunch was reduced to a greater extent after consumption of HEP compared to LEP in ModMVPA (p<.01 and himvpa but not lomvpa reflecting more accurate energy compensation in modmvpa. there were no effects on cumulative ei post-preload dinner snack box combined hep led to a greater suppression of hunger liking wanting compared lep all mvpa tertiles. conclusion: nonobese individuals with lower levels measured pa insensitive the nutritional manipulation preloads suggesting weaker satiety response food. this study provides objective evidence that higher habitual improves acute homeostatic appetite control. american college sports medicine>

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tHDNLL
via IFTTT

Influence of the sampling period and time resolution on the PM source apportionment: Study based on the high time-resolution data and long-term daily data

S13522310.gif

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 165
Author(s): Yingze Tian, Zhimei Xiao, Haiting Wang, Xing Peng, Liao Guan, Yanqi Huangfu, Guoliang Shi, Kui Chen, Xiaohui Bi, Yinchang Feng
When planning short-term and long-term measurement campaigns of particulate matter (PM), parameters such as sampling period, time resolution, sampling number, etc. are vital. To study their influence and to provide suggestion for the sampling plan of PM source apportionment (SA), ambient and synthetic speciated datasets (including a high time-resolution dataset and a long-term daily dataset) were studied. First, aiming at studying the sampling period required to generate representative and reliable results for SA, high time-resolution ambient samples were collected by online instruments in a megacity in China. Datasets with different sampling periods (four months, two months, one month, two weeks and one week) were modeled by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Compared with four month results, AAEs (percent absolute errors between true and estimated contributions) ranged from 11.2 to 27.2% (two months), 19.8–44.5% (one month), 21.0–45.9% (two weeks) and 23.9–44.6% (one week), indicating that divergence increased with decreasing sampling periods. To systematically evaluate this problem and investigate if the increasing time resolutions in a short period could enhance the modeling performance, synthetic datasets were constructed. Results revealed that a sufficient sampling period is required to ensure stable results; without sufficient sampling period, the contributions cannot be reliably estimated, even if the number of samples is large. Then, to explore the influence of variability absences, long-term daily datasets with various variability absences were apportioned and compared. The summed AAEs were 102.2% (no winter), 73.6% (no weekend), 138.7% (no weekday) and 165.6% (no autumn, winter or weekends). This general increase of AAEs can indicate that uncertainty enhanced with the increase in variability absences. When planning short-term measurement campaigns, except for number of samples, sampling period that involves sufficient source cycles has significant implications; when planning long-term sampling, more intensive sampling would increase the model performance.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tI0pM8

Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism.

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA associated with IGM across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,501 individuals (mean (SD) age 65.6 (6.8) years) at high risk of type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn for 7 days. PA energy expenditure, time spent in different activity intensities, bout duration and sedentary time were considered determinants of IGM together with age, sex and BMI. Decision tree analysis was applied to identify subgroup-specific dimensions of PA associated with IGM. IGM was based on oral glucose tolerance test results and defined as fasting plasma glucose >= 6.1 mmol/L and/or 2-hour plasma glucose >= 7.8 mmol/L. Results: Among overweight (BMI >= 25kg/m2) men, accumulating less than 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IGM, while in overweight women sedentary time was associated with IGM. Among individuals aged > 53 years with normal weight (BMI

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYwDWe
via IFTTT

Corporate Leanwashing and Consumer Beliefs About Obesity

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Caloric overconsumption, rather than lack of exercise, is the primary driver of overweight and obesity. We review people’s beliefs about the causes of obesity, the origins and consequences of these beliefs, and suggest possible mechanisms for corrective action.

Recent Findings

In multiple samples across the world, approximately half of the population mistakenly believes that lack of exercise is the primary cause of obesity. These misbeliefs have consequences: people who underestimate the importance of one’s diet are more likely to be overweight or obese than people who correctly believe that diet is the primary cause of obesity. Next, we discuss the systematic misrepresentation of these factors—which we call “leanwashing”—by the food and beverage industry. Corporate messaging and actions are likely contributing factors to these mistaken beliefs being so widespread, and thus corrective actions are required. These include regulation and taxation.

Summary

People’s beliefs have important medical consequences, and the origins of these beliefs and misbeliefs need to be monitored and regulated.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u6YiUj
via IFTTT

High Habitual Physical Activity Improves Acute Energy Compensation in Nonobese Adults.

