Rasha S Bondok, Dina Salah, Wael Sayed
Ain-Shams Journal of Anaesthesiology 2017 10(1):54-59
Background There has been a growing interest in the topical use of tranexamic acid (TXA) for the prevention of bleeding during different surgeries. Patients with liver cirrhosis may develop upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding, which arises because of portal hypertension, which includes gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the local application of TXA in reducing blood loss, transfusion requirements, and shortening the time for emergency endoscopy in cirrhotic patients presenting with UGI bleeding. Patients and methods A total of 100 patients with end-stage chronic liver disease presenting with UGI bleeding were randomly assigned to two groups to receive a standard protocol for UGI bleeding management, in addition to nasogastric lavage with either normal saline only (group S) or normal saline with TXA (group S+TXA). The lavage was repeated till its measured hematocrit (Hct) was less than 1%. The duration to reach this Hct was recorded. The volume of washes and transfusion requirements for each group were also recorded. Results Hemodynamic stability was observed in group S+TXA with less bleeding. The volumes of washes were significantly lower in group S+TXA. Time to reach Hct less than 1% in washed fluid was significantly shorter in group S+TXA (81.5±20.7 min) compared with group S (230.1±29.9 min). Transfusion requirements were significantly low in group S+TXA (765±184 ml) compared with group S (1345±278 ml). Duration to perform emergency upper endoscopy was shorter in group S+TXA (667±198 min) compared with group S (1094±163 min). Conclusion Local application of TXA during nasogastric lavage was efficient in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements and in shortening the time for emergency endoscopy in cirrhotic patients presenting with UGI bleeding.
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