Κυριακή, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 2018

A high‐density EEG study of differentiation between two speeds and directions of simulated optic flow in adults and infants

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Psychophysiological modeling: Current state and future directions

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Soil radon gas in some soil types in the rainy season in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Publication date: October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 193–194

Author(s): Phong Thu Huynh Nguyen, Van Thang Nguyen, Ngoc Ba Vu, Van Dong Nguyen, Hao Le Cong

Abstract

Field experiments on soil radon and radium concentrations were carried out in eighteen locations in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Soil radon depth profiles (10–100 cm) of loam, sand and clay soil samples in the rainy season were measured using RAD7 radon detector. Mean concentrations of 222Rn and 226Ra were found to be 28.6 ± 2.0 Bq.kg−1 and (1.56 ± 0.06) × 104 Bq.m−3 in clay soil while they are 31.2 ± 2.5 Bq.kg−1 and (1.15 ± 0.05) × 104 Bq.m−3 in loam soil. They are 30.7 ± 2.0 Bq.kg−1 and (9.37 ± 0.52) × 103 Bq.m−3 in sandy soil, respectively. Values of radon diffusion length and diffusion coefficient for different soils were obtained using semi-empirical fit method linked to the poor diffusion of gas in clay soil (0.2 × 10−6 m2 s−1), the moderate diffusion coefficient (0.9 × 10−6 m2 s−1) in loam and good diffusion of radon gas in sandy soil (1.4 × 10−6 m2 s−1). An unexpectedly unclear linear relation was found between soil radon concentration and radium content. The grain size smaller than 0.1 mm was dominant reason for the lowest (0.15 ± 0.01) and highest (0.40 ± 0.03) values emanation coefficient for sand and clay soil, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between radon concentration and soil pH level leads to soil pH is an indirect dynamic parameter affecting the migration of radon in soil.



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Uptake of 137Cs and 85Sr onto thermally treated forms of bentonite

Publication date: October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 193–194

Author(s): Lina Al Attar, Bassam Safia, Basem Abdul Ghani

Abstract

This study focuses on the structural changes of bentonite upon thermal treatment at various temperatures, i.e. 150, 300 and 600, and their effect on the sorption behaviour for 137Cs and 85Sr. Thermal treatment caused gradual disappearance of the major peak of montmorillonite (at 15.15 Å) and minimization of calcite as observed by powder x-ray diffraction, in addition thermal gravimetric analysis indicated the occurrence of dehydration and dehydroxylation of the materials upon heating. Sorption experiments were carried out by batch-method and data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients (Kd). Contact time, solution-solid ratio and radionuclide activity concentration were investigated in order to determine the optimal conditions and speculate the mechanism of the uptake. Sorption data revealed that the heated forms had lower selectivity for 137Cs than the original bentonite, while B-150 and B-300 were the best sorbents when 137Cs presents in salt media. In either case, ion exchange process of 137Cs with the crystal lattice cations (i.e. Ca2+ and Mg2+) was the governing mechanism. Contrarily, bentonite heated forms are recommended sorbents for 85Sr, especially B-600. The outperformance of thermally treated bentonites reflected chemical bonding reaction with the surface OH groups as well as precipitation of Sr(OH)2.



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Temporal changes of the ambient dose rate in the forest environments of Fukushima Prefecture following the Fukushima reactor accident

Publication date: October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 193–194

Author(s): Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda, Toshiro Yamaguchi

Abstract

Approximately 70% of the total land area affected by the fallout from the Fukushima accident is forested, and therefore monitoring of the ambient dose rate in forest environments is essential to ensure that the population and natural habitats of these areas are protected from radiological hazards. However, there are little available data on the ambient dose rate for forest environments. This study investigated temporal changes in the ambient dose rate in different forest environments of Fukushima Prefecture. We conducted repeated measurements of the ambient dose rate in 2014 and 2016 at the same measurement points as those used by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry of Japan (MAFF) in 2011. The measurements revealed that the decreasing trend in the ambient dose rate varied among the different forest types and time periods. The ambient dose rate in EGC decreased slower than that induced by the physical decay of radiocesium for the period of 2011–2014. However, such slow declining trend of ambient dose rate was likely followed by quick reduction during the following years (2014–2016 and 2011–2016). On the other hand, in MBL and DBF forests, the ambient dose rate decreased 10–20% faster than that induced solely by physical decay of radiocesium for the observation period 2011–2016.



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Class I histone deacetylases in retinal progenitors and differentiating ganglion cells

Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018

Source: Gene Expression Patterns

Author(s): Ankita Saha, Sarika Tiwari, Subramanian Dharmarajan, Deborah C. Otteson, Teri L. Belecky-Adams

Abstract
Background

The acetylation state of histones has been used as an indicator of the developmental state of progenitor and differentiating cells. The goal of this study was to determine the nuclear localization patterns of Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), as the first step in understanding their potential importance in cell fate determination within the murine retina.

Results

The only HDAC to label RPC nuclei at E16 and P5 was HDAC1. In contrast, there was generally increased nuclear localization of all Class I HDACs in differentiating RGCs. Between P5 and P30, SOX2 expression becomes restricted to Müller glial, cholinergic amacrine cells, and retinal astrocytes. Cholinergic amacrine showed a combination of changes in nuclear localization of Class I HDACs. Strikingly, although Müller glia and retinal astrocytes, express many of the same genes, P30 Müller glial cells showed nuclear localization only of HDAC1, while retinal astrocytes were positive for HDACs 1, 2, and 3.

Conclusion

These results indicate there may be a role for one or more of the Class I HDACs in retinal cell type-specific differentiation.



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