Κυριακή, 18 Φεβρουαρίου 2018

Perceived Racial Discrimination and Pain Intensity/Disability Among Economically Disadvantaged Latinos in a Federally Qualified Health Center: The Role of Anxiety Sensitivity

Abstract

The present study examined the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of the negative consequences of anxiety) in the relation between perceived racial discrimination and pain-related problems among Latinos seeking health services at a Federally Qualified Health Center. Participants included 145 adult Latinos (87.80% female, Mage = 38.07 years, SD = 11.98, and 96.2% reported Spanish as their first language). Results indicated that perceived racial discrimination was indirectly related to the pain intensity and pain disability through AS. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by gender, age, marital status, educational status, employment status, years living in the United States, and number of axis I diagnoses. Overall, the present findings highlight the merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between perceived racial discrimination and AS to better understand and inform interventions to reduce pain problems among Latinos in primary care.



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Event-related potentials of emotional and neutral memories: The role of encoding position and delayed testing

Abstract

Previous research found that memory is not only better for emotional information but also for neutral information that has been encoded in the context of an emotional event. In the present ERP study, we investigated two factors that may influence memory for neutral and emotional items: temporal proximity between emotional and neutral items during encoding, and retention interval (immediate vs. delayed). Forty-nine female participants incidentally encoded 36 unpleasant and 108 neutral pictures (36 neutral pictures preceded an unpleasant picture, 36 followed an unpleasant picture, and 36 neutral pictures were preceded and followed by neutral pictures) and participated in a recognition memory task either immediately (N = 24) or 1 week (N = 25) after encoding. Results showed better memory for emotional pictures relative to neutral pictures. In accordance, enhanced centroparietal old/new differences (500–900 ms) during recognition were observed for unpleasant compared to neutral pictures, most pronounced for the 1-week interval. Picture position effects, however, were only subtle. During encoding, late positive potentials for neutral pictures were slightly lower for neutral pictures following unpleasant ones, but only at trend level. To summarize, we could replicate and extend previous ERP findings showing that emotionally arousing events are better recollected than neutral events, particularly when memory is tested after longer retention intervals. Picture position during encoding, however, had only small effects on elaborative processing and no effects on memory retrieval.



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RNA: Follow the SINE for nuclear localization



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Paediatric genomics: diagnosing rare disease in children



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Genetic variation: Putting causal variants on the map



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Programming repercussions of early life training exercise on the heart

Abstract

Almost thirty years ago the term programming was first used by Lucas (1991) to describe that the influence of nutrition stimuli during important phases of preterm development has future consequences in the organism's health.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Molecular genetics ‎characterization and homology modeling of the CHM gene mutation: A study on its association with choroideremia

Publication date: Available online 18 February 2018
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Author(s): Saber Imani, Iqra Ijaz, Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Shangyi Fu, Jingliang Cheng, Junjiang Fu
Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare form of X-linked chorioretinal dystrophy that is caused by mutations in the CHM gene. Mutations in the Rab escort protein-1 (REP-1), an ubiquitously encoded protein of the CHM gene, lead to prenylation and vesicle trafficking deficiency in the protein, resulting in the progressive degeneration of choriocapillaris, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and photoreceptors. Despite previous studies concerning this disease, no effective diagnostic tests or established therapeutic interventions currently exist for CHM. In this paper, we reviewed ‎the pathogenic ‎effects of synonymous hotspot mutation in the CHM gene and the genotypic–phenotypic associations in families with CHM. In addition, we employed a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and principal component analysis to gain insight into the underlying molecular basis of these deleterious and disease-causing hotspot mutation ‎analogs. These computer predictions provide strong evidence that the C > T nonsynonymous hotspot mutations of CHM spectrum contribute to overall RPE retinopathy. These findings increase our understanding of the CHM ‎pathogenesis, which may potentially define a new approach in developing novel symbiotic strategies for genetic diagnosis and specific treatment of inherited retinal diseases.