Purpose: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads. Methods: Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low: LoMVPA; moderate: ModMVPA; high: HiMVPA), similar in age, sex and BMI. Following a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner and evening snack box meals) was determined during three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP: 699 kcal, LEP: 258 kcal, control: 0 kcal) were consumed prior to the lunch meal. Liking and wanting were assessed pre- and post-preload consumption (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and appetite ratings were taken throughout the day. Results: Relative to control, EI at lunch was reduced to a greater extent after consumption of HEP compared to LEP in ModMVPA (p<.01 and himvpa but not lomvpa reflecting more accurate energy compensation in modmvpa. there were no effects on cumulative ei post-preload dinner snack box combined hep led to a greater suppression of hunger liking wanting compared lep all mvpa tertiles. conclusion: nonobese individuals with lower levels measured pa insensitive the nutritional manipulation preloads suggesting weaker satiety response food. this study provides objective evidence that higher habitual improves acute homeostatic appetite control. american college sports medicine>

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tHDNLL

The Role of Vitamin K Status in Cardiovascular Health: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes.

Recent Findings

Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein concentrations plays a potential role in cardiovascular disease development, particularly in high-risk and chronic kidney disease populations. Very few vitamin K intervention trials have been conducted with cardiovascular-related outcomes. A couple of intervention trials studied the effect of the combination of vitamin D + K supplementation, which might have synergistic effects compared to vitamin K supplementation alone.

Summary

Assessing vitamin K status in prospective studies and well-designed randomized trials would provide important insight whether vitamin K is causally related to vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v5pGPG
via IFTTT

Erratum to: Supplemental vibrotactile feedback control of stabilization and reaching actions of the arm using limb state and position error encodings



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sY8Vtk
via IFTTT

Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism.

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA associated with IGM across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,501 individuals (mean (SD) age 65.6 (6.8) years) at high risk of type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn for 7 days. PA energy expenditure, time spent in different activity intensities, bout duration and sedentary time were considered determinants of IGM together with age, sex and BMI. Decision tree analysis was applied to identify subgroup-specific dimensions of PA associated with IGM. IGM was based on oral glucose tolerance test results and defined as fasting plasma glucose >= 6.1 mmol/L and/or 2-hour plasma glucose >= 7.8 mmol/L. Results: Among overweight (BMI >= 25kg/m2) men, accumulating less than 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IGM, while in overweight women sedentary time was associated with IGM. Among individuals aged > 53 years with normal weight (BMI

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYwDWe

Corporate Leanwashing and Consumer Beliefs About Obesity

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Caloric overconsumption, rather than lack of exercise, is the primary driver of overweight and obesity. We review people’s beliefs about the causes of obesity, the origins and consequences of these beliefs, and suggest possible mechanisms for corrective action.

Recent Findings

In multiple samples across the world, approximately half of the population mistakenly believes that lack of exercise is the primary cause of obesity. These misbeliefs have consequences: people who underestimate the importance of one’s diet are more likely to be overweight or obese than people who correctly believe that diet is the primary cause of obesity. Next, we discuss the systematic misrepresentation of these factors—which we call “leanwashing”—by the food and beverage industry. Corporate messaging and actions are likely contributing factors to these mistaken beliefs being so widespread, and thus corrective actions are required. These include regulation and taxation.

Summary

People’s beliefs have important medical consequences, and the origins of these beliefs and misbeliefs need to be monitored and regulated.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u6YiUj

The Role of Vitamin K Status in Cardiovascular Health: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes.

Recent Findings

Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein concentrations plays a potential role in cardiovascular disease development, particularly in high-risk and chronic kidney disease populations. Very few vitamin K intervention trials have been conducted with cardiovascular-related outcomes. A couple of intervention trials studied the effect of the combination of vitamin D + K supplementation, which might have synergistic effects compared to vitamin K supplementation alone.

Summary

Assessing vitamin K status in prospective studies and well-designed randomized trials would provide important insight whether vitamin K is causally related to vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease.



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v5pGPG

Classification complexity in myoelectric pattern recognition

Limb prosthetics, exoskeletons, and neurorehabilitation devices can be intuitively controlled using myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) to decode the subject’s intended movement. In conventional MPR, descrip...

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tHN0U8
via IFTTT

Auditory Cognitive Training for Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients.

Objectives: Understanding speech in noise is the biggest challenge faced by individuals with cochlear implants (CIs). Improving speech-in-noise perception for pediatric CI recipients continues to remain a high priority for all stakeholders. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of working memory training for improving speech-in-noise recognition for children with CIs. Design: Fourteen children with CIs (aged 6 to 15 years) received adaptive, home-based training on forward digit span task for 5 weeks, while 13 children with CIs participated in backward digit span training. Seventeen age-matched children with CIs in the control group received a placebo. Outcome measures included forward and backward digit span and speech recognition threshold for digit triplets in noise at pretraining, post-training, and 5-week follow-up. Performance measures from 26 age-matched children with normal hearing were also obtained only at the baseline session to generate normative standards for comparison. Results: Digit span scores were significantly higher at post-training and follow-up compared with pretraining for both forward- and backward-trained groups. Both trained groups showed similar training-induced shifts. The control group showed no such improvement. There was no effect of training on the speech recognition threshold. Children with CIs showed significantly lower digit span scores and a higher speech recognition threshold relative to children with normal hearing. Conclusions: Training improves working memory capacity as measured by digit spans for children with CIs. Training-induced improvements are stable for at least 5 weeks. Learning effects demonstrate near-transfer, from forward to backward digit span and vice versa, but failed to show far-transfer to speech-in-noise recognition. Current evidence is not supportive of cognitive training for improving speech-in-noise performance for children with CIs. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u70E5H
via IFTTT

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Laser Therapy for Hypertrophic Burn Scars

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
Source:Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Author(s): Jennifer Zuccaro, Natalia Ziolkowski, Joel Fish

Teaser

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of laser therapy for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars. Improvements in scar symptoms following laser treatment were reported in 11 of the 12 included studies. However, issues related to overall quality and risk of bias were present in all studies. As a result, there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine the effectiveness of laser therapy from this systematic review. Future studies that use more rigorous study designs such as randomized controlled trials are needed to support the use of laser therapy for hypertrophic burn scars.


from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYz5Mr
via IFTTT

Heterotopic Ossification and Hypertrophic Scars

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
Source:Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Author(s): Shailesh Agarwal, Michael Sorkin, Benjamin Levi

Teaser

Burns and trauma cause superficial and deep soft tissue wounds that cannot heal to the preinjury state. Healing requires cell proliferation and differentiation into the injured tissue type, laying down extracellular matrix, often as collagens. Heterotopic ossification causes severe pain, nonhealing wounds, and restricted range of motion. Treatment includes radiation therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, bisphosphonates, and possibly surgical excision and prophylactic measures. Hypertrophic scars, nonosseous lesions caused by excessive collagen deposition, are often painful, functionally limiting, and aesthetically displeasing. Treatment includes CO2 laser application, steroid injections, and excision with skin grafting. This article reviews the management of these pathologic wounds.


from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tHNycD
via IFTTT

Erratum to: Supplemental vibrotactile feedback control of stabilization and reaching actions of the arm using limb state and position error encodings



from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sY8Vtk

Classification complexity in myoelectric pattern recognition

Limb prosthetics, exoskeletons, and neurorehabilitation devices can be intuitively controlled using myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) to decode the subject’s intended movement. In conventional MPR, descrip...

from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tHN0U8

ASIA a (sensory and motor complete) is not different than ASIA B (sensory incomplete, motor complete) in gunshot related spinal cord injury.

Background ContextWe receive a large number of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients due to penetrating gunshot wounds (GSW) at our national rehabilitation center. Though many patients are labeled American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) B sensory incomplete due to sensory sparing, especially deep anal pressure, with purported prognostic value, we have not observed a clinical difference from ASIA A completes. We hypothesized that sensory sparing, if meaningful, should reduce the occurrence of pressure ulcers.

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2t7wbA2
via IFTTT

Case of painless thyroiditis that developed during adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer

Abstract

We report a case of painless thyroiditis that occurred during adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with right breast cancer and underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, given the tumor size and relatively high ratio of Ki-67-positive cells. Three weeks after the first intravenous administration of fluorouracil (500 mg/m2), epirubicin (100 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), and dexamethasone (6.6 mg/body), followed by 3 days of oral dexamethasone (8 mg/day), she complained of continued palpitations. Although Graves’ disease was initially suspected, she was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis because of a low free T3:free T4 ratio and low thyroid uptake of iodine. The mechanism of painless thyroiditis, in this case, remains unclear, although supposed etiologic event was the use of cytotoxic drugs (including fluorouracil) or the withdrawal of short-term steroid administration. Painless thyroiditis very rarely occurs during chemotherapy. However, we should consider painless thyroiditis when a patient undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for breast cancer experiences continued palpitations. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment of symptoms might avoid an unnecessary dose reduction or discontinuation of chemotherapy and, moreover, may prevent adverse effects associated with the metabolism of anticancer agents.



from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2t7qO3P
via IFTTT

Vestibular Schwannoma Growth With Aspirin and Other Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