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Validity and reliability of outcome measures assessing dexterity, coordination, and upper limb strength in Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Cynthia Gagnon, Isabelle Lessard, Bernard Brais, Isabelle Côté, Caroline Lavoie, Matthis Synofzik, Jean Mathieu
ObjectiveTo document in adults affected by Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) the intra- and interrater reliability, standard error of measurement, agreement, minimal detectable change and construct validity of the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), Standardized Finger-to-Nose Test (SFNT), and grip strength.DesignMetrological study.SettingNeuromuscular rehabilitation clinic.ParticipantsGenetically confirmed adult patients with ARSACS (n = 42, 21 females, mean age = 38.6y for intrarater reliability, and n = 33, 18 females, mean age = 40.0y for interrater reliability).InterventionsNot applicable.Main outcome measuresIntra- and interrater reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was determined by assessing the capacity of the NHPT, SFNT, and grip strength to distinguish between participants based on sex, mobility stages, and age groups, and on performance on the Archimedes spiral and Alternating hand movement tests.ResultsAll three tests have shown excellent reliability (ICC = 0.90-0.98). However, the limit of agreement was influenced by the participant's performance on the NHPT, and the minimal detectable change was very different for both hands (right = 9.7 vs left = 28.0). Construct validity was confirmed for the SFNT and NHPT, but was not demonstrated for grip strength.ConclusionsGiven the metrological properties assessed in this study, the SFNT is an excellent measure to assess upper limb coordination, while the NHPT must be used with caution. The grip strength is reliable but does not seem to reflect disease severity.



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Update: evidence of a broad histamine footprint on the human exercise transcriptome



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Circulation of cosmogenic 22Na using the global monitoring network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 187
Author(s): I. Hoffman, B. Lewis, P. Chan
Using a recently published global data set of 22Na and 7Be from the global monitoring network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), atmospheric circulation and stratosphere-troposphere interactions are examined. Cosmogenic 22Na has a half-life well-suited to environmental processes with durations from several months to a decade. Combined with corresponding 7Be observations, these two cosmogenic isotopes form a useful environmental tracer and new radiochronometer to study physical interactions of air masses in the stratosphere and troposphere.



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Application of a Monte Carlo method to the uncertainty assessment in in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 187
Author(s): Leif Persson, Jonas Boson, Torbjörn Nylén, Henrik Ramebäck
In situ gamma-ray spectrometry has since the introduction of portable germanium detectors been a widely used method for the assessment of radionuclide ground deposition activity levels. It is, however, a method that is most often associated with fairly large and, more important, poorly known combined measurement uncertainties. In this work an uncertainty analysis of in situ gamma ray spectrometry in accordance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements is presented. The uncertainty analysis takes into account uncertainty contributions from the calibration of the detector system, the assumed activity distribution in soil, soil density, detector height and air density. As a result, measurement results from in situ gamma spectrometry will serve as a better basis for decision-making in e.g. radiological emergencies.



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Oxidative capacity varies along the length of healthy human tibialis anterior