Objective: To investigate whether the use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) impact the growth of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Study Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Single academic, tertiary care center. Patients: Patients with VS who underwent at least two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies before intervention. Intervention(s): Serial MRI studies. Main Outcome Measure(s): VS tumor growth, defined as more than or equal to 2 mm increase in the maximum tumor diameter between consecutive MRI studies, or between the first and last available study. Mean growth rate was also calculated, defined as the change in tumor size divided by length of follow-up. Results: A total of 564 VS patients met inclusion criteria, with 234 (41.2%) taking some type of NSAID. Aspirin use was not associated with VS tumor growth, presenting tumor diameter, or mean VS growth rate. Further, aspirin dosage did not impact growth outcomes or presenting tumor diameter. A total of 96 (17.0%) patients took an NSAID other than aspirin. Neither non-aspirin NSAID use nor degree of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selectivity, including aspirin, was significantly associated with VS tumor growth, presenting tumor diameter, or mean VS growth rate. Conclusions: While previous studies have suggested a relationship between aspirin usage and VS growth, we found no significant association in our series of 564 observed VS. Furthermore, there was no apparent relationship between aspirin dosage, non-aspirin NSAID use, and COX-2 selectivity with VS growth, presenting tumor diameter at presentation, or mean VS growth rate. Copyright (C) 2017 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v54HwD
via IFTTT

Development and Validation of a Modular Endoscopic Ear Surgery Skills Trainer.

Objective: Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) is an emerging technique requiring single-handed dissection with limited depth perception. Current options for EES simulation and training are limited. Herein, we introduce a versatile, low-cost surgical skills trainer that aims to improve the fine motor control necessary for EES. Study Design: Prospective validation study. Setting: Surgical simulation laboratory. Participants: Seven subjects ranging in experience from medical students ("Novices") to experienced ear surgeons ("Experts") participated in the validation study. Experts (n = 3) were defined as performing >10 EES cases per year. Methods: The skills trainer was constructed from a 3" diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe cap modified with two ports for instrument passage. A wooden platform was placed inside at an appropriate working distance for ear surgery. Eight interchangeable skills modules were fabricated on wooden squares (3 cm x 3 cm) using materials such as #19 wire brads, 1.6 mm glass beads, and 26-gauge jewelry wire. The material cost of this reusable model was $15. Subjects completed each skills module in triplicate, followed by a Likert-based survey. Results: Expert performance was superior to novices in 100% (8/8) of skills modules, i.e., threading beads on a wire (43 versus 127 s, p

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2u6O9GW
via IFTTT

Reduction in Temporary and Permanent Audiological Injury Through Internal Jugular Vein Compression in a Rodent Blast Injury Model.

Hypothesis: Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression influences not only intracranial but also intracochlear physiology and has demonstrated preclinical effectiveness in reducing acute audiological injury in a rodent blast model. However, the long-term effects in this model are unknown. Background: Blast wave-induced audiological injury from an improvised explosive device is a leading cause of morbidity among service members in theater but there are limitations to the current protective measures. Methods: For this study, we exposed 20 Sprague Dawley rats to a 16.8 +/- 0.3 PSI (195.3 dB SPL) right-sided shock wave in which 10 had application of a custom IJV compression collar in place at the time of injury. Results: IJV compression at the time of injury was shown acutely to significantly reduce the incidence of tympanic membrane rupture and the initial temporary threshold shift on otoacoustic emissions in both the right and left ears of animals who had collar application immediately after and 7 days post injury. At 28 days from injury, collared animals demonstrated a return to baseline of otoacoustic emission values while the noncollared animals had persistent threshold shifts, signifying the presence of a permanent threshold shift only in those animals without collar application. IJV compression was also found to significantly reduce hair cell loss at the base of the cochlea secondary to mechanical trauma from the blast wind. Conclusion: Previously observed acute protective effects of IJV compression are sustained at chronic time points. IJV compression can potentially be used to reduce long-term permanent morbidity from blast-induced audiological trauma. Copyright (C) 2017 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2v5amCx
via IFTTT

Facile and Selective Enrichment of Intact Sialoglycopeptides Using Graphitic Carbon Nitride

TOC Graphic

Analytical Chemistry
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01556
ancham?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


from #ENT-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2uKE4NT

Carcinoma of the Middle Ear: A Review of the National Cancer Database.

Introduction: Malignancy of the middle ear is a rare condition with limited data available for clinical guidance. Study Design: Retrospective evaluation of a large national database. Setting: Deidentified national cancer database. Patients: Subjects with diagnosis of malignancy of the middle ear in the National Cancer Database between 2004 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures: Demographic information and tumor characteristics were evaluated. The primary endpoint of interest is overall survival. Results: The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (50%). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis found the following variables had a significant negative impact on overall survival: age (HR 1.04 95% CI [1.02-1.05]), squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) (HR 2.08 95% CI [1.30-3.32]), squamous cell carcinoma, keratinizing, NOS (HR 4.20 95% CI [2.14-8.24]), embroynal rhabdomyosarcoma, NOS (HR 4.96 95% CI [1.17-21.11]), and unknown extension (HR 2.87 95% CI [1.22-6.74]). For patients of SCC who underwent surgery, 30 had positive margins and 29 underwent adjuvant radiation. For these, no survival advantage was found with the addition of chemotherapy, regardless of node status. Conclusion: Malignancy of the middle ear is a rare condition with prognosis that depends on histology. The most common histology, SCC, is associated with the poorest overall survival. Evaluation of large national datasets can add significantly to the understanding of such uncommon tumors. Copyright (C) 2017 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ubdkck
via IFTTT

Technique a 'Huge Breakthrough' for Spine, Thyroid Surgery

A novel technique may help clinicians continuously, and noninvasively, assess laryngeal and vagus nerve function while patients are undergoing thyroid or cervical spine surgery.
Medscape Medical News

from #ORL-AlexandrosSfakianakis via ola Kala on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sXSwF9
via IFTTT

Effects of Four Weeks of Strength Training on the Corticomotoneuronal Pathway.

Purpose: Neural adaptations to strength training have long been recognized, but knowledge of mechanisms remains incomplete. Using novel techniques and a design which limited experimental bias, this study examined if 4 weeks of strength training alters voluntary activation and corticospinal transmission. Methods: Twenty-one subjects were randomized into strength training (n = 10; 7 females, 3 males; 23.5 +/- 7.5 yr; mean +/- SD) and control groups (n = 11; 2 females, 9 males; 23.0 +/- 4.2 yr). Strength training involved 12 sessions of high-force isometric contractions of the elbow flexors. Before and after training, voluntary activation of the elbow flexors was assessed via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Also, for the first time, magnetic stimulation of corticospinal axons was used to examine spinal-level adaptations to training. The evoked responses, termed cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), were acquired in resting biceps brachii in 3 arm postures. Muscle adaptations were assessed via electrical stimulation of biceps. Results: Compared to the control group, the strength training group exhibited greater increases in maximal strength (12.8 +/- 6.8% vs 0.0 +/- 2.7%; p

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sYyiet
via IFTTT

Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

Purpose: Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in non-active adult males. Methods: Six females (21.2 +/- 0.8 y, 68.8 +/- 4.1 kg, 47.1 +/- 1.2 ml O2[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]min-1; mean +/- SE) completed 5-7 metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test prior to consuming 8 hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1), 6 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1 carbohydrate, and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acids modeling egg protein with [13C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [13C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2) was analyzed using mixed effects bi-phase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% CI approximating the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively. Results: Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 +/- 7.3 [mu]mol[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]h-1; mean +/- SE). F13CO2 displayed a robust bi-phase response (R2 = 0.66) with an EAR of 1.41 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1and RDA of 1.71 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1. Conclusions: The protein requirement estimate of 1.41and 1.71 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1 for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1) and at the upper range of the ACSM athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g[dot operator]kg-1[dot operator]d-1). (C) 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2sJI3Zy
via IFTTT

High Habitual Physical Activity Improves Acute Energy Compensation in Nonobese Adults.

Purpose: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads. Methods: Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low: LoMVPA; moderate: ModMVPA; high: HiMVPA), similar in age, sex and BMI. Following a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner and evening snack box meals) was determined during three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP: 699 kcal, LEP: 258 kcal, control: 0 kcal) were consumed prior to the lunch meal. Liking and wanting were assessed pre- and post-preload consumption (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and appetite ratings were taken throughout the day. Results: Relative to control, EI at lunch was reduced to a greater extent after consumption of HEP compared to LEP in ModMVPA (p<.01 and himvpa but not lomvpa reflecting more accurate energy compensation in modmvpa. there were no effects on cumulative ei post-preload dinner snack box combined hep led to a greater suppression of hunger liking wanting compared lep all mvpa tertiles. conclusion: nonobese individuals with lower levels measured pa insensitive the nutritional manipulation preloads suggesting weaker satiety response food. this study provides objective evidence that higher habitual improves acute homeostatic appetite control. american college sports medicine>

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tHDNLL
via IFTTT