Abstract

The rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (kPCr) after exercise, characterizing muscle oxidative capacity, is traditionally assessed with unlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using a single surface coil. However, because of intramuscular variation in fibre type and oxygen supply, kPCr may be non-uniform within muscles. We tested this along the length of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 10 male volunteers. For this purpose we employed a 3T MR system with a 31P/1H volume transmit coil combined with a home-built 31P phased-array receive probe, consisting of 5 coil elements covering the TA muscle length. Mono-exponential kPCr was determined for all coil elements after 40 s of submaximal isometric dorsiflexion (SUBMAX) and incremental exercise to exhaustion (EXH). In addition, muscle functional MRI (1H mfMRI) was performed using the volume coil after another 40 s of SUBMAX. A strong gradient in kPCr was observed along the TA (P < 0.001), being two times higher proximally vs. distally during SUBMAX and EXH. Statistical analysis showed that this gradient cannot be explained by pH variations. A similar gradient was seen in the slope of the initial post-exercise 1H mfMRI signal change, which was higher proximally than distally in both the TA and the extensor digitorum longus (P < 0.001) and it strongly correlated with kPCr. The pronounced differences along the TA in functional oxidative capacity identify regional variation in the physiological demand of this muscle during everyday activities and have implications for the bio-energetic assessment of interventions to modify its performance and of neuromuscular disorders involving the TA.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Segmental Spinal Myoclonus Complicating Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Objective Lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection is commonly used for treating lumbar radicular pain. We report a case of segmental spinal myoclonus that developed during lumbar transforaminal epidural injection with local anesthetic and steroid. Case Report A 58-year-old woman with failed back surgery syndrome presented with low back and right L3 and L4 radicular pain. As she had responded well previously to diagnostic selective nerve root injection with local anesthetic at the right L3 and L4 levels, lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the same levels was scheduled. During injection of ropivacaine and triamcinolone at the right L3–4 intervertebral foramen, she complained of back pain and immediately developed involuntary contraction of her right hip. The procedure was terminated. No new neurological deficit was detected when she was examined 15 minutes after the procedure. There were no abnormalities from blood tests and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. A neurologist subsequently made the clinical diagnosis of segmental spinal myoclonus. The myoclonus improved over 1 month and eventually resolved completely. Conclusions Segmental spinal myoclonus is a rare complication after lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid and local anesthetic injection. Pain physicians should be aware of this potential complication. Accepted for publication September 20, 2017. Address correspondence to: Chi Wai Cheung, MD, Room 424, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (e-mail: cheucw@hku.hk). This study was supported by the Department of Anaesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Comparison of Paravertebral Block by Anatomic Landmark Technique to Ultrasound-Guided Paravertebral Block for Breast Surgery Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background and Objectives Paravertebral block (PVB) is an established technique for providing anesthesia for breast surgery. The primary objective was to compare anatomical landmark technique (ALT) to the ultrasound-guided (USG) PVB block for providing surgical anesthesia. Secondary objectives included comparison of perioperative analgesia and complications. Methods This randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study included 72 females, aged 18 to 65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, undergoing elective unilateral breast surgery. Study participants were randomized to the ALT group or USG group. Ipsilateral PVB was performed with the respective technique from T1 to T6. Five milliliters of local anesthetic mixture (0.5% ropivacaine, 5 μg/mL adrenaline, 1 μg/kg clonidine) was administered at each level. Paravertebral catheter was inserted at T4/T3 level. After confirming sensory loss, patients were taken up for surgery with propofol sedation (20–50 μg/kg per minute). Results More patients in the USG group (34/36 [94.44%]) had a successful block as compared with the ALT group (26/36 [72.22%]) (P = 0.024). Difference in proportion was 18.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.15–36.0) (P = 0.024) after adjustment for age. More dermatomes were blocked in the USG group (P = 0.0018) with less sparing of upper T2 and T3 dermatomes (P = 0.003, P = 0.006, respectively). Median time to first postoperative analgesic requirement was 502.5 minutes (range, 195–1440 minutes) in the USG group versus 377.5 minutes (range, 215–1440 minutes) in the ALT group. Pain at rest and movement 2 and 4 hours postoperatively and number of catheter top-ups in 24 hours postoperatively were lesser in the USG group (P = 0.012). Complications were comparable. Conclusions Ultrasound-guided PVB provided better anesthesia and perioperative analgesia than the landmark technique for breast surgery. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered retrospectively at the Clinical Trial Registry of India, CTRI/2015/05/005774. Accepted for publication October 22, 2017. Address correspondence to: Anjolie Chhabra, MD, House No. 13, Road No. 61, W Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 110026, India (e-mail: anjolie5@hotmail.com). Resources used were from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